.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Dutch. (October 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Dutch Wikipedia article at [[:nl:Beatrix der Nederlanden]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|nl|Beatrix der Nederlanden)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Beatrix in 2015
Queen of the Netherlands
Reign30 April 1980 – 30 April 2013
Inauguration30 April 1980
Born (1938-01-31) 31 January 1938 (age 86)
Soestdijk Palace, Baarn, Netherlands
(m. 1966; died 2002)
Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard
FatherPrince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
MotherJuliana of the Netherlands
SignatureBeatrix's signature

Beatrix[1] (Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈbeːjaːtrɪks ˌʋɪlɦɛlˈminaː ˈʔɑr(ə)mɡɑrt] ; born 31 January 1938) is a member of the Dutch royal house who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013.

Beatrix was born during the reign of her maternal grandmother, Queen Wilhelmina, and became heir presumptive upon the accession of her mother, Queen Juliana, in 1948. Beatrix attended a public primary school in Canada during World War II, and then finished her primary and secondary education in the Netherlands in the post-war period. In 1961, she received her law degree from Leiden University. In 1966, Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg, a German diplomat, with whom she had three children. When her mother abdicated on 30 April 1980, Beatrix succeeded her as queen.

Beatrix's reign saw the country's Caribbean possessions reshaped with Aruba's secession and becoming its own constituent country within the kingdom in 1986. This was followed by the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, which created the new special municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, and the two new constituent countries of Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

On Koninginnedag (Queen's Day), 30 April 2013, Beatrix abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander.[2] At the time of her abdication at age 75, Beatrix was the oldest reigning monarch in the country's history.[3]

Early life

Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard was born on 31 January 1938 at Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, Netherlands, as the first child of Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and her husband, Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld.[4] Beatrix was baptised on 12 May 1938 in the Great Church in The Hague.[5] Her five godparents were King Leopold III of Belgium; Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone; Beatrix's maternal great-great-aunt Elisabeth, Princess of Erbach-Schönberg; her paternal great-uncle Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg; and Countess Allene de Kotzebue.[6] Beatrix's middle names are the first names of her grandmothers, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and Armgard, Princess Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld.

When Beatrix was one year old, in 1939, her younger sister Princess Irene was born.[4]

Beatrix and Irene on board the Piet Hein in 1946

World War II broke out in the Netherlands on 10 May 1940 (Westfeldzug). On 13 May, the Dutch Royal Family evacuated to London, United Kingdom. One month later, Beatrix went to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with her mother Juliana and her sister Irene, while her father Bernhard and maternal grandmother Queen Wilhelmina remained in London.[4] The family lived at the Stornoway residence (now the residence of the Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament of Canada).[7] With bodyguards and ladies in waiting, the family summered at Bigwin Inn on Lake of Bays, Ontario, where four private stone cottages of the resort served as their retreat. While on Bigwin Island, the constitution of the Netherlands was stored in the safe of Bigwin Inn's rotunda building. Princess Juliana and her family were remembered for their "down to earth" friendliness, general gratefulness and great reverence for their homeland and people, to whom they paid homage by refraining from all luxuries offered to guests at the resort that was once billed as the largest and most luxurious summer resort in Canada. To provide them with a greater sense of security, culinary chefs and staff catered to personal orders at meal time. Upon their departure, the hotel musicians of the Bigwin Inn Orchestra assembled dockside; and at every public performance afterward through to the end of World War II, the Wilhelmus was played. In the years following the shuttering and neglect of the island resort, the "Juliana" cottages were well maintained and preserved in an informal tribute to Princess Juliana and her family. In thanks for the protection of her and her daughters, Princess Juliana established the custom of delivery to the Canadian government every spring of tulips, which is the centerpiece of the Canadian Tulip Festival.

The second sister of Beatrix, Princess Margriet, was born in Ottawa in 1943.[4] During their exile in Canada, Beatrix attended nursery and[8] Rockcliffe Park Public School, a primary school where she was known as "Trixie Orange".[9][10]

On 5 May 1945, the German troops in the Netherlands surrendered. The family returned to the Netherlands on 2 August 1945. Beatrix went to the progressive primary school De Werkplaats in Bilthoven run by pacifist social reformers Kees Boeke and Beatrice Boeke-Cadbury. Her third sister Princess Christina was born in 1947.[4] On 6 September 1948, her mother succeeded her grandmother Wilhelmina as Queen of the Netherlands. Since she had no brothers, Beatrix became the heir presumptive to the Dutch throne at the age of ten.


Princess Beatrix and Queen Juliana in 1960

In April 1950, Princess Beatrix entered the Incrementum, a part of Baarnsch Lyceum, where, in 1956, she passed her school graduation examinations in the subjects of arts and classics.[11] Her tutor from April 1951 was Gertrude Büringh Boekhoudt [nl], who remained a close confidant until Büringh Boekhoudt's death in 1982.[12]

In 1954, Beatrix served as a bridesmaid at the wedding of Baroness van Randwijck and Mr. T Boey.[13]

On 31 January 1956, Beatrix celebrated her 18th birthday. From that date, under the Constitution of the Netherlands, she was entitled to assume the Royal Prerogative. At that time, her mother installed her in the Council of State.[14]

The same year her studies at Leiden University began. In her first years at the university, she studied sociology, jurisprudence, economics, parliamentary history and constitutional law.[11] In the course of her studies she also attended lectures on the cultures of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles, the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, international affairs, international law, history and European law.

The princess also visited various European and international organisations in Geneva, Strasbourg, Paris, and Brussels. She was also an active member of the VVSL (Female Union for Students in Leiden), now called L.S.V. Minerva, after merging with the Leidsch Studenten Corps (which before then was male-only). In the summer of 1959, she passed her preliminary examination in law, and she obtained her law degree in July 1961.[11]

Political involvement

This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately from the article and its talk page, especially if potentially libelous.Find sources: "Beatrix of the Netherlands" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Henck Arron, Princess Beatrix, and Johan Ferrier during the independence ceremony of Suriname in 1975

In 1965, Beatrix became engaged to the German aristocrat Claus von Amsberg, a diplomat working for the German Foreign Office. There was a massive protest on their wedding day in Amsterdam on 10 March 1966. Prince Claus had served in the Hitler Youth and the Wehrmacht and therefore was easily associated with German Nazism. Protests included slogans like "Claus 'raus!" (Claus out!) and "Mijn fiets terug" ("Return my bicycle" – a reference to German soldiers confiscating Dutch bicycles during WWII). A group of Provos threw a smoke bomb at the Golden Coach, resulting in a street battle with the police.

As time went on, Prince Claus became one of the most popular members of the Dutch monarchy, and his death in 2002 was widely mourned.

On 25 November 1975, Beatrix and Prince Claus attended the independence ceremony of Suriname, held in the new nation's capital, Paramaribo, representing her mother the Queen.

As a monarch, Beatrix had weekly meetings with the prime minister. She signed all new Acts of Parliament and royal decrees, and until a constitutional change late in her reign, appointed the informateur, an official who is responsible for chairing coalition talks in the formation of new governments. At the state opening of parliament each September, she made a Speech from the Throne, in which the government announced its plans for the coming parliamentary year. As Queen, she was president of the Council of State. Her role was largely ceremonial and as a focus of national unity, she did not make legislative or executive decisions.

Beatrix is a member of the Bilderberg Group.[15]

Marriage and children

Wedding day, 1966

Engagement to Claus

On 28 June 1965, the engagement of Princess Beatrix to the German diplomat Claus von Amsberg was announced. Claus and Beatrix had met at the wedding-eve party of Princess Tatjana of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse, in summer 1964. After Parliament consented to the marriage, Claus von Amsberg became a Dutch citizen, and upon his marriage became Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer van Amsberg.

Wedding, 1966

See also: Wedding of Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands and Claus van Amsberg

Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg on 10 March 1966 in civil and religious ceremonies.[16] The bride wore a traditional gown with train in duchesse silk satin, designed by Caroline Bergé-Farwick of Maison Linette, in Den Bosch, and the Württemberg Ornate Pearl Tiara. The senior bridesmaids were the bride's youngest sister, Princess Christina of the Netherlands; Princess Christina of Sweden; Lady Elizabeth Anson; Joanna Roëll; Eugénie Loudon; and the bridegroom's sister, Christina von Amsberg. The junior bridesmaids were Daphne Stewart-Clark and Carolijn Alting von Geusau, with page boys Joachim Jencquel and Markus von Oeynhausen-Sierstorpff.[17]

The royal couple travelled to the ceremony together in the gold state carriage.[18] The civil ceremony was conducted by the Mayor of Amsterdam, Gijsbert van Hall, at Amsterdam City Hall. The marriage blessing took place in the Westerkerk, conducted by the Rev. Hendrik Jan Kater, with a sermon by the Rev. Johannes Hendrik Sillevis Smitt.[19]


Beatrix and Claus with their children, 1983

The royal couple had three sons:

Name Birth Death Marriage
Date Spouse Issue
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands 27 April 1967 2 February 2002 Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti
Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau 25 September 1968 12 August 2013 24 April 2004 Mabel Wisse Smit
  • Countess Luana of Orange-Nassau
  • Countess Zaria of Orange-Nassau
Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands 11 October 1969 19 May 2001 Laurentien Brinkhorst

They lived at Drakensteyn Castle in Lage Vuursche with their children until Beatrix ascended the throne. In 1981, they moved into Huis ten Bosch Palace in The Hague.


Princess Beatrix at Ridderkerk, February 1980

From the 1970s, Beatrix began to prepare more intensively for her future position as head of state. She made many trips abroad with Prince Claus, including a controversial one to the Soviet Union.

After the Lockheed affair, Beatrix and Claus began to delve into the royal household and made plans to adapt it. In addition, they asked advisers to prepare for Beatrix's reign. On 31 January 1980, the birthday of her eldest daughter and heir presumptive, Queen Juliana announced during a live television speech that she wished to abdicate on 30 April in favor of her daughter Beatrix.

That Beatrix would succeed her mother as queen was not a matter of course when she was born. It was not until 1983 that the Constitution was amended in such a way that the eldest child of the head of state becomes the legal heir to the throne. Until then, it had been arranged that the eldest son always had priority over a daughter. Only after Juliana was biologically unable to have more children, Beatrix was certain that she was the intended successor.

Beatrix during her inauguration in the Nieuwe Kerk, 1980

On 30 April 1980, Beatrix became the monarch when her mother abdicated. She was sworn in and inaugurated as monarch during a joint session of the two chambers of the States General at a ceremony held in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam later that day.

Beatrix's constitutional duties included those typically accorded to a head of state; this includes having to sign every piece of legislation before it becomes law, formally appointing various officials, receiving and accrediting ambassadors, and awarding honours and medals, among others. Outside of these constitutional duties, her other informal roles included being the highest representative of the kingdom internationally and to be a unifying figure locally.

Beatrix was rarely quoted directly in the press during her reign, for the government information service (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) made it a condition of interviews that she should not be quoted. This policy was introduced shortly after her inauguration, reportedly to protect her from political complications that might arise from "off-the-cuff" remarks. It did not apply to her son Prince Willem-Alexander.

Throughout much of her reign, Beatrix had a considerable role in the cabinet formation process; notably she appointed the informateur, the person who leads the negotiations that ultimately lead to the formation of a government. However, this was changed in 2012, and now the largest party in the States General appoints a "scout" who then appoints an informateur.

On 1 January 1986, Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles and became a separate constituent country in the Dutch Kingdom.

On 6 October 2002, the Queen's husband, Prince Claus, died after a long illness. A year and a half later her mother died after long suffering from senile dementia, while her father succumbed to cancer in December 2004.

On 8 February 2005, Beatrix received a rare honorary doctorate from Leiden University, an honour the Queen does not usually accept. In her acceptance speech she reflected on the monarchy and her own 25 years as Queen.[20] The speech was broadcast live.[21]

Queen Beatrix and her son, Willem-Alexander in the Golden Coach on Prinsjesdag 2007, the day she gives the annual speech from the throne outlining the government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary year.

On 29 and 30 April 2005, she celebrated the 25th anniversary of her reign. She was interviewed on Dutch television, was offered a concert on Dam Square in Amsterdam, and a celebration took place in The Hague, the country's seat of government.

On 31 May 2006 the 6th Polish Air Assault Brigade would receive the Militaire Willemsorde der 4e klasse in The Hague. Beatrix was to tie the prestigious medal to the standard of the incumbents of the 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade.[22]

On 10 October 2010, the Netherlands Antilles were formally dissolved. The new municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba and the new constituent countries of Curaçao and Sint Maarten were established in its place. The dissolution ceremony in the Netherlands Antilles' capital, Willemstad, was attended by the then-Prince and Princess of Orange, Willem-Alexander and his wife Máxima, representing the Queen.

Kissed by a bystander, 1988

The picture published on the front page of De Telegraaf, with the headline 'Geef me een zoen, meid' (Dutch: Give me a kiss, girl)

During 1988 Queen's Day, Queen Beatrix was kissed by a bystander, later identified as Maarten Rijkers, when she walked through the crowd of people at a flea market in the Jordaan. When Beatrix walked alongside Rijkers he said "Give me a kiss, girl", after which he gave her a hug and two kisses.[23] It received wide media attention and appeared to be a historic moment.[24][25] An image of this scene was published in large on the front page of De Telegraaf. Even 25 years later in 2013, NRC Handelsblad wrote an article about it and the impact of it.[24]

The reaction of the Queen was seen by people as very positive and was a boost for her reputation in the "Jordaan" region of Amsterdam. The visit was promoted as a "spontaneous visit" to boost her popularity as she was not very popular in the region. Historian and Dutch royalty watcher J. G. Kikkert said in a lecture that the kiss had been staged, based on what he called "usually very reliable sources".[24][25] He also noted that although the visit and the kiss might not have been her idea, but that of others, she certainly would have given her approval as she was known not to leave things to chance.

Attack on the royal family, 2009

Main article: 2009 attack on the Dutch royal family

On 30 April 2009, the Queen and other members of the royal family were targeted in a car attack by a man named Karst Tates. Tates crashed his Suzuki Swift into a parade in Apeldoorn, narrowly missing a bus carrying the Queen. Five people were killed instantly. The two victims and the assailant Tates later died. Other victims of the crash were critically hurt. One week after the attack, another victim succumbed to the injuries he had sustained. The royal party was unharmed, but the Queen and members of her family saw the crash at close range. Within hours, Beatrix made a rare televised address to express her shock and condolences. The man reportedly told police he was deliberately targeting the royal family.[26]

Abdication, 2013

Queen Beatrix announcing her abdication on national television, 2013

In a broadcast on national media on 28 January 2013, Beatrix announced her intention to abdicate on 30 April (Queen's Day), when she would have been on the throne for exactly 33 years. Beatrix stated that it was time to "place the responsibility for the country in the hands of a new generation."[27] Her heir apparent was her eldest son, Prince Willem-Alexander.[28] She was the third successive Dutch monarch to abdicate, following her grandmother and her mother.[28] The broadcast was followed by a statement from Prime Minister Mark Rutte who paid tribute to Beatrix, saying "Since her investiture in 1980, she has applied herself heart and soul to Dutch society."[27]

Beatrix's Instrument of Abdication

The official program for the abdication and inauguration took place on 30 April 2013. Beatrix signed the instrument of abdication in the Vroedschapkamer (also known as Mozeszaal)[29] in the Royal Palace, Amsterdam at 10:07 a.m. local time. With the completion of her signature, she was no longer monarch. The inauguration of Willem-Alexander as king took place that afternoon in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam.[30]

Personal wealth

In 2009, Forbes estimated her wealth at US$300 million.[31]


Beatrix continues to undertake some royal duties and is a patron of many organisations. She lives in the small moated Drakensteyn Castle near the village of Lage Vuursche, and a townhouse near Noordeinde Palace.[32]

Honorific eponyms

Beatrix has given her name to a number of facilities in the Netherlands and beyond. These include:

A few parks in the country also bear her name:

It has been speculated that Beatrix is De Onbekende Beeldhouwer (Unknown Sculptor), whose work has been appearing in Amsterdam since 1983. There has been no confirmation of this.[38]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal Monogram of Queen Beatrix

Main article: List of titles and honours of Beatrix of the Netherlands

Princess Beatrix has held titles throughout her life, as a granddaughter or daughter of a monarch, and eventually as the Sovereign. Beatrix's official title was Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, etc., etc., etc.[39] The triple etc. refers to the monarch's many dormant titles. She signed official documents with only "Beatrix". In common parlance, she was referred to as The Queen (de koningin or de vorstin) or Her Majesty (Hare Majesteit). But when in conversation with the queen the practice was to initially address her as "Your Majesty" or in Dutch as "Uwe Majesteit"[40] and thereafter as "Mevrouw" (ma'am).[41]

Beatrix has received honours and awards from countries around the world, both during her life as a princess and as a monarch. In her capacity as the Sovereign she was Grand Master of the Military Order of William (Militaire Willemsorde) and the other Dutch orders of merit. She is a Stranger Lady of the Most Noble Order of the Garter and the 1,187th Dame of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain, and she has received numerous other medals and decorations.

From birth till her inauguration as queen, she had the following name and titles, to which she reverted after her abdication: Her Royal Highness Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld.[42]


Coat of arms of Beatrix of the Netherlands
As Queen of the Netherlands (1980–2013), Beatrix used the Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm (or "Grote Rijkswapen").
Quarterly, 1 and 3, Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or (royal arms of the Netherlands, i.e. that of her mother, Queen Juliana), 2 and 4, Or, a horn azure, langued gules (arms of the former Principality of Orange), on an inescutcheon argent, a rose gules, seeded vert (arms of the House of Lippe-Biesterfeld, i.e. that of her late father, Prince Bernhard)
As Princess, Beatrix used a square and swallow tailed flag, with the Royal standard colours and their maternal arms (the horn of Orange) in the upper hoist and their paternal arms (the rose of Lippe) in the lower hoist. The arms of the Netherlands (which originates from Nassau) without the insignia of the Order of Willem within an orange circle.
Previous versions
Beatrix as monarch bore the Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm, (or "Grote Rijkswapen"). The components of the coats of arms were regulated by Queen Wilhelmina in a royal decree of 10 July 1907 and were affirmed by Queen Juliana in a royal decree of 23 April 1980:

Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or.


See also: Dutch monarchs family tree

Prime Ministers during her reign

With Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers, 1986
With Prime Minister Mark Rutte, 2013
Prime Ministers during her reign
Polity Prime Minister Start year End year
Aruba Henny Eman 1986 1989[43]
Nelson O. Oduber 1989 1994
Henny Eman 1994 2001
Nelson O. Oduber 2001 2009
Mike Eman 2009 2013
Netherlands Dries van Agt 1977 1982
Ruud Lubbers 1982 1994
Wim Kok 1994 2002
Jan Peter Balkenende 2002 2010
Mark Rutte 2010 2013
Netherlands Antilles Dominico Martina 1979 1984
Maria Liberia Peters 1984 1986
Dominico Martina 1986 1988
Maria Liberia Peters 1988 1993
Susanne Camelia-Römer 1993
Alejandro Felippe Paula
Miguel Arcangel Pourier 1994 1998
Susanne Camelia-Römer 1998 1999
Miguel Arcangel Pourier 1999 2002
Etienne Ys 2002 2003
Ben Komproe 2003
Mirna Louisa-Godett 2003 2004
Etienne Ys 2004 2006
Emily de Jongh-Elhage 2006 2010
Curaçao Gerrit Schotte 2010 2012
Stanley Betrian 2012 2012
Daniel Hodge 2012 2013
Sint Maarten Sarah Wescot-Williams 2010 2013


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  2. ^ de Jong, Perro (30 April 2013). "The Netherlands' love and respect for Beatrix". BBC. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
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  8. ^ Education Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. The Dutch Royal House. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.
  9. ^ Davison, Janet. "Abdicating Dutch queen was a wartime Ottawa schoolgirl". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
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  12. ^ Oltmans 1996, pp. 4–7, 9, 12–13, 18.
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  14. ^ "e CV Reine Beatrix". coe.int. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Bilderberg Meeting of 1997 Assembles". PR Newswire. 13 June 1997. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011.
  16. ^ "Video: Wedding of Princess Beatrix and Claus von Amsberg". YouTube. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021.
  17. ^ "Royal wedding Beatrix and Claus".
  18. ^ "Wedding of Princess Beatrix and Claus von Amsberg". Amsterdam Palace. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.
  19. ^ "Queen Beatrix: marriage and family". Dutch Royal House. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012.
  20. ^ [1] Archived 5 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ The complete broadcast
  22. ^ "Chapter 8. The process of Polish rehabilitation in 2006". Polish forces in the West. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  23. ^ Communicatie, FIZZ Marketing &. "Ons Amsterdam | 130 jaar koninklijk feest in de hoofdstad". onsamsterdam.nl. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021.
  24. ^ a b c "Special Beatrix". Issuu. 29 January 2013.
  25. ^ a b "Markante momenten Beatrix". nos.nl. 29 January 2013.
  26. ^ NO. "Koninklijke familie was doelwit (Royal family was the target) (Dutch)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
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  28. ^ a b "Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands to abdicate for son". BBC. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
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  34. ^ "List of Schools - VisitAruba.com". visitaruba.com. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
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  43. ^ Aruba received status aparte in 1986.


Beatrix of the Netherlands House of Orange-NassauBorn: 31 January 1938 Regnal titles Preceded byJuliana Queen of the Netherlands 1980–2013 Succeeded byWillem-Alexander Awards Preceded byFranz Vranitzky Recipient of the Charlemagne Prize 1996 Succeeded byRoman Herzog