This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and from 2013 to 2021, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislatures are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

Current parties

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European Parliament

Name Abbr. Leader(s) Ideology MdBs MEPs Political position EP group
SPD logo.svg
Social Democratic Party of Germany,
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Lars Klingbeil,
Saskia Esken
Social democracy[4]
206 / 735
16 / 96
Centre-left S&D
Logo of the CDU CSU.svg
Christian Democratic Union of Germany,
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Friedrich Merz Christian democracy,[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
151 / 735
23 / 96
Centre-right[5] EPP
Christian Social Union in Bavaria,
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Christian democracy,[4]
Conservatism[4]
45 / 735
6 / 96
Centre-right[6][7][8] EPP
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo (transparent).svg
Alliance 90/The Greens,
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Ricarda Lang,
Omid Nouripour
Green politics[4]
118 / 735
21 / 96
Centre-left Greens/EFA
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg
Free Democratic Party,
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism,[4]
Classical liberalism[9][10]
92 / 735
5 / 96
Centre to centre-right RE
AfD-Logo-2017.svg
Alternative for Germany,
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Tino Chrupalla German nationalism[11][12]
Right-wing populism[13]
Hard Euroscepticism[14]
83 / 735
11 / 96
Far-right ID
Die Linke logo.svg
The Left,
Die Linke
LINKE Janine Wissler,
Susanne Hennig-Wellsow
Democratic socialism,[4]
Left-wing populism
39 / 735
7 / 96
Left-wing[15] GUE/NGL
FreieWählerBayernLogo2020.svg
Free Voters,
Freie Wähler
FW Hubert Aiwanger Liberal conservatism,[16]
Regionalism
0 / 735
2 / 96
Centre-right RE
Ssw-logo.svg
South Schleswig Voters' Association[B],
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism,
Ethnic minority politics,
Social liberalism[17]
1 / 735
0 / 96
Centre Greens/EFA
Zentrumspartei Logo.png
German Centre-Party,
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Klaus Brall Political Catholicism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism
1 / 735
0 / 96
Centre-right none
Die PARTEI Logo.svg
Die PARTEI,
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz,
Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire
0 / 735
1 / 96
Apolitical None
OEDP Logo CMYK.svg
Ecological Democratic Party,
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christian Rechholz Green conservatism[18]
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right Greens/EFA
LKR Logo 2020.svg
Liberal Conservative Reformers,
Liberal-konservative Reformer
LKR Jürgen Joost Liberal conservatism,
Economic liberalism,
Soft Euroscepticism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right to right-wing ECR
Logo Volt Europa.svg
Volt Germany,
Volt Deutschland
Volt Paul Loeper,
Friederike Schier
European federalism
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre to centre-left Greens/EFA
Piratenpartei Deutschland Logo 01.svg
Pirate Party Germany,
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Sebastian Alscher Pirate politics,
Social liberalism[19]
0 / 735
1 / 96
Syncretic Greens/EFA
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg
Family Party of Germany,
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Maria Hartmann Social conservatism,
Christian democracy
0 / 735
1 / 96
Centre-right to right-wing ECR
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.
B Some parties such as the Greens have co-leaders with equal power (usually one male and one female).
C Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. As a party representing ethnic minorities, it is not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Other parties represented in state parliaments

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in state (Seats) Position Notes
Bürger in Wut Logo.svg
Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
Logo-BVB-FREIE-WAEHLER.svg
Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Regionalism Brandenburg (3)

Minor parties

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political position EP-group
Action Party for Animal Welfare
Aktion Partei für Tierschutz
Tierschutz hier! Animal rights
Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM
Alliance for Innovation and Justice
Bündnis für Innovation und Gerechtigkeit
BIG Haluk Yildiz Political Islam
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Protection
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl Animal rights
Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akbaş Conservatism
Political Islam
APPD-Logo.svg
Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
Arminus – Association of the German People[20]
Arminus – Bund des deutschen Volkes
Arminus – Bund Johann Thießen Russlanddeutsche interests
German nationalism
Far-right[20]
BGE Logo neu.png
Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Martin Sonnabend Universal basic income Single-issue none
Bayernpartei Logo.svg
Bavaria Party
Bayernpartei
BP Florian Weber Autonomism
Bavarian nationalism
Regionalism
Conservatism
Centre-right EFA
Cropped-logo-seite.png
Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy
Dadaism
Far-left none
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement
Conspiracism
Syncretic none
Logo Klimaliste square 2020.svg
Climate List Germany
Klimaliste Deutschland
KL Fabian Aisenbrey, Doris Vollmer Climate change mitigation none
Kpd-flagge-icon.png
Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
Far-left none
DiB Logo.jpg
Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Democratic socialism Left-wing none
Feministische Partei Die Frauen Logo.svg
Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism none
From Now on... Democracy Through a Referendum
Ab jetzt … Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy Right-wing none
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei Logo.svg
German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left none
Logo Deutsche Soziale Union.png
German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
Logo of the Grassroots Democratic Party of Germany.svg
Grassroots Democratic Party of Germany
Basisdemokratische Partei Deutschland
dieBasis Reiner Fuellmich, Viviane Fischer Grassroots democracy
Anti-lockdown
Anti-vaccination
none
Logo Liberale Demokraten - Die Sozialliberalen.svg
Liberal Democrats – The Social Liberals
Liberale Demokraten – Die Sozialliberalen
LD Bernd Grothkopp Social liberalism none
Logo Lausitzer Allianz.png
Lusatian Alliance
Lausitzer Allianz / Łužiska Alianca / Łužyska Alianca
Hannes Wilhelm-Kell Regionalism
Progressivism
Ethnic minority interests
none
MLPD Logo 2011 (2).svg
Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism
Communism
Far-left none
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
Mut Logo.png
mut
mut
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left none
NPD-Logo-2013.svg
National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revanchism
Far-right[18] APF
Partei für Franken Logo.svg
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy
Regionalism
none
Logo parteifuergesundheitsforschung.png
Party for Health Research
Partei für Gesundheitsforschung
Gesundheitsforschung Felix Werth Single-issue politics none
PDH Logo Redesign.svg
Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
Die Humanisten Alexander Mucha Humanism
Secularism
Civil libertarianism
Social liberalism
none
Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
Tierschutzpartei-Logo.svg
Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Matthias Ebner
Sandra Lück
Horst Wester
Animal rights
Environmentalism
Syncretic GUE/NGL
Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
TeamTodenhoefer Logo.png
Team Todenhöfer – The Justice Party
Team Todenhöfer – Die Gerechtigkeitspartei
Team Todenhöfer Jürgen Todenhöfer Anti-militarism
Populism
none
LDF2010.png
The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
An oak wreath on logo of the German party "The Third Path" - Parteilogo "Der III. Weg.jpg
The III. Path
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism
German nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right none
REP Logo Claim.svg
The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Tilo Schöne German nationalism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Neo-Nazism
Ultranationalism
Pan-Germanism
Anti-immigration
Revisionism
Far-right none
The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand Left-wing[citation needed] none
Die Violetten Logo 20190515.jpg
The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Social liberalism
Spiritualism
none
Schriftzug-v-partei.png
V-Partei³ – Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights
Environmentalism
none
WiR2020
WiR2020
W2020 Wolfgang Romberg, Sonja Früh Anti-vaccinationism
Anti-lockdown
none

Historical parties

Parties existing up to World War I

Name Abbr. Ideology
Bavarian Peasants' League BB Agrarianism
Centre Party Zentrum Christian democracy
Christian Social Party CSP Traditionalist conservatism
Christian democracy
Anti-Semitism
Democratic Union DV Liberalism
Laïcité
Free Conservative Party FKP National conservatism
Free-minded People's Party FVP Liberalism
Progressivism
Parliamentarism
Laicism
Free-minded Union FV National liberalism
General German Workers' Association ADAV Social democracy
Democratic socialism
German Conservative Party DKP Conservatism
Economic liberalism
Anti-Catholicism
German Fatherland Party DVLP German nationalism
Monarchism
Militarism
Volksgemeinschaft
German-Hanoverian Party DHP Conservatism
Federalism
German People's Party DtVP Social liberalism
Federalism
Laïcité
Parliamentarism
German Progress Party DFP Liberalism
Federalism
German Free-minded Party DFP Liberalism
Progressivism
Parliamentarism
Laïcité
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Pacifism
Liberal Union LV Liberalism
Parliamentarism
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
National Liberal Party NLP National liberalism
National-Social Association NSV Christian socialism
Social liberalism
Nationalism
Progressive People's Party FVP Social liberalism
Parliamentarism
Laïcité
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP Social democracy
Marxist socialism

Parties in Weimar Republic

Main article: Weimar political parties

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court

Parties in (former) East Germany

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)

During transition (1989–90)

Parties founded from 1989

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-08. Retrieved 2009-10-10.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  5. ^ "Armin Laschet elected new leader of Germany's CDU party". Euronews. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  6. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the center-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Center-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  7. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  8. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  9. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.
  10. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.
  11. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016.
  13. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
  14. ^ "The growing strains between Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron". The Economist. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  15. ^ Raphaël Fèvre, ed. (2021). A Political Economy of Power: Ordoliberalism in Context, 1932-1950. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780197607800. This reference to ordoliberalism has also resonated across the wide spectrum of German politics— albeit in a spirit of opposition to the CDU— from left- wing party leaders of Die Linke to the far- right of Alternative für Deutschland
  16. ^ Assessing the 2019 European Parliament Elections. Taylor & Francis. 2020. p. 263. ISBN 9781000057263. As in 2014, seven minor parties with vote shares below 5 per cent gained seats in the European Parliament, ranging from single-issue parties like the Animal Protection Party (one seat) or the Family Party (one seat) to the satirical 'Die Partei' (two seats) or the liberal-Conservative 'Free Voters'.
  17. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.
  18. ^ a b William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
  19. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  20. ^ a b Wagschal, Prof Dr Uwe. "Arminus - Bund des deutschen Volkes (Arminus - Bund) | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-06-14.