This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "First Hellenic Republic" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–27)
Προσωρινὴ Διοίκησις τῆς Ἑλλάδος

Hellenic State (1827–32)
Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία
Motto: "Eleftheria i thanatos"
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
"Freedom or Death"
CapitalNafplio (officially from 1827)
Common languagesGreek
Greek Orthodox
Demonym(s)Greek, Hellene
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
President of the Executive 
• 1822–1823
Alexandros Mavrokordatos
• 1823–1823
Petrobey Mavromichalis
• 1823–1826
Georgios Kountouriotis
• 1826–1827
Andreas Zaimis
• 1827–1831
Ioannis Kapodistrias
• 1831–1832
Augustinos Kapodistrias
LegislatureNational Assembly
• Start of Greek Revolution
1 January 1822
22 March 1829
3 February 1830
8 August 1832
30 August 1832
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Morea Eyalet
Eyalet of the Archipelago
Pashalik of Yanina
Military-Political System of Samos
Kingdom of Greece
Military-Political System of Samos
Today part ofGreece

The First Hellenic Republic (Greek: Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) was the provisional Greek state during the Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire.[1][2] From 1822 until 1827, it was known as the Provisional Administration of Greece, and between 1827 and 1832, it was known as the Hellenic State.

"First Hellenic Republic" is a historiographical term. It is used by academics and the Greek government to emphasize the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associate this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third Republics.[3][4]


See also: Greek War of Independence

In the first stages of the 1821 uprising, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by a central administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus in early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution, marking the birth of the modern Greek state. The councils continued in existence, however, and central authority was not firmly established until 1824/25. The new state was not recognized by the Great Powers of the day, which, after initial successes, was threatened with collapse both from within due to civil war and from without through the victories of the Turco-Egyptian army of Ibrahim Pasha.[1]

By 1827, the Greek revolution had almost been extinguished on the mainland, but by this time the Great Powers had come to agree to the formation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, as stipulated in the Treaty of London. Ottoman refusal to accept these terms led to the Battle of Navarino, which effectively secured complete Greek independence.

In 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State (Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία) and selected Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece. Therefore, this period is often called Governorate (Greek: Κυβερνείο). After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias actively tried to create a functional state and redress the problems of a war-ravaged country, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.[2]

Ioannis Kapodistrias, Governor of Greece

During the period of 1828–1830, the island of Samos was incorporated into the Republic as part of the Eastern Sporades province.

Kapodistrias was assassinated by political rivals in 1831, plunging the country into renewed civil strife. He was succeeded by his brother Augustinos, who was forced to resign after six months. The Fifth National Assembly at Nafplion drafted a new royal constitution, while the three "Protecting Powers" (Great Britain, France and Russia) intervened, declaring Greece a Kingdom in the London Conference of 1832, with the Bavarian Prince Otto of Wittelsbach as king.

Heads of the Executive

See also: List of heads of state of Greece

The following were the heads of government for the First Hellenic Republic:[5]

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)

Head of state Term of office Title
No. Portrait Name
Took office Left office Time in office
Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
13 January 1822 10 May 1823 1 year, 117 days President of the Executive
2 Petros Mavromichalis
Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης (Πετρόμπεης)
10 May 1823 31 December 1823 235 days President of the Executive
3 Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
31 December 1823 26 April 1826 2 years, 116 days President of the Executive
4 Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
26 April 1826 14 April 1827 353 days President of the Government Commission

Hellenic State (1827–1832)

Governor Term of office Political party
No. Portrait Name
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
14 April 1827 9 October 1831
4 years, 178 days Russian Party
2 Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
9 October 1831 23 March 1832
166 days Russian Party

See also


  1. ^ a b "Ottoman Rule and the War of Independence", Greek, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 371–378, 2010, doi:10.1002/9781444318913.ch13, ISBN 978-1444318913
  2. ^ a b Llc, Books (2010). Greek War of Independence: Morea Expedition, Massacres During the Greek Revolution, Souliotes, Background of the Greek War of Independence, Filiki Eteria, Armatoloi, Spinalonga, Greek Civil Wars of 1824–1825, Gramvousa, Klepht, Aegean Anti-Piracy Operation. General Books. ISBN 978-1156773772.
  3. ^ "Which Country Is Also Called The Hellenic Republic?". WorldAtlas. 20 May 2018. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  4. ^ "Constitutional History". Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Countries Go-Gu". Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2020.

37°33′56″N 22°47′47″E / 37.56556°N 22.79639°E / 37.56556; 22.79639