.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Dutch. (January 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Dutch Wikipedia article at [[:nl:Partij voor de Dieren]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|nl|Partij voor de Dieren)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Party for the Animals" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren
LeaderEsther Ouwehand
Leader in the SenateNiko Koffeman
Leader in the House of RepresentativesEsther Ouwehand
Leader in the European ParliamentAnja Hazekamp
FoundersMarianne Thieme
Ton Dekker
Lieke Keller
Founded28 October 2002 (2002-10-28)
Youth wingPINK!
Think tankNicolaas G. Pierson foundation
Membership (2024)Increase 30,333[1]
IdeologyAnimal rights
Animal welfare[2]
Soft Euroscepticism[3]
Political positionLeft-wing[4]
European affiliationAnimal Politics EU
European Parliament groupThe Left in the European Parliament – GUE/NGL
Colours  Dark green
House of Representatives
3 / 150
3 / 75
26 / 572
European Parliament
1 / 29
King's Commissioners
0 / 12
Benelux Parliament
1 / 21

The Party for the Animals (Dutch: Partij voor de Dieren, [pɑrˈtɛi voːr ˈdiːrə(n)]; PvdD) is a political party in the Netherlands. Among its main goals are animal rights and animal welfare.[2]

Since 2019, the PvdD's political leader is Esther Ouwehand. With 2.25% of the votes at the 2023 general election, the PvdD holds three of the 150 House of Representatives's seats. In the Senate, it has three of the 75 seats. PvdD holds 26 States-Provincial seats across all provinces. In the European Parliament, it has one of the 29 seats allocated to the Netherlands constituency.



The Party for the Animals was founded on 28 October 2002 by Marianne Thieme, among others.[5] Although initially considered a testimonial party, a party which does not seek to gain political power but to testify its beliefs and thereby influence other parties, the party signaled its willingness to enter a coalition-government in 2021.[6][7] The party today is a part of the governing coalitions in the municipalities of Almere, Arnhem and Groningen.[8]

In 2003, the PvdD competed in its first Tweede Kamer election. Founded only three months before the elections, the party competed in 18 of the 19 constituencies, missing ballot access in Overijssel due to a clerical error. The party won 47,665 votes, gaining 75% of the electoral threshold, but missing out on a seat.

Electoral breakthrough

The electoral breakthrough for the PvdD occurred at the 2004 European elections. The party won 3.22% of the votes (153.432 votes), not enough to win a seat, but a sharp improvement compared to their 2003 result. In 2006 the party won their first seats in the Tweede Kamer, with Marianne Thieme and Esther Ouwehand being elected to parliament. The party gained a lot of attention due to a number of prominent lijstduwers, such as Paul Cliteur, Maarten 't Hart, Kees van Kooten, Rudy Kousbroek, Georgina Verbaan and Jan Wolkers.

The Party won nine seats in eight provinces in the 2007 Dutch provincial elections, securing one seat in the Eerste Kamer. In 2010, the party won representation on the local councils of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Arnhem, Gouda, Vlagtwedde and Pijnacker-Nootdorp; this meant that the PvdD secured representation on every level of government in the Netherlands.

In consequent elections, the electoral support for the PvdD remained relatively stable, winning two seats in the Tweede Kamer in 2010 and 2012. In 2014, the party won representation to the European parliament and joined the European United Left-Nordic Green Left parliamentary group.

In 2017, the party gained its best result to date, winning five seats in the Tweede Kamer. On 16 July 2019 Femke Merel van Kooten split from the PvdD caucus and continued as an independent member of parliament. The reason for the split was that Van Kooten criticized the narrow political focus of the party, which in her opinion focused too much on ecology and animal rights.[9]

Ouwehand leadership

On 8 October 2019, founder and longtime leader Marianne Thieme retired from the leadership and the Tweede Kamer. Esther Ouwehand succeeded Thieme as parliamentary leader, and Eva van Esch replaced her as a member of parliament. She was previously a city council woman in Utrecht.


Their main aim is to improve the life of animals and nature as a whole. They see the constant emphasis on economic growth as one of the main reasons for the lack of animal rights and is to blame for the state that nature currently is in.[10] They want animal rights to be enshrined into the constitution.

In recent years,[vague] they have widened their scope to more than just animal rights, for example sustainability, healthcare, housing and more. They also strive for a shorter workweek and for a universal basic income.[11]

Allied organisations


PINK! is the youth wing of the PvdD.[12] It was established on 12 September 2006, and has slightly over 2,000 members (2021 figure).[13] The name is derived from the Dutch word for a cow that is older than a calf, but not yet fully mature.[14] The current chairperson, Xenia Minnaert, was elected in 2020.[15]

Nicolaas G. Pierson Foundation

The Nicolaas G. Pierson Foundation is the research department of the PvdD. Founded in 2007, it is named after Niek Pierson, a Dutch economist and an early political donor of the party.

Animal Politics EU

Initially founded as Euro Animal 7, Animal Politics EU is an informal grouping of animal rights based political parties within the European Union. Animal Politics EU has member parties in the Netherlands, Belgium, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and Spain. The group currently has one MEP: Anja Hazekamp of the PvdD. Martin Buschmann for the Tierschutzpartei was formerly an MEP in this group but is no longer as of 2020


The electorate of the PvdD consists in majority of women (estimated at 70%) living in urban areas.[16] In 2023 the party achieved its best results in Amsterdam (11.5%), Arnhem (8.8%), Bergen (8.3%), Haarlem (9.8%), Nijmegen (9.3%), Schiermonnikoog (9%) and Zutphen (8.7%).[17] The party has lowest support in rural areas with large agricultural industries, such as in the Bible belt. It is supported by many organic farmers, and positions itself as a farmer's party which wants to free farmers from the big agricultural companies and their lobbyists, and help farmers transition to organic farming.

The PvdD has the largest proportion of vegan/vegetarian voters of any political party in the Netherlands, with 17.3% or 27.9% of PvdD voters in saying in two surveys in 2021 that they did not eat meat. The party with the second-highest proportion of vegan/vegetarian voters in both surveys was GroenLinks, for which the share laid at 8.4% or 16.9%.[18][19][20]

In 2021, a survey by Katholiek Nieuwsblad found that Catholic voters make up greater share of the PvdD's electorate than those of denominationally Christian parties such as CDA, ChristenUnie and SGP.[21] According to the Nieuwsblad's survey, Catholic voters tend to avoid denominationally Protestant or interconfessional parties and vote for strictly Catholic or secular ones in greater numbers instead. The newspaper also claimed that the voting behaviour of the PvdD and the SP is remarkably often in line with the moral views of the Catholic Church, and that "the social teachings of the Church are more progressive than is often thought".[21] The former leader of the party, Marianne Thieme, often made appeals to Christian voters.[22]

Electoral results

Niko Koffeman, Leader in the Senate since 2007
Anja Hazekamp, Leader in the European Parliament since 2014

House of Representatives

Election Lijsttrekker Votes % Seats +/– Government
2003 Marianne Thieme 47,754 0.49 (#10)
0 / 150
New Opposition
2006 179,988 1.83 (#9)
2 / 150
Increase 2 Opposition
2010 122,317 1.30 (#10)
2 / 150
Steady 0 Opposition
2012 182,162 1.93 (#9)
2 / 150
Steady 0 Opposition
2017 335,214 3.19 (#9)
5 / 150
Increase 3 Opposition
2021 Esther Ouwehand 399,750 3.84 (#9)
6 / 150
Increase 1 Opposition
2023 235,148 2.25 (#10)
3 / 150
Decrease 3 Opposition


Election Votes % Seats +/–
2007 3,366 2.06 (#8)
1 / 75
2011 2,177 1.06 (#12)
1 / 75
2015 6,073 3.16 (#9)
2 / 75
Increase 1
2019 6,550 3.78 (#10)
3 / 75
Increase 1
2023 8,560 4.78 (#8)
3 / 75
Steady 0

European Parliament

Election List Votes % Seats +/– Notes
2004 List 153,432 3.22 (#9)
0 / 27
New [23]
2009 List 157,735 3.46 (#9)
0 / 25
0 / 26
Steady [24]
2014 List 200,254 4.21 (#9)
1 / 26
Increase 1 [25]
2019 List 220,938 4.02 (#8)
1 / 26
1 / 29
Steady [26]


Election Votes % Seats +/–
2007[27] 144,132 2.55
9 / 564
2011[28] 131,231 1.88
7 / 566
Decrease 2
2015[29] 210,113 3.46
18 / 570
Increase 11
2019[30] 317,103 4.36
20 / 570
Increase 2
2023[31] 359.804 4.7
26 / 572
+6 6


At the 2022 Dutch municipal elections the PvdD won 63 seats, gaining representation in 29 municipalities. Party-wise, they have the most seats (4) in Leiden, Nijmegen and Groningen.[32]


Members of the House of Representatives

Main article: List of members of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands for Party for the Animals

Members of the Senate

Main article: List of members of the Senate of the Netherlands for Party for the Animals

Members of the European Parliament

See also: List of Party for the Animals Members of the European Parliament

Current members of the European Parliament since the European Parliamentary election of 2019:

The MEPs of the Party for the Animals are part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left Group in the European parliament.

See also


  1. ^ "Ledentallen Nederlandse politieke partijen per 1 januari 2024" [Membership of Dutch political parties as of 1 January 2024]. University of Groningen (in Dutch). Documentation Centre Dutch Political Parties. 28 February 2024. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  2. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2021). "Netherlands". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  3. ^ "A eurosceptic's guide to the Dutch election". The Eurosceptic.
  4. ^ "Links en rechts". parlement.com.
  5. ^ "Tien jaar Partij voor de Dieren". NOS. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Ouwehand: PvdD is klaar om mee te regeren". nos.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  7. ^ "Vijf jaar Partij voor de Dieren in Nederlands parlement" (in Dutch). 2011-10-02. (note: testimonial party is 'getuigenispartij' in Dutch)
  8. ^ "De partij". Partij voor de Dieren (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  9. ^ van Ast, Maarten (16 July 2019). "Partij voor de Dieren royeert Van Kooten vanwege 'zetelroof'". Algemeen Dagblad. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  10. ^ "De partij". Partij voor de Dieren (in Dutch).
  11. ^ "Wat is de Partij voor de Dieren?". NPO Kennis (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-09-05.
  12. ^ "Machtsstrijd over koers in top van Partij voor de Dieren". Algemeen Dagblad. 2019.
  13. ^ "Wij zijn". pinkpolitiek.nl. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Van de jongerenafdelingen van PvdA, GL, BIJ1 en PvdD mag het wel radicaler - VICE". www.vice.com. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  15. ^ "Bestuur". Pink Politiek (in Dutch). Retrieved 2021-07-24.
  16. ^ Rooduijn, Matthijs (2021-01-14). "Plaatjes van de electoraatjes: de Partij voor de Dieren". StukRoodVlees (in Dutch). Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  17. ^ "NOS - Bekijk alle verkiezingsuitslagen". metatags.io. Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  18. ^ "De pluimveesector mag er zijn en blijven!" (PDF). depluimveesectormagerzijnenblijven.nl. 2021. p. 10.
  19. ^ "NL staat achter de varkenssector!" (PDF). bouwenopframesoffeiten.nl. 2021. p. 10.
  20. ^ "Eten PvdD- en GroenLinksstemmers liever kip dan varken? - Vleesonderzoek varkens- en pluimveesector levert verrassend resultaat op". Foodlog. 14 June 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  21. ^ a b de Wit, Anton (11 March 2021). "Linkse partijen vaak 'katholieker' dan christelijke partijen". kn.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  22. ^ Boogerd, David; Paas, Stefan (3 June 2023). "Marianne Thieme wordt theoloog: 'Het christendom moet revolutionair zijn'". nporadio1.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  23. ^ "Kiesraad: Europees Parlement 10 juni 2004" (in Dutch). Kiesraad. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Kiesraad: Europees Parlement 4 juni 2009" (in Dutch). Kiesraad. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  25. ^ "Kiesraad: Europees Parlement 22 mei 2014" (in Dutch). Kiesraad. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  26. ^ "Kiesraad: Europees Parlement 23 mei 2019" (in Dutch). Kiesraad. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  27. ^ "Provinciale Staten 7 maart 2007". Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  28. ^ "Provinciale Staten 2 maart 2011". Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  29. ^ "Provinciale Staten 18 maart 2015". Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  30. ^ "Provinciale Staten 20 maart 2019". Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  31. ^ "NOS - Bekijk alle verkiezingsuitslagen". metatags.io. Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  32. ^ "Partij voor de Dieren verdubbeld in gemeenteraad". partijvoordedieren.nl (in Dutch). 17 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.