.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (June 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Simone Veil]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Simone Veil)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Simone Veil
Veil in 1984
Member of the Constitutional Council
In office
3 March 1998 – 3 March 2007
Appointed byRené Monory
Preceded byJean Cabannes
Succeeded byRenaud Denoix de Saint Marc
Minister for Social Affairs, Health and Urban Issues
In office
30 March 1993 – 11 May 1995
PresidentFrançois Mitterrand
Prime MinisterÉdouard Balladur
DeputyPhilippe Douste-Blazy
Preceded byBernard Kouchner
Succeeded byÉlisabeth Hubert
President of the European Parliament
In office
17 July 1979 – 18 January 1982
Preceded byEmilio Colombo
Succeeded byPiet Dankert
Member of the European Parliament
for France
In office
17 July 1979 – 30 March 1993
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byJean-Marie Vanlerenberghe
Minister of Health
In office
28 May 1974 – 4 July 1979
PresidentValéry Giscard d'Estaing
Prime Minister
Preceded byMichel Poniatowski
Succeeded byJacques Barrot
Personal details
Simone Annie Jacob

(1927-07-13)13 July 1927
Nice, France
Died30 June 2017(2017-06-30) (aged 89)
Paris, France
Resting placePanthéon
Political party
(m. 1946; died 2013)
Alma mater

Simone Veil (French pronunciation: [simɔn vɛj] ; née Jacob; 13 July 1927 – 30 June 2017) was a French magistrate, Holocaust survivor, and politician who served as Health Minister in several governments and was President of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1982, the first woman to hold that office. As health minister, she is best remembered for advancing women's rights in France, in particular for the 1975 law that legalized abortion, today known as the Veil Act (French: Loi Veil). From 1998 to 2007, she was a member of the Constitutional Council, France’s highest legal authority.

A Holocaust survivor of both Auschwitz-Birkenau and Bergen-Belsen, she was a firm believer in European integration as a way of guaranteeing peace. She served as president of the Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Shoah from 2000 to 2007, then subsequently as honorary president. Among many honours, she was made an honorary dame in 1998, was elected to the Académie Française in 2008, and in 2012 received the grand cross of the Légion d’honneur, the highest class of the highest French order of merit.

One of France’s most revered figures, Simone Veil and her husband were buried at the Panthéon on 1 July 2018. Her eulogy was given by President Emmanuel Macron.[3]

Early years and family

Simone Jacob was born on 13 July 1927 to an atheist Jewish family in Nice. Her father André Jacob was an architect who graduated from the Beaux-Arts de Paris and went on to win the Prix de Rome for Architecture.[4] In 1922 he married Yvonne Steinmetz, who had just passed her Baccalauréat and was about to start studying chemistry. André Jacob insisted that she abandon her studies upon marriage.[5] The family had moved from Paris to Nice in 1924, hoping to benefit from construction projects on the Côte d’Azur.[5] Simone was the youngest of four siblings, Madeleine (nicknamed Milou), born in 1923; Denise, born in 1924 and Jean, born in 1925.[6] Her father's family had come from Lorraine, while her mother’s side came from the Rhineland region and from Belgium.[7]

Simone's family was explicitly Jewish but non-practicing.[8] "Being a member of the Jewish community was never a problem. It was proudly claimed by my father, but for cultural reasons, not religious ones," she wrote in her autobiography. "In his eyes, if the Jewish people were to remain the chosen people, it was because they were the people of the Book, the people of thinking and writing."[9]


When Germany invaded France and the Vichy regime came to power in June 1940, the family managed to avoid being deported, as Nice had been included in the Italian occupation zone.[10] Asked not to come to school by its superintendent, Simone Jacob had to study at home. As the round-up of Jews intensified, the family split up and lived with different friends under false identities. Denise left for Lyon to join the resistance, while 16-year-old Simone continued studying and passed her baccalauréat exam under her real name in March 1944.[11] The next day she was arrested by the Gestapo on her way out to meet friends and celebrate the end of her secondary education.[11] The rest of her family was also arrested on that day.

On 7 April 1944, Simone, her mother, and her sisters were sent to the transit camp of Drancy, then on 13 April were deported to Auschwitz in Convoy 71.[4] Simone’s brother and father were deported to the Baltic states in Convoy 73, never to be seen again, and thus assumed to have been murdered. Her sister Denise was deported to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, which she survived, and after the end of World War II in Europe was reunited with Simone.

On 15 April 1944, Simone Jacob arrived at Auschwitz. She later wrote that she managed to avoid the gas chamber by lying about her age and was registered for the labour camp. [12] In January 1945, Simone, along with her mother and sister, was sent on a march to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where her mother died of typhus. Madeleine also fell ill but, like Simone, was saved when the camp was liberated on 15 April 1945. [13]

Return to France

Simone Jacob returned to France and started studying law at the University of Paris before going to the Institut d'études politiques, where she met Antoine Veil.[14] The couple married on 26 October 1946, and would go on to have three sons, Jean, Nicolas, and Pierre-François. They moved to Germany, where they lived in the American occupied zone.[15] In 1952, Madeleine Jacob died with her son in a car accident after visiting Simone in Stuttgart.[16]

Political career

Simone Veil in Deauville, 31 May 1988.

Ministry of Justice, 1956–1974

After graduating from the Faculty of Law of Paris with a law degree, Veil spent several years practising law. In 1954, she passed the national examination to become a magistrate.[17][18] She entered the National Penitentiary Administration under the Ministry of Justice, where she held a senior position and was responsible for judicial affairs.[19] She improved women's prison conditions and the treatment of incarcerated women.[19] In 1964, she left to become the director of civil affairs, where she improved French women's general rights and status.[17] She successfully achieved the right to dual parental control of family legal matters and adoptive rights for women.[17] In 1970, she became secretary general of the Supreme Magistracy Council [fr].[19]

Minister of Health, 1974–1979

From 1974 to 1979, Veil was a Minister of Health in the governments of prime ministers Jacques Chirac and Raymond Barre: from 28 May 1974 to 29 March 1977, Minister of Health; from 29 March 1977 to 3 April 1978, Minister of Health and Social Security; and from 3 April 1978 to 4 July 1979, Minister of Health and Family.

She pushed forward two notable laws. The first, passed on 4 December 1974, facilitated access to contraception such as the combined oral contraceptive pill, which was legalized in 1967.

The second, passed on 17 January 1975, legalized abortion in France – this was her hardest fought political initiative and the one for which she is best known. The abortion debate was particularly difficult for her because those in favor of keeping abortion illegal launched aggressive personal attacks against Veil and her family.[17] However, since the passing of the law, many have paid tribute to Veil and thanked her for her courageous and determined fight.[17][20]

In 1976, Veil also helped to introduce a ban on smoking in certain public places and worked on the problem of medically underserved rural areas.[21]

European Parliament, 1979–1993

In 1979, Veil was elected as a Member of the European Parliament in the first European parliamentary election. In its first session, the new Parliament elected Veil as its first President,[21] a position she held until 1982.[22] The archives concerning her term as President of the European Parliament are deposited at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence.[23]

In 1981, Veil won the prestigious Charlemagne Prize, an award given to honour the contributions made by individuals to advancing the unity of Europe.[24]

After the end of her term as President in 1982, she remained a member of the European Parliament; she was re-elected for the last time in the 1989 election, stepping down in 1993.[22] She was Chair of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party until 1989.[22]

Between 1984 and 1992, she served on the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, and the Committee on Political Affairs. After stepping down from these committees, she served on the Committee on Foreign Affairs and its related Subcommittee on Human Rights. Between 1989 and 1993, she was also a member of Parliament's delegation to the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, serving as its vice-chairwoman until 1992.[22]

Return to French Government, 1993–1995

From 31 March 1993 to 16 May 1995, Veil was again a member of the cabinet, serving as Minister of State and Minister of Health, Social Affairs and the city in the government of Prime Minister Édouard Balladur.[25] In the mid-1990s, she worked to help the disabled, HIV-positive patients, and mothers of young children.[21]

Member of the Constitutional Council, 1998

In 1998, she was appointed to the Constitutional Council of France. In 2005, she put herself briefly on leave from the council in order to campaign in favour of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. This action was criticized because it seemed to contradict the legal provisions that members of the council should keep a distance from partisan politics: the independence and impartiality of the council would be jeopardized, critics said, if members could put themselves "on leave" in order to campaign for a project.[26] In response, Veil said that she, the president of the Constitutional Council and colleagues had deliberated on the issue beforehand and they had given her permission to take her leave without having to resign. Being a staunch supporter of the European project, she believed others should not "ignore the historical dimension of European integration".[26]

Later life and death

The coffins of Simone and Antoine Veil under the dome of the Panthéon on 1 July 2018
Rue Soufflot on the day of the Panthéon ceremony
The tombs of Simone and Antoine Veil in the crypt of the Panthéon

In 2003, she was elected to the Board of Directors of the International Criminal Court's Trust Fund for Victims. In 2007, Simone Veil supported presidential candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. She was by his side on the day after he received 31 percent of the vote in the first round of the presidential elections that year.[27]

In 2008, Simone Veil became the sixth woman to be elected to the Académie française. She joined the Academy's forty "immortals", as the members are informally known, occupying the 13th seat, once the seat of literary figure Jean Racine. Her induction address was given in March 2010 by Jean d'Ormesson. On her sword, given to her as to every other immortal, is engraved her Auschwitz number (number 78651), the motto of the French Republic (liberté, égalité, fraternité) and the motto of the European Union, Unity in diversity (Unis dans la diversité).[28]

Veil died at her home on 30 June 2017, two weeks before her 90th birthday.[29] Her son Jean said at her public ceremony on 5 July, "I forgive you for having poured water over my head", in reference to an event where she had emptied a carafe of water over his head in disgust at what she considered to be his misogynist remarks.[21]

On 5 July 2017, Veil was honoured with a national ceremony and military honours in les Invalides courtyard,[30] after which she was interred next to her husband, who died in 2013, at Montparnasse Cemetery.[31] The ceremony at les Invalides was attended by President Macron, Holocaust survivors, politicians and dignitaries. In his speech during the ceremony, President Macron announced the decision to rebury Veil and her husband in the Panthéon,[32] which was done on 1 July 2018.[33]

Personal life


National honours

Foreign honours


The following is a list of honours and awards received by Simone Veil.

Honorary degrees

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The Simone Veil Prize

In 2018, the government of France established a prize in memory of Veil to honour people who fight for women's causes.[43] The intent is to draw attention to efforts in promoting women's autonomy, education, participation in leadership roles, and freedom from violence and discrimination.[43] The prize is awarded each year on 8 March, International Women's Day, with €100,000 to support work in the winner's area of concern. On 8 March 2019, the first Simone Veil Prize was awarded to Aissa Doumara Ngatansou, co-founder of the Association for the Elimination of Violence against Women (ALVF) in Cameroon.[43][44]



  1. ^ Sauvard, J. (2012). Simone Veil - La force de la conviction (in French). L'Archipel. p. 204. ISBN 978-2-8098-0682-3.
  2. ^ "Le parcours de Simone Veil auprès des Présidents, de Giscard à Sarkozy". BFMTV (in French). 30 June 2017.
  3. ^ Katz, Brigit. "France's Simone Veil Will Become the Fifth Woman Buried in the Panthéon". Smithsonian. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  4. ^ a b Veil 2007.
  5. ^ a b Veil 2007, p. 13.
  6. ^ Veil 2007, p. 8.
  7. ^ Veil 2007, p. 10.
  8. ^ Jacquemart, Claude; Garat, Jean-Baptiste (2 July 2017). "Simone Veil, survivante et immortelle" [Simone Veil, survivor and immortal]. Le Figaro (in French). p. 4.
  9. ^ Chemin, Anna (30 June 2017). "Mort de Simone Veil, icône de la lutte pour les droits des femmes" [Death of Simone Veil, icon of the fight for women's rights]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  10. ^ Veil 2007, p. 27.
  11. ^ a b Veil 2007, p. 38.
  12. ^ Veil 2007, p. 51.
  13. ^ Veil 2007, p. 76.
  14. ^ Veil 2007, p. 98.
  15. ^ Veil 2007, p. 110.
  16. ^ Veil 2007, p. 109.
  17. ^ a b c d e Hottell, Ruth. "Simone Veil". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  18. ^ Veil 2007, p. 116.
  19. ^ a b c "Simone Veil, défenseuse de l'avortement". L'histoire par les femmes (in French). 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  20. ^ "Simone Veil, French Holocaust survivor who championed women's rights". FRANCE 24. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d Casassus, Barbara (22 July 2017). "Obituary Simone Veil". The Lancet. 390 (10092): 356. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31880-9. S2CID 54386828.
  22. ^ a b c d "Simone VEIL: History of parliamentary service". Europa.eu. European Parliament. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  23. ^ "Cabinet de la Présidence Simone Veil". archives.eui.eu. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  24. ^ "Bahrain business pioneer Veil mourned". Trade Arabia. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  25. ^ "Décret n° 76 du 30 MARS 1993 RELATIF LA COMPOSITION DU GOUVERNEMENT" [Decree n° 76 of 30 MARCH 1993 RELATING TO THE COMPOSITION OF THE GOVERNMENT]. Légifrance (in French). Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  26. ^ a b "Référendum : Simone Veil répond à Debré". My TF1 News (in French). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Simone Veil rallie Sarkozy" [Simone Veil rallies Sarkozy]. L'Express (in French). Reuters. 8 March 2007.
  28. ^ Hardach, Sophie (18 March 2010). "Auschwitz survivor Veil joins Academie Francaise". U.K.
  29. ^ "Simone Veil est décédée à 89 ans" [Simone Veil died at 89]. Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 30 June 2017.
  30. ^ "French rights champion Simone Veil given coveted place in Panthéon". The Guardian. 5 July 2017.
  31. ^ Roe, David (5 July 2017). "France buries women's rights icon Simone Veil". Radio France Internationale.
  32. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (5 July 2017). "Simone Veil to Be Laid to Rest in Panthéon, Among France's Revered". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  33. ^ "Simone Veil". Gariwo. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  34. ^ "Simone Veil faite grand'croix de la Légion d'honneur" [Simone Veil made Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour]. Le Parisien (in French). 10 September 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  35. ^ Veil, Simone (1 September 2009). A life. Haus Publishing.
  36. ^ Intermark, IT. "Simone Veil - Princess of Asturias Awards - The Princess of Asturias Foundation". The Princess of Asturias Foundation.
  37. ^ "Simone Veil, laureate of the North-South Prize 2007". Committee of Ministers Chairmanships. 13 March 2019.
  38. ^ S.A., Sarenet (19 June 2008). "King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía honour Simone Veil". SUR in English.
  39. ^ "Coudenhove-Kalergi-Plakette: Preisträger" [Coudenhove-Kalergi Badge: Recipients]. Europa Union Deutschland, Kreisverband Münster (in German). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  40. ^ "The Schiller Prize of the City of Marbach am Neckar 2019 will be awarded to Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard". Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology (in German). 6 April 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  41. ^ "The Jury". Fondation Chirac.
  42. ^ "C_2018155EN.01000301.xml". eur-lex.europa.eu.
  43. ^ a b c "Launch of the Simone Veil Prize of the French Republic". France Diplomatie. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Cameroon women's activist wins award in memory of French icon Simone Veil". France 24. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.


Political offices Preceded byMichel Poniatowski Minister of Health 1974–1979 Succeeded byMichel Poniatowski Preceded byEmilio Colombo President of the European Parliament 1979–1982 Succeeded byPiet Dankert Preceded byBernard Kouchner Minister of Health 1993–1995 Succeeded byÉlisabeth Hubert Academic offices Preceded byDries van Agt Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe 1980 Succeeded byBruno Kreisky Awards Preceded byEmilio Colombo Recipient of the Charlemagne Prize 1982 Succeeded byJuan Carlos of Spain Preceded byErasmus Programme Recipient of the Prince of Asturias Awards 2005 Succeeded byBill and Melinda Gates Foundation Legal offices Preceded byJean Cabannes Member of the Constitutional Council 1998–2007 Succeeded byRenaud Denoix de Saint Marc Honorary titles Preceded byPierre Messmer Member of the Académie française 2008–2017 Succeeded byMaurizio Serra