This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2021)

Prior to the 2012 elections the characteristic Greek political system was a two-party system. The historically dominant parties have been New Democracy and the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). Under the electoral system a party needs to surpass a 3% threshold in the popular vote in order to enter parliament. The largest party gets a 50-seat bonus (out of 300 seats) ostensibly to ensure elections return viable governing majorities.

Parties represented in the current Parliament and European Parliament

Party Acronym Leader MPs MEPs Ideology Political
position
International
affiliation
European
affiliation
New Democracy Logo 2018.png
New Democracy,
Νέα Δημοκρατία,
Néa Dimokratía
ND,
ΝΔ
Kyriakos Mitsotakis,
president
157 / 300
8 / 21
Liberal conservatism[1]
Christian democracy[2]
Pro-Europeanism[3]
Centre-right[4] IDU
CDI
EPP
SYRIZA logo 2020.svg
Coalition of the Radical Left,
Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς,
Sinaspismós Rizospastikís Aristerás
SYRIZA,
ΣΥΡΙΖΑ
Alexis Tsipras,
leader
85 / 300
6 / 21
Democratic socialism[5]
Social democracy[6]
Secularism[7]
Pro-Europeanism[8][9][10]
Centre-left
to left-wing
None PEL
Muutosliike.png
Movement for Change,
Κίνημα Αλλαγής,
Kinima Allagis
KINAL,
ΚΙΝΑΛ
Nikos Androulakis,
president
22 / 300
2 / 21
Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Centre-left SI
PA
PES
Logo of the Communist Party of Greece.svg
Communist Party of Greece,
Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας,
Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas
KKE Dimitris Koutsoumpas,
general secretary
15 / 300
2 / 21
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-left IMCWP INITIATIVE
Greek Solution,
Ελληνική Λύση,
Ellinikí Lýsi
EL,
ΕΛ
Kyriakos Velopoulos,
president
10 / 300
1 / 21
Ultranationalism,
Social conservatism,
Religious conservatism,
Right-wing populism
Right-wing
to far-right
None ECR
Mera25-logo.svg
European Realistic Disobedience Front25,
Μέτωπο Ευρωπαϊκής Ρεαλιστικής Ανυπακοής25,
Μétopo Evropaikís Realistikís Anypakoís25
MeRA,
ΜέΡΑ
Yanis Varoufakis,
general secretary
8 / 300
0 / 21
Democratic socialism,
Market socialism,[11]
Progressivism,[12]
Syndicalism,[13]
Pro-Europeanism[12][14]
Left-wing PI DiEM25

Minor parties

Name Acronym Position Ideology Leader National affiliation European affiliation MPs MEPs
Cynical Party of Greece-Diogenis
Κυνικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος-Διογένης
KKE-D
ΚΚΕ-Δ
Centre Political satire Megistoi Arhidiahiristes None None 0 0
Popular Unity
Λαϊκή Ενότητα
LAE
ΛΑ.Ε.
Left-wing to
far-left
Democratic socialism[15]
Euroscepticism[15][16]
Left-wing populism
Panagiotis Lafazanis None None 0 0
Ecologist Greens
Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι
OP
ΟΠ
Centre-left Green politics Six-member committee Ecologist GreensPirate Party of Greece (2014)
SYRIZA (2015)
EGP, G-EFA 0 0
Christian Democratic Party of the Overthrow
Χριστιανοδημοκρατικό Κόμμα Ανατροπής
XPIKA
ΧΡΙΚΑ
Centre-right to right-wing Christian democracy
Conservatism
Nikolaos Nikolopoulos Union for the Homeland and the People (2014)
Independent Greeks (2015)
None 0 0
National Party - Hellenes
Εθνικό Κόμμα - Έλληνες
Éllines Έλληνες Far-right Greek nationalism, National conservatism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration Ilias Kasidiaris None None 0 0
National Popular Consciousness
θνική Λαϊκή Συνείδηση
ELASYN ΕΛΑΣΥΝ Far-right Greek nationalism, National conservatism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration Giorgos Loukakos, Giannis Zografos None APF 0 0
United Popular Front
Ενιαίο Παλλαϊκό Μέτωπο
EPAM
ΕΠΑΜ
Right-wing Patriotism
Euroscepticism
Dimitris Kazakis None None 0 0
National Unity
Εθνική Ενότητα
Right-wing National conservatism Giorgos Karatzaferis None None 0 0
New Right
Νέα Δεξιά
ΝD

ΝΔ

Right-wing National conservatism Failos Kranidiotis None ID 0 0
Greece, Another Path [el]
Ελλάδα, ο άλλος δρόμος
Right-wing National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Notis Marias None ECR 0 0
Radical National Rally [el]
Ριζοσπαστικός Εθνικός Συναγερμός
RIZ.ES
ΡΙΖ.Ε.Σ.
Right-wing National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Vasilis Kapernaros None None 0 0
Smoking Groups for Art and Visual Art
Καπνιστικές Ομάδες για την Τέχνη και την Εικαστική Συγκρότηση
K.O.T.E.S.
Κ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Σ
Left-wing Legalization of smoking Nikos Louvros None None 0 0
Democratic Responsibility [el]
Δημοκρατική Ευθύνη
Centre Liberalism Vasilis Pavlidis None None 0 0
Society – Political Party of the Successors of Kapodistrias
Κοινωνία – Πολιτική παράταξη συνεχιστών του Καποδίστρια
Koinonia
ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ
Right-wing Social conservatism
Euroscepticism
National conservatism
Michalis Iliadis None None 0 0
Union for the Homeland and the People
Ένωση για την Πατρίδα και τον Λαό
EPAL
ΕΠΑΛ
Right-wing National conservatism
Christian democracy
Vyron Polydoras None None 0 0
Course of Freedom
Πλεύση Ελευθερίας
Left-wing Socialism
Euroscepticism
Zoe Konstantopoulou Popular Unity None 0 0
Society First
Η Κοινωνία Πρώτα
H.K.P
Η.Κ.Π
Left wing Democratic socialism
Socialism
Stefanos Katsaras SYRIZA None 0 0
Popular Unions of Bipartisan Social Groups
Λαϊκές Ενώσεις Υπερκομματικών Κοινωνικών Ομάδων
LEFKO
ΛΕΥΚΟ
Centre-left Social democracy
Populism
Konstantinos Dalios Independent Greeks None 0 0
Democratic National Reform Union [el]
Ένωση Δημοκρατικής Εθνικής Μεταρρύθμισης
EDEM
Ε.Δ.Ε.Μ.
Centre Liberalism Apostolos Pontas Democratic Alignment None 0 0
Society of Values [el]
Κοινωνία Αξιών
Centre Liberalism Stelios Fenekos [el] The River None 0 0
Popular Orthodox Rally
Λαικός Ορθόδοξος Συναγερμός
LAOS
Λα.Ο.Σ
Right-wing to far-right Greek nationalism
Conservatism
Georgios Karatzaferis National Unity MELD 0 0
Movement of Democratic Socialists
Κίνημα Δημοκρατών Σοσιαλιστών
KIDISO
ΚΙ.ΔΗ.ΣΟ.
Centre-left Social democracy George Papandreou None None 0 0
Greens
Πράσινοι
Greens
Πράσινοι
Centre-left Green politics
Environmentalism
Nikos Chrysogelos None None 0 0
Greece, Another Path [el]
Νέα Μεταρρυθμιστική Ριζοσπαστική Ανασυγκρότηση
NEA MERA
ΝΕΑ ΜΕΡΑ
Centre-right National conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Christos Zois Union for the Homeland and the People None 0 0
Recreate Greece
Δημιουργία Ξανά
DX
Δ.Ξ.
Far-right[17][18][19] Neoliberalism[20][21][22]
Anti-communism
Anti-immigration
Anti-Islam
Thanos Tzimeros [el] Bridges [el] ALDE 0 0
Liberal Alliance
Φιλελεύθερη Συμμαχία
FS
Φ.Σ.
Centre Neoliberalism
Progressivism
Makis Spyratos None None 0 0
Democrats
Δημοκρατικοί
Dem
Δημ
Centre Social liberalism
Economic liberalism
Theodoros Polyzoidis [el] None None 0 0
Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow
Αντικαπιταλιστική Αριστερή Συνεργασία για την Ανατροπή
ANTARSYA
ΑΝΤΑΡΣΥΑ
Left-wing to far-left Revolutionary socialism
Anti-capitalism
21 member committee None None 0 0
Social Agreement
Κοινωνική Συμφωνία
KOISY
ΚΟΙ.ΣΥ.
Centre-left to left-wing Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Louka Katseli SYRIZA None 0 0
National Unity Association
Σύνδεσμος Εθνικής Ενότητας
SEE
Σ.Ε.Ε.
Right-wing Patriotism
National conservatism
Nikos Alikakos None None 0 0
Pirate Party of Greece
Κόμμα Πειρατών Ελλάδας
KPP
Κ.Π.Π.
Freedom of information
Direct democracy
Has no leader, but a management board. Ecologist GreensPirate Party of Greece (2014) PPEU,
supported G-EFA
0 0
Left Radical Movement [el]
Αριστερή Ριζοσπαστική Κίνηση
ARK
ΑΡΚ
Left-wing to far-left Socialism Governing committee None None 0 0
Communist Party of Greece (Marxist–Leninist)
Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας (Μαρξιστικό – Λενινιστικό)
KKE(m–l)
Κ.Κ.Ε.(μ-λ)
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Maoism
Anti-revisionism
Grigoris Konstantopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece
Μαρξιστικό-Λενινιστικό Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
M-L KKE
Μ-Λ Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Maoism
Anti-revisionism
Antonis Papadopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Movement for the Reorganization of the Communist Party of Greece 1918–1955
Κίνηση για την Ανασύνταξη του ΚΚΕ 1918–55
Anasintaxi
Ανασυνταξη
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
Tasos Mpallos None None 0 0
Workers Revolutionary Party
Εργατικό Επαναστατικό Κόμμα
EEK
ΕΕΚ
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
Savas Matsas None None 0 0
Democratic Revival
Δημοκρατική Αναγέννηση
Diman
Δημαν
Centre Greek nationalism
Christian socialism
Stelios Papathemelis None None 0 0
Drachmi Greek Democratic Movement Five Stars
Δραχμή, Δημοκρατική Κίνηση Πέντε Αστέρων
Drachma Five Stars
Δραχμή Πέντε Αστέρων
Populism
Single-issue politics
Euroscepticism
Theodore Katsanevas None None 0 0
Fighting Socialist Party of Greece
Αγωνιστικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
ASKE
Α.Σ.Κ.Ε.
Left-wing Democratic socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Nikos Kargopoulos None None 0 0
National Front
Εθνικό Mέτωπο
EM
Ε.Μ.
Far-right Ultranationalism
Greek nationalism
Emmanouil Konstas None None 0 0
National Hope
Εθνική Ελπίδα
EE
E.E.
Right wing to far-right National conservatism
Monarchism
Yiorgos Papadopoulos None None 0 0
Greek Ecologists
Έλληνες Οικολόγοι
EO
E.O.
Ecologism
Social progressivism
Dimosthenis Vergis None None 0 0
Party of Greek Hunters
Κόμμα Ελλήνων Κυνηγών
KK
Κ.Κ.
Centre-right Conservatism
Hunting
Giorgos Tsagkanelias None None 0 0
I Don't Pay Movement
Κίνημα Δεν Πληρώνω
Far left Socialism
Euroscepticism
Vasilis Papadopoulos Popular Unity None 0 0
Organization for the Reconstruction of the Communist Party of Greece
Οργάνωση για την Ανασυγκρότηση του Κομουνιστικού Κόμματος Ελλάδας
OAKKE
Ο.Α.Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Communism Elias Zafiropoulos None None 0 0
Organisation of Internationalist Communists of Greece
Οργάνωση Κομμουνιστών Διεθνιστών Ελλάδας
OKDE
Ο.Κ.Δ.Ε.
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
None None 0 0
Greek Unity
Ελληνική Ενότητα
EL.EN
ΕΛ.ΕΝ.
Right-wing to far-right Greek nationalism Vasilis Protopapas None None 0 0
Ecologists of Greece
Οικολόγοι Ελλάδας
Centre-right Green politics
Green conservatism
Konstantinos Papanikolas None None 0 0
Free Citizens
Ελεύθεροι Πολίτες
Centre-left Social democracy Michalis Nikitakis None None 0 0
Party of Friendship, Equality and Peace
Κόμμα Ισότητας, Ειρήνης και Φιλίας
Dostluk-Eşitlik-Barış Partisi
KIEF
Κ.Ι.Ε.Φ
DEBP
Centre Turkish minority interests
Centre
Çiğdem Asafoğlu None None 0 0
Rainbow
Ουράνιο Τόξο
Виножито
Centre Slavic Macedonian minority rights
Regionalism
Collective leadership None European Free Alliance 0 0
Panhellenic Citizen Chariot
Πανελλήνιο Άρμα Πολιτών
PAP
ΠΑΠ
Giannis Dimaras [el] None None 0 0

Defunct parties

Parties during the reign of King Otto (1833–1862)

Parties during the reign of King George I (1863–1913)

Parties during the reign of King Constantine I - Alexander – George II (1913–1924)

Parties during the Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

Parties during the restoration of King George II (1936–1946)

Parties during the reigns of Kings Paul and Constantine II (1946–1973)

Parties during the Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ José M. Magone (2003). The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration Into the European Union. Praeger. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-275-97787-0.
  2. ^ Norman Schofield; Gonzalo Caballero (11 June 2011). Political Economy of Institutions, Democracy and Voting. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 320. ISBN 978-3-642-19519-8.
  3. ^ Kalaitzidis, Akis (2009), Europe's Greece: A Giant in the Making, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 29
  4. ^ Robert Thomson (2011). Resolving Controversy in the European Union: Legislative Decision-Making before and after Enlargement. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-139-50517-8.
  5. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Greece". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  6. ^ John Milios (December 2016). "SYRIZA: From 'Subversion' to Centre-Left Pragmatism" (PDF). National Technical University of Athens.
  7. ^ "Tsipras and the Atheists: The Role of Secularism in Greece's Financial Crisis". The Humanist. 14 July 2015.
  8. ^ "Party Encyclopedia & Polling Averages:Greece". Europe Elects.
  9. ^ Sarantis Michalopoulos (10 April 2017). "Syriza: Europeanism without federalism is "meaningless"". EURACTIV.
  10. ^ Filippa Chatzistavrou (17 May 2019). "THE 2019 EP ELECTION FROM A GREEK PERSPECTIVE". Netherlands Institute of International Relations.
  11. ^ Yanis Varoufakis: From an Economics without Capitalism to Markets without Capitalism | DiEM25, retrieved 2021-10-16
  12. ^ a b Manifesto of MeRA25, "Εμείς δεν μένουμε Ευρώπη, είμαστε η Προοδευτική Ευρώπη!" ("We don't stay Europe, we are a Progressive Europe!")
  13. ^ "Ασφάλιση εργαζομένων, Συνδικαλισμός" [Worker Insurance, Syndicalism]. Οι Θέσεις του ΜέΡΑ25 [The Policies of MeRA25] (PDF). 2021. pp. 63–64.
  14. ^ Manifesto of MeRA25, "Όμως, μετά τη δημιουργία της ευρωζώνης, το κόστος εξόδου είναι μεγάλο τόσο για τη χώρα που εξέρχεται όσο και για την υπόλοιπη Ευρώπη" ("But, after the creation of the Eurozone, the cost of exiting is high both for the country that is leaving as well as for the rest of Europe")
  15. ^ a b "Introducing Popular Unity". Jacobin Magazine. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  16. ^ "Lafazanis: Greek rebel with a eurosceptic cause". EUBusiness. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Τζήμερος, η (ακρο)δεξιά ρητορεία του αμόλυντου". 5 June 2012.
  18. ^ "Οι ακροδεξιές απόψεις του Θάνου Τζήμερου: Ονειρεύεται μετανάστες - οικονομικούς σκλάβους!".
  19. ^ https://www.amadeu-antonio-stiftung.de/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/ESOH-LOCKED-FINAL.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  20. ^ "2012 Greek (2nd) Parliamentary Post-Election Report". 19 June 2012.
  21. ^ "Θάνος Τζήμερος: Ένας γνήσιος εκφραστής του νεοφιλελευθερισμού".
  22. ^ "Η δεξιά του νεοφιλελευθερισμού".