Minneapolis
Official seal of Minneapolis
Official logo of Minneapolis
Etymology: Dakota mni 'water' with Greek polis 'city'
Nicknames: 
"City of Lakes",[1] "Mill City",[1] "Twin Cities"[2] (with Saint Paul), "Mini Apple"[1]
Motto: 
En Avant (French: 'Forward')[3]
Map
Map
Map
Map
Coordinates: 44°58′55″N 93°16′09″W / 44.98194°N 93.26917°W / 44.98194; -93.26917[4]
CountryUnited States
StateMinnesota
CountyHennepin
Incorporated1867
Founded byFranklin Steele and John H. Stevens
Government
 • TypeMayor–council (strong mayor)[5]
 • BodyMinneapolis City Council
 • MayorJacob Frey(DFL)
Area
 • City57.51 sq mi (148.94 km2)
 • Land54.00 sq mi (139.86 km2)
 • Water3.51 sq mi (9.08 km2)
Elevation830 ft (250 m)
Population
 • City429,954
 • Estimate 
(2022)[8]
425,096
 • Rank
  • 46th (U.S.)
  • 1st (Minnesota)
 • Density7,962.11/sq mi (3,074.21/km2)
 • Urban2,914,866
 • Urban density2,872.4/sq mi (1,109/km2)
 • Metro3,693,729
DemonymMinneapolitan
GDP
 • MSA$277.6 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC–6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC–5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
55401-55419, 55423, 55429-55430, 55450, 55454-55455, 55484-55488
Area code612
FIPS code27-43000[4]
GNIS ID655030[4]
WebsiteMinneapolisMN.gov

Minneapolis,[a] officially the City of Minneapolis,[13] is a city in and the county seat of Hennepin County, Minnesota, United States.[4] With a population of 429,954, it is the state's most populous city as of the 2020 census.[7] It occupies both banks of the Mississippi River and adjoins Saint Paul, the state capital of Minnesota. Minneapolis, Saint Paul, and the surrounding area are collectively known as the Twin Cities, a metropolitan area with 3.69 million residents.[14] Minneapolis is built on an artesian aquifer on flat terrain, and is known for cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers. Nicknamed the "City of Lakes",[15] Minneapolis is abundant in water, with thirteen lakes, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks, and waterfalls. The city's public park system is connected by the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.

Dakota people originally inhabited the site of today's Minneapolis. European colonization and settlement began north of Fort Snelling along Saint Anthony Falls—the only natural waterfall on the Mississippi River.[16] The city's early growth was attributed to its proximity to the fort and the falls providing power for industrial activity. Minneapolis was the 19th-century lumber and flour milling capital of the world, and as home to the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis has preserved its financial clout into the 21st century. A Minneapolis Depression-era labor strike brought about federal worker protections. Work in Minneapolis contributed to the computing industry, and the city is the birthplace of General Mills, the Pillsbury brand, Target Corporation, and of Thermo King mobile refrigeration.

The city's major arts institutions include the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the Walker Art Center, and the Guthrie Theater. Four professional sports teams play downtown. Prince is survived by his favorite venue, the First Avenue nightclub. Minneapolis is home to the University of Minnesota's main campus. The city's public transport is provided by Metro Transit and the international airport, serving the Twin Cities region, is located towards the south on the city limits.

Residents adhere to more than fifty religions, and thousands choose to volunteer their time. Despite its well-regarded quality of life,[17] Minneapolis faces a pressing challenge in the form of stark disparities among its residents—arguably the most critical issue confronting the city in the 21st century.[18] Governed by a mayor-council system, Minneapolis has a political landscape dominated by the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), with Jacob Frey serving as mayor since 2018.

History

Main article: History of Minneapolis

Dakota homeland

Main articles: Dakota people, Ojibwe, Bdóte, and US–Dakota War of 1862

Two Indigenous nations inhabited the area now called Minneapolis.[19] Archaeologists have evidence that since 1000 A.D.,[20] they were the Dakota (one half of the Sioux nation),[21] and, after the 1700s,[22] the Ojibwe (also known as Chippewa, members of the Anishinaabe nations).[23] Dakota people have different stories to explain their creation.[24] One widely accepted story says the Dakota emerged from Bdóte,[24] the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers. Dakota are the only inhabitants of the Minneapolis area who claimed no other land;[25] they have no traditions of having immigrated.[26] In 1680, cleric Louis Hennepin, who was probably the first European to see the Minneapolis waterfall the Dakota people call Owámniyomni, renamed it the Falls of St. Anthony of Padua for his patron saint.[27]

Black and white photo of one end of an island covered with hundreds of teepees inside a stockade
Dakota non-combatants living in a concentration camp at Fort Snelling during the winter of 1862[28][29]

In the space of sixty years, the US seized all of their land, and forced the Dakota out of their homeland.[30] Purchasing most of modern-day Minneapolis, Zebulon Pike made the 1805 Treaty of St. Peter with the Dakota.[b] Pike bought a 9-square-mile (23 km2) strip of land—coinciding with the sacred place of Dakota origin[24]—on the Mississippi south of Saint Anthony Falls,[34] with the agreement the US would build a military fort and trading post there and the Dakota would retain their usufructuary rights.[35] In 1819, the US Army built Fort Snelling[36] to direct Native American trade away from British-Canadian traders, and to deter war between the Dakota and Ojibwe in northern Minnesota.[37] Under pressure from US officials[38] in a series of treaties, the Dakota ceded their land first to the east, and then to the west of the Mississippi, the river that runs through Minneapolis.[39][c] Dakota leaders twice refused to sign the next treaty until they were paid for the previous one.[51] In the decades following these treaty signings, the federal US government rarely honored their terms.[52] At the beginning of the American Civil War, annuity payments owed in June 1862 to the Dakota by treaty were late, causing acute hunger among the Dakota.[53][d] Facing starvation[55] a faction of the Dakota declared war in August and killed settlers.[56] Serving without any prior military experience, US commander Henry Sibley commanded raw recruits,[57] volunteer mounted troops from Minneapolis and Saint Paul with no military experience.[58] The war went on for six weeks in the Minnesota River valley.[59] After a trial described as a kangaroo court,[60] 38 Dakota men died by hanging as ordered by Abraham Lincoln.[59] The army force-marched 1,700 non-hostile Dakota men, women, children, and elders 150 miles (240 km) to a concentration camp at Fort Snelling.[28][61] Minneapolitans reportedly threatened more than once to attack the camp.[62] In 1863, the US "abrogated and annulled" all treaties with the Dakota.[63] With Governor Alexander Ramsey calling for their extermination,[64] most Dakota were exiled from Minnesota.[65]

While the Dakota were being expelled, Franklin Steele laid claim to the east bank of Saint Anthony Falls,[66] and John H. Stevens built a home on the west bank.[67] In the Dakota language, the city's name is Bde Óta Othúŋwe ('Many Lakes Town').[e] Residents had divergent ideas on names for their community. Charles Hoag proposed combining the Dakota word for 'water' (mni[f]) with the Greek word for 'city' (polis), yielding Minneapolis. In 1851 after a meeting of the Minnesota Territorial Legislature, leaders of east bank St. Anthony lost their bid to move the capital from Saint Paul.[74] In a close vote, Saint Paul and Stillwater agreed to divide federal funding:[74] Saint Paul would be the capital, while Stillwater would build the prison. The St. Anthony contingent eventually won the state university.[74] In 1856, the territorial legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town on the Mississippi's west bank.[70] Minneapolis was incorporated as a city in 1867, and in 1872, it merged with St. Anthony.[75]

Industries develop

Waterfall surrounded by sawmills and scaffolding
Saint Anthony Falls c. 1850s
Two men who loaded flour and a bag of flour that says Monahan's Minneapolis and a Pillsbury truck
Loading flour, Pillsbury, 1939

Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the only natural waterfall on the Mississippi, which was used as a source of energy.[16] The city's two founding industries—lumber and flour milling—developed in the 19th century nearly concurrently.[g] Each came to prominence for about fifty years.[h] In 1870, lumber was the main Minneapolis industry;[80] a decade later, flour milling overtook the annual value of lumber products.[80] Through its expanding mill industries, Minneapolis earned the nickname "Mill City."[81] Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six companies manufactured artificial limbs.[82]

Disasters struck in the late 19th century: the Eastman tunnel under the river leaked in 1869; twice, fire destroyed the entire row of sawmills on the east bank;[83] an explosion of flour dust at the Washburn A mill killed eighteen people[84] and demolished about half the city's milling capacity;[85] and in 1893, fire spread from Nicollet Island to Boom Island to northeast Minneapolis, destroyed twenty blocks, and killed two people.[86]

The lumber industry was built around forests in northern Minnesota, largely by lumbermen emigrating from Maine's depleting forests.[87][88] The region's waterways were used to transport logs well after railroads developed; the Mississippi River carried logs to St. Louis until the early 20th century.[89] In 1871, of the thirteen mills sawing lumber in St. Anthony, eight ran on water power and five ran on steam power.[90] Auxiliary businesses on the river's west bank included woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and wood-planing.[91] Minneapolis supplied the materials for farmsteads and settlement of rapidly expanding cities on the prairies that lacked wood.[92] White pine milled in Minneapolis built Miles City, Montana; Bismarck, North Dakota; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Omaha, Nebraska; and Wichita, Kansas.[93] Growing use of steam power freed lumbermen and their sawmills from dependence on the falls.[94] Lumbering's decline began around the turn of the century,[95] and sawmills in the city including the Weyerhauser mill closed by 1919.[96] After depleting Minnesota's white pine,[97] some lumbermen moved on to Douglas fir in the Pacific Northwest.[98]

Refer to caption
Seymour Cray and colleagues began work on the CDC 6600 (pictured) in downtown Minneapolis and completed the project in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin.[99]

In 1877, Cadwallader C. Washburn founded Washburn-Crosby,[100] the company that became General Mills.[101][i] Washburn and partner John Crosby[102] sent Austrian civil engineer William de la Barre to Hungary where he acquired innovations through industrial espionage.[103] De la Barre calculated and managed the power at the falls and encouraged steam for auxiliary power.[104] Charles Alfred Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river hired Washburn employees and began using the new methods.[103] The hard red spring wheat grown in Minnesota became valuable and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best bread flour in the world.[103] In 1900, fourteen percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis[103] and about one third of that was shipped overseas.[105] Overall production peaked at 18.5 million barrels in 1916.[106] Decades of soil exhaustion, stem rust, and changes in freight tariffs combined to quash the city's flour industry.[107] In the 1920s, Washburn-Crosby and Pillsbury developed new milling centers in Buffalo, New York, and Kansas City, Missouri, while maintaining their headquarters in Minneapolis.[108] The falls became a national historic district,[109] and the upper St. Anthony lock and dam is permanently closed.[110]

Columnist Don Morrison says that after the milling era waned, a "modern, major city" emerged.[111] In 1900, Minneapolis attracted skilled workers[112] who leveraged expertise from the university.[113] In 1923, Munsingwear was the world's largest manufacturer of underwear.[114] Frederick McKinley Jones invented mobile refrigeration in Minneapolis, and with his associate founded Thermo King in 1938.[115] In 1949, Medtronic was founded in a Minneapolis garage.[116] Minneapolis-Honeywell built a south Minneapolis campus where their experience regulating indoor temperature earned them military contracts for the Norden bombsight and the C-1 autopilot.[117] In 1957, Control Data began in downtown Minneapolis, where in the CDC 1604 they replaced vacuum tubes with transistors.[118] A highly successful business until disbanded in 1990, Control Data opened a facility in economically depressed north Minneapolis, bringing jobs and good publicity.[118] A University of Minnesota computing group released Gopher in 1991, a protocol superceded three years later when World Wide Web traffic surpassed Gopher traffic.[119]

panoramic view of Saint Anthony Falls and the Mississippi riverfront in 1915
Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915. At left, Pillsbury, power plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. Today the Minnesota Historical Society's Mill City Museum is in the Washburn "A" Mill, across the river just to the left of the falls. At center-left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall. In the right foreground are Nicollet Island and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge.

Social tensions

Main articles: List of incidents of civil unrest in Minneapolis–Saint Paul and 2020–2023 Minneapolis–Saint Paul racial unrest

group of men holding pipes confronting police on street seen from above
Battle between striking teamsters and police, 1934. The May (pictured) and subsequent July battles killed four men, two on each side.[120]

In many ways, the 20th century in Minneapolis was a difficult time of bigotry and malfeasance, beginning with four decades of corruption.[121] Known initially as a kindly physician, mayor Doc Ames made his brother police chief, ran the city into crime, and tried to leave town in 1902 according to historian Iric Nathanson.[122] The Ku Klux Klan was a force in the city from 1921[123] until 1923.[124] The gangster Kid Cann engaged in bribery and intimidation between the 1920s and the 1940s.[125] After Minnesota passed a eugenics law in 1925, the proprietors of Eitel Hospital sterilized people at Faribault State Hospital.[126]

During the summer of 1934 and the financial downturn of the Great Depression, the Citizens' Alliance, an association of employers, refused to negotiate with teamsters. The truck drivers union executed strikes in May and July–August.[127] Charles Rumford Walker said that Minneapolis teamsters succeeded in part due to the "military precision of the strike machine".[128] The union victory ultimately led to 1935 and 1938 federal laws protecting workers' rights.[129]

From the end of World War I in 1918 until 1950, antisemitism was commonplace in Minneapolis—Carey McWilliams called the city the anti-Semitic capital of the US.[130] A fascist hate group known as the Silver Shirts held meetings in the city.[131] In the 1940s, mayor Hubert Humphrey worked to rescue the city's reputation,[132] and helped the city establish the country's first fair employment practices and a human-relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities.[133] However, the lives of Black people had not been improved.[134] In 1966 and 1967—years of significant turmoil across the US—suppressed anger among the Black population was released in two disturbances on Plymouth Avenue.[135] A coalition reached a peaceful outcome but again failed to solve Black poverty and unemployment.[136]

Sign in front of tree in front of brick school in winter
The American Indian Movement's Heart of the Earth Survival School in 1983

Disparate events defined the second half of the 20th century. Between 1958 and 1963, Minneapolis demolished "skid row".[j] Gone were 35 acres (10 ha) with more than 200 buildings, or roughly 40 percent of downtown, including the Gateway District and its significant architecture, such as the Metropolitan Building.[138] In 1968, relocated Native Americans founded the American Indian Movement (AIM)[139] in Minneapolis. Begun as an alternative to public and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, AIM's Heart of the Earth Survival School taught Native American traditions to children for nearly twenty years.[140] In a backlash of the "dominant" White voters, Charles Stenvig, a law-and-order candidate, became mayor in 1969, and governed for nearly a decade.[141][142] After their marriage license was denied, a same-sex Minneapolis couple appealed all the way to the US Supreme Court in Baker v. Nelson.[143] They managed to get a license and marry in 1971,[143] forty years before Minnesota legalized same-sex marriage, and Obergefell v. Hodges did so nationwide.[144] Immigration helped to curb the city's mid-20th century population decline. But because of a few radicalized persons, the city's large Somali population was targeted with discrimination after 9/11, when its hawalas or banks were closed.[145]

In 2020, 17-year-old Darnella Frazier recorded the murder of George Floyd;[146] Frazier's video contradicted the police department's initial statement.[147] Floyd, a Black man, suffocated when Derek Chauvin, a White Minneapolis police officer, knelt on his neck and back for more than nine minutes. Reporting on the local reaction, The New York Times said that "over three nights, a five-mile stretch of Minneapolis sustained extraordinary damage"[148]—destruction included a police station that demonstrators overran and set on fire.[149] Floyd's murder sparked international rebellions, mass protests,[150] and locally, years of ongoing unrest over racial injustice.[151]

Geography

Main articles: Climate of Minnesota, Climate of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Geography of Minneapolis, and Geology of Minnesota

Clouds reflected in lake, IDS tower and downtown visible in the distance
The city's largest lake, Bde Maka Ska[152]

The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are linked to water, the city's defining physical characteristic. Long periods of glaciation and interglacial melt carved several riverbeds through what is now Minneapolis.[153] During the last glacial period, around 10,000 years ago, ice buried in these ancient river channels melted, resulting in basins that filled with water to become the lakes of Minneapolis.[154] Meltwater from Lake Agassiz fed the glacial River Warren, which created a large waterfall that eroded upriver past the confluence of the Mississippi River, where it left a 75-foot (23-meter) drop in the Mississippi.[155] This site is located in what is now downtown Saint Paul. The new waterfall, later called Saint Anthony Falls, in turn, eroded up the Mississippi about eight miles (13 kilometers) to its present location, carving the Mississippi River gorge as it moved upstream. Minnehaha Falls also developed during this period via similar processes.[156][155]

Minneapolis is sited above an artesian aquifer[157] and on flat terrain. Its total area is 59 sq mi (152.8 km2), of which six percent is covered by water.[158] The city has a 12-mile (19 km) segment of the Mississippi River, four streams, and 17 waterbodies—13 of them lakes,[159] with 24 miles (39 km) of lake shoreline.[160]

A 1959 report by the US Soil Conservation Service listed Minneapolis's elevation above mean sea level as 830 feet (250 meters).[161] The city's lowest elevation of 687 feet (209 m) above sea level is near the confluence of Minnehaha Creek with the Mississippi River.[162] Sources disagree on the exact location and elevation of the city's highest point, which is cited as being between 967 and 985 feet (295 and 300 m) above sea level.[k]

Neighborhoods

Main article: Neighborhoods of Minneapolis

See caption
Cyclists on Midtown Greenway in Midtown Phillips, one of the 83 neighborhoods of Minneapolis

Minneapolis has 83 neighborhoods and 70 neighborhood organizations.[165] In some cases, two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization.[166]

Around 1990, the city set up the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP), in which every one of the city's eighty-some neighborhoods participated.[167] Funded for 20 years through 2011, with $400 million tax increment financing (TIF),[167] the program caught the eye of UN-Habitat who considered it an example of best practices. Residents had a direct connection to government in NRP, whereby they proposed ideas appropriate for their area, and NRP reviewed the plans and provided implementation funds.[167][168] The city's Neighborhood and Community Relations department took NRP's place in 2011[169] and is funded only by city revenue. In 2019, the city released the Neighborhoods 2020 program, which reworked neighborhood funding with an equity-focused lens.[170] This reduced guaranteed funding, and several neighborhood organizations have since struggled with operations or merged with other neighborhoods due to decreased revenue.[171] In his 2024 proposed budget, the mayor suggested an increase in base funding for neighborhood organizations.[172]

In 2018, the Minneapolis City Council approved the Minneapolis 2040 Comprehensive Plan, which resulted in a city-wide end to single-family zoning.[173] Slate reported that Minneapolis was believed to be the first major city in the US to make citywide such a revision in housing possibilities.[174] At the time, 70 percent of residential land was zoned for detached, single-family homes,[175] though many of those areas had "nonconforming" buildings with more housing units.[176] City leaders sought to increase the supply of housing so more neighborhoods would be affordable and to decrease the effects single-family zoning had caused on racial disparities and segregation.[177] The Brookings Institution called it "a relatively rare example of success for the YIMBY agenda".[178] In 2023, a district court judge ruled that the plan violated the Minnesota Environmental Rights Act and that the city must abandon it.[179] In 2024, the Minnesota Court of Appeals reversed the district court ruling, the state legislature considered action, and the 2040 plan again went ahead.[180]

Climate

Minneapolis experiences a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa in the Köppen climate classification),[181] that is typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest; it is situated in USDA plant hardiness zone 5a.[182][183][184] Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers, as is typical in a continental climate. The difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is 58.1 °F (32.3 °C).

The Minneapolis area experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The highest recorded temperature is 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936 while the lowest is −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888.[185] The snowiest winter on record was 1983–1984, when 98.6 in (250 cm) of snow fell.[186] The least-snowy winter was 1930–1931, when 14.2 inches (36 cm) fell.[186] According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the annual average for sunshine duration is 58 percent.[187]

Climate data for Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport, Minnesota (1991–2020 normals,[l] extremes 1872–present)[m]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 58
(14)
65
(18)
83
(28)
95
(35)
106
(41)
104
(40)
108
(42)
103
(39)
104
(40)
92
(33)
77
(25)
68
(20)
108
(42)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 42.5
(5.8)
46.7
(8.2)
64.7
(18.2)
79.7
(26.5)
88.7
(31.5)
93.3
(34.1)
94.4
(34.7)
91.7
(33.2)
88.3
(31.3)
80.1
(26.7)
62.1
(16.7)
47.1
(8.4)
96.4
(35.8)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 23.6
(−4.7)
28.5
(−1.9)
41.7
(5.4)
56.6
(13.7)
69.2
(20.7)
79.0
(26.1)
83.4
(28.6)
80.7
(27.1)
72.9
(22.7)
58.1
(14.5)
41.9
(5.5)
28.8
(−1.8)
55.4
(13.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 16.2
(−8.8)
20.6
(−6.3)
33.3
(0.7)
47.1
(8.4)
59.5
(15.3)
69.7
(20.9)
74.3
(23.5)
71.8
(22.1)
63.5
(17.5)
49.5
(9.7)
34.8
(1.6)
22.0
(−5.6)
46.9
(8.3)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 8.8
(−12.9)
12.7
(−10.7)
24.9
(−3.9)
37.5
(3.1)
49.9
(9.9)
60.4
(15.8)
65.3
(18.5)
62.8
(17.1)
54.2
(12.3)
40.9
(4.9)
27.7
(−2.4)
15.2
(−9.3)
38.4
(3.6)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −14.7
(−25.9)
−8
(−22)
2.7
(−16.3)
21.9
(−5.6)
35.7
(2.1)
47.3
(8.5)
54.5
(12.5)
52.3
(11.3)
38.2
(3.4)
26.0
(−3.3)
9.2
(−12.7)
−7.1
(−21.7)
−16.9
(−27.2)
Record low °F (°C) −41
(−41)
−33
(−36)
−32
(−36)
2
(−17)
18
(−8)
34
(1)
43
(6)
39
(4)
26
(−3)
10
(−12)
−25
(−32)
−39
(−39)
−41
(−41)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.89
(23)
0.87
(22)
1.68
(43)
2.91
(74)
3.91
(99)
4.58
(116)
4.06
(103)
4.34
(110)
3.02
(77)
2.58
(66)
1.61
(41)
1.17
(30)
31.62
(803)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.0
(28)
9.5
(24)
8.2
(21)
3.5
(8.9)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(2.0)
6.8
(17)
11.4
(29)
51.2
(130)
Average extreme snow depth inches (cm) 8
(20)
9
(23)
8
(20)
2
(5.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(10)
7
(18)
9
(23)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.6 7.8 9.0 11.2 12.4 11.8 10.4 9.8 9.3 9.5 8.3 9.7 118.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 9.3 7.3 5.2 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 4.5 8.8 38.2
Average relative humidity (%) 69.9 69.5 67.4 60.3 60.4 63.8 64.8 67.9 70.7 68.3 72.6 74.1 67.5
Average dew point °F (°C) 4.1
(−15.5)
9.5
(−12.5)
20.7
(−6.3)
31.6
(−0.2)
43.5
(6.4)
54.7
(12.6)
60.1
(15.6)
58.3
(14.6)
49.8
(9.9)
37.9
(3.3)
25.0
(−3.9)
11.1
(−11.6)
33.9
(1.0)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 156.7 178.3 217.5 242.1 295.2 321.9 350.5 307.2 233.2 181.0 112.8 114.3 2,710.7
Percent possible sunshine 55 61 59 60 64 69 74 71 62 53 39 42 59
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[189][190][191]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[192]

Cityscape

The Minneapolis skyline rises to its highest point at the center of the image, with the three tallest buildings standing out against a clear blue sky. Before the skyline are trees, university buildings, and residential complexes.
The Minneapolis skyline seen from the Prospect Park Water Tower

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Minneapolis

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18605,809
187013,066124.9%
188046,887258.8%
1890164,738251.4%
1900202,71823.1%
1910301,40848.7%
1920380,58226.3%
1930464,35622.0%
1940492,3706.0%
1950521,7186.0%
1960482,872−7.4%
1970434,400−10.0%
1980370,951−14.6%
1990368,383−0.7%
2000382,6183.9%
2010382,5780.0%
2020429,95412.4%
2022 (est.)425,096[8]−1.1%
US Decennial Census[193]
2020 Census
Racial and ethnic composition
2020[194] 2010[194] 1990[195] 1970[195] 1950[195]
White alone 58.0% 60.3% 77.5% 92.8%
Black or African American alone 18.9% 18.3% 13.0% 4.4% 1.3%
Hispanic or Latino 10.4% 10.5% 2.1% 0.9%
Asian alone 5.8% 5.6% 4.3% 0.4% 0.2%
Other race alone 0.5% 0.3%
Two or more races 5.2% 3.4%

The Minneapolis area was originally occupied by Dakota bands, particularly the Mdewakanton, until European Americans moved westward.[196] In the 1840s,[197] new settlers arrived from Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, while French-Canadians came around the same time. [198][199] Farmers from Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania later followed in a secondary migration. Settlers from New England had an outsized influence on civic life.[200]

Mexican migrant workers began coming to Minnesota as early as 1860, although few stayed year-round.[201] Latinos eventually settled in several neighborhoods in Minneapolis, including Phillips, Whittier, Longfellow and Northeast.[202] Before the turn of the 21st century, Latinos were the state's largest and fastest-growing immigrant group.[201][203]

Immigrants from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark found common ground with the Republican and Protestant belief systems of the New England migrants who preceded them.[204][205] Irish, Scots, and English immigrants arrived after the Civil War;[206] Germans[207] and Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Russia, followed.[208] Minneapolis welcomed Italians and Greeks in the 1890s and 1900s,[209][210] and Slovak and Czech immigrants settled in the Bohemian Flats area on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Ukrainians arrived after 1900,[211] and Central European migrants made their homes in the Northeast neighborhood.[212]

Chinese began immigration in the 1870s and Chinese businesses centered on the Gateway District and Glenwood Avenue.[213] Westminster Presbyterian Church gave language classes and support for Chinese Americans in Minneapolis, many of whom had fled discrimination in western states.[214] Japanese Americans, many relocated from San Francisco, worked at Camp Savage, a secret military Japanese-language school that trained interpreters and translators.[215] Following World War II, some Japanese and Japanese Americans remained in Minneapolis, and by 1970, they numbered nearly 2,000, forming part of the state's largest Asian American community.[216] In the 1950s, the US government relocated Native Americans to cities like Minneapolis, attempting to dismantle Indian reservations.[217] Around 1970, Koreans arrived,[218] and the first Filipinos came to attend the University of Minnesota.[219] Vietnamese, Hmong (some from Thailand), Lao, and Cambodians settled mainly in Saint Paul around 1975, but some built organizations in Minneapolis.[220][221] In 1992, 160 Tibetan immigrants came to Minnesota, and many settled in the city's Whittier neighborhood.[222] Burmese immigrants arrived in the early 2000s, with some moving to Greater Minnesota.[223] The population of people from India in Minneapolis increased by 1,000 between 2000 and 2010, making it the largest concentration of Indians living in the state.[224]

The population of Minneapolis grew until 1950 when the census peaked at 521,718—the only time it has exceeded a half million. The population then declined for decades; after World War II, people moved to the suburbs, and generally out of the Midwest.[225]

By 1930, Minneapolis had one of the nation's highest literacy rates among Black residents.[226][227][228] However, discrimination prevented them from obtaining higher-paying jobs.[229] In 1935, Cecil Newman and the Minneapolis Spokesman led a year-long consumer boycott of four area breweries that refused to hire Blacks.[230] Employment improved during World War II, but housing discrimination persisted.[231] Between 1950 and 1970, the Black population in Minneapolis increased by 436 percent.[230] After the Rust Belt economy declined in the 1980s, Black migrants were attracted to Minneapolis for its job opportunities, good schools, and safe neighborhoods.[232] In the 1990s, immigrants from the Horn of Africa began to arrive,[233] from Eritrea, Ethiopia, and particularly Somalia.[234] Immigration from Somalia slowed significantly following a 2017 national executive order.[235] As of 2022, about 3,000 Ethiopians and 20,000 Somalis reside in Minneapolis.[236]

The Williams Institute reported that the Twin Cities had an estimated 4.2% LGBT adult population in 2020.[237] In 2023, the Human Rights Campaign gave Minneapolis 94 points out of 100 on the Municipal Equality Index of support for the LGBTQ+ population.[238] Twin Cities Pride is held in May.[239]

Census and estimates

Minneapolis is the largest city in Minnesota and the 46th largest city in the United States by population as of 2023.[240][241] According to the 2020 US Census, Minneapolis had a population of 429,954.[242] Of this population, 44,513 (10.4 percent) identified as Hispanic and Latinos.[243] Of those not Hispanic or Latino, 249,581 people (58.0 percent) were White alone (62.7 percent White alone or in combination), 81,088 (18.9 percent) were Black or African American alone (21.3 percent Black alone or in combination), 24,929 (5.8 percent) were Asian alone, 7,433 (1.2 percent) were American Indian and Alaska Native alone, 25,387 (0.6 percent) some other race alone, and 34,463 (5.2 percent) were multiracial.[242]

The most common ancestries in Minneapolis according to the 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) were German (22.9 percent), Irish (10.8 percent), Norwegian (8.9 percent), Subsaharan African (6.7 percent), and Swedish (6.1 percent).[244] Among those five years and older, 81.2 percent spoke only English at home, while 7.1 percent spoke Spanish and 11.7 percent spoke other languages, including large numbers of Somali and Hmong speakers.[244] About 13.7 percent of the population was born abroad, with 53.2 percent of them being naturalized US citizens. Most immigrants arrived from Africa (40.6 percent), Asia (24.6 percent), and Latin America (25.2 percent), with 34.6 percent of all foreign-born residents having arrived in 2010 or earlier.[244]

The 2021 ACS reported that the median household income in Minneapolis was $69,397. It was $97,670 for families, $123,693 for married couples, and $54,083 for non-family households.[245][246] The median gross rent in Minneapolis was $1,225, and 92.7 percent of housing units in Minneapolis were occupied. Housing units in the city built in 1939 or earlier comprised 43.7 percent.[247] About 15.0 percent of residents lived in poverty.[248] The percentage of residents who had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher was 53.6 percent, and 92.1 percent had at least a high school diploma.[249] US veterans made up 3.2 percent of the population.[244]

In Minneapolis, while African Americans comprised approximately 20% of the population as of 2020, Blacks owned homes at a rate one-third that of White families.[250][242] In the metro area, Black home ownership declined between 2000 and 2018; in the Twin Cities for that period, 93 percent of new Black households rented their homes.[251] In 2018, the median income for a Black family was $36,000, which was $47,000 less than a White family's median income. This income gap was one of the largest in the country, with Black Minneapolitans earning about 44% of what White Minneapolitans earned annually.[250]

Structural racism

Before 1910,[134] when a developer wrote the first restrictive covenant based on race and ethnicity into a Minneapolis deed,[252] the city was relatively unsegregated with a Black population of less than one percent.[253] Realtors adopted the practice, thousands of times preventing non-Whites from owning or leasing properties;[254] this practice continued for four decades until the city became more and more racially divided.[255] Though such language was prohibited by state law in 1953 and by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968,[256] restrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as of the 2020s, and in 2021 the city gave residents a means to discharge them.[257]

Minneapolis has a history of structural racism[258] and has racial disparities in nearly every aspect of society.[259] Some historians and commentators have said White Minneapolitans used discrimination based on race against the city's non-White residents. As White settlers displaced the Indigenous population during the 19th century, they claimed the city's land,[260] and Kirsten Delegard of Mapping Prejudice explains that today's disparities evolved from control of the land.[134] Discrimination increased when flour milling moved to the East Coast and the economy declined.[261] The I-35W highway built in 1959 under the Interstate Highway System[262] cut through Black and Mexican neighborhoods.[263]

The foundation laid by racial covenants on residential segregation, property value, homeownership, wealth, housing security, access to green spaces, trees and parks, and health equity shapes the lives of people in the 21st century.[264] The city wrote in a decennial plan that racially discriminatory federal housing policies starting in the 1930s "prevented access to mortgages in areas with Jews, African-Americans and other minorities", and "left a lasting effect on the physical characteristics of the city and the financial well-being of its residents."[265]

Discussing a Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis report on how systemic racism compromises education in Minnesota,[266] Professor Keith Mayes says, "So the housing disparities created the educational disparities that we still live with today."[267] Professor Samuel Myers Jr. says of redlining, "Policing policies evolved that substituted explicit racial profiling with scientific management of racially disparate arrests. ... racially discriminatory policies became institutionalized and 'baked in' to the fabric of Minnesota life."[268][n] In 2020, government efforts to address these disparities include declaring racism a public health emergency,[270] and zoning changes passed by the 2018 Minneapolis City Council 2040 plan.[271]

Religion

See also: Religion in Minnesota

Christ Church with its tower and cross
Christ Church Lutheran is one of the city's four National Historic Landmarks.[272]

Twin Cities residents are 70 percent Christian according to the most recent Pew Research Center religious survey in 2014.[273] Settlers who arrived in Minneapolis from New England were for the most part Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists.[274] The oldest continuously used church, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.[275] St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887;[276] it opened a missionary school and in 1905 created a Russian Orthodox seminary.[277] Edwin Hawley Hewitt designed St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church, both of which are located south of downtown.[278] The Basilica of Saint Mary, the first basilica in the US and co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, was named by Pope Pius XI in 1926.[274] The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association was headquartered in Minneapolis from the 1950s until 2001.[279] Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood was the final work in the career of Eliel Saarinen, and has an education building designed by his son Eero.[280]

Aligning with a national trend, the metro area's next largest group after Christians is the 23 percent non-religious population.[273] At the same time, more than 50 denominations and religions are present in Minneapolis, representing most of the world's religions.[274] Temple Israel was built in 1928 by the city's first Jewish congregation, Shaarai Tov, which formed in 1878.[208] By 1959, a Temple of Islam was located in north Minneapolis.[281] In 1971, a reported 150 persons attended classes at a Hindu temple near the university.[281] In 1972, a relief agency resettled the first Shi'a Muslim family from Uganda in the Twin Cities.[282] Somalis who live in Minneapolis are primarily Sunni Muslim.[283] In 2022, Minneapolis amended its noise ordinance to allow broadcasting the Muslim call to prayer five times per day.[284] The city has about seven Buddhist centers and meditation centers.[285]

Economy

See also: Economy of Minnesota

Largest downtown
Minneapolis employers[286]
2023
Rank Company/Organization
1 Hennepin Healthcare
2 Target Corporation
3 Hennepin County
4 Wells Fargo
5 Ameriprise Financial
6 U.S. Bancorp
7 Xcel Energy
8 City of Minneapolis
9 SPS Commerce
10 RBC Wealth Management
Largest Minneapolis companies by revenue 2023[287]
Minneapolis
rank
Corporation US rank Revenue
(in millions)
1 Target Corporation 33 $109,120
2 U.S. Bancorp 149 $27,401
3 Xcel Energy 271 $15,310
4 Ameriprise Financial 289 $14,347
5 Thrivent 412 $9,347

Early in the city's history, millers were required to pay for wheat with cash during the growing season, and then to store the wheat until it was needed for flour.[288] The Minneapolis Grain Exchange was founded in 1881; located near the riverfront, it is the only exchange as of 2023 for hard red spring wheat futures.[289]

Along with cash requirements for the milling industry, the large amounts of capital that lumbering had accumulated stimulated the local banking industry and made Minneapolis a major financial center.[290] The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan; it has the smallest population of the twelve districts in the Federal Reserve System, and has one branch in Helena, Montana.[291]

Minneapolis area employment is primarily in trade, transportation, utilities, education, health services, and professional and business services. Smaller numbers of residents are employed in manufacturing, leisure and hospitality, mining, logging, and construction.[292]

In 2022, the Twin Cities metropolitan area tied with Boston as having the eighth-highest concentration of major corporate headquarters in the US.[293] Five Fortune 500 corporations were headquartered within the city limits of Minneapolis:[287] Target Corporation, U.S. Bancorp, Ameriprise Financial, Xcel Energy, and Thrivent.[287] Other companies with offices or headquarters in Minneapolis include Accenture,[294] Bellisio Foods,[295] Canadian Pacific,[296] Coloplast,[297] RBC,[298] Deloitte,[299] PricewaterhouseCoopers,[300] and Voya Financial.[301]

Arts and culture

Visual arts

Main article: Arts in Minneapolis

center of imposing facade of a block-long, white classical building
The Minneapolis Institute of Art admission is free except for special exhibitions.[302]

During the Gilded Age, the Walker Art Center began as a private art collection in the home of lumberman T. B. Walker who extended free admission to the public.[303] Around 1940, the center's focus shifted to modern and contemporary art.[304] In partnership with the Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board, the Walker operates the adjacent Minneapolis Sculpture Garden which has about forty sculptures on view year-round.[305]

The Minneapolis Institute of Art (Mia) is located in south-central Minneapolis on the 10-acre (4 ha) former homestead of the Morrison family.[306] The collection of more than 90,000 artworks spans six continents and about 5,000 years.[307] Perhaps reflecting the ambitions of the founders, competition winner McKim, Mead & White designed a complex seven times the size of what opened in 1915.[308]

Frank Gehry designed Weisman Art Museum, which opened in 1993, for the University of Minnesota.[309] A 2011 addition by Gehry doubled the size of the galleries.[310] The Museum of Russian Art opened in a restored church in 2005, and hosts a collection of 20th-century Russian art and special events.[311] The Northeast Minneapolis Arts District hosts 400 independent artists, a center at the Northrup-King building, and presents the Art-A-Whirl open studio tour every May.[312][313]

Theater and performing arts

Main article: List of theaters in Minnesota

Midnight blue modern building seen from green area
The Guthrie Theater originated as an alternative to Broadway.[314]

Minneapolis has hosted theatrical performances since the end of the American Civil War.[315] Early theaters included Pence Opera House, the Academy of Music, Grand Opera House, Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894.[316] Fifteen of the fifty-five Twin Cities theater companies counted in 2015 by Peg Guilfoyle had a physical site in Minneapolis. About half the remainder performed in variable spaces throughout the metropolitan area.[317]

In his social history of American regional theater, Joseph Zeigler calls the Guthrie Theater the "granddaddy" of regional theater.[318] Tyrone Guthrie founded the Guthrie in 1963 with an inventive thrust stage—a collaboration by Guthrie, designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch, and architect Ralph Rapson[319]—jutting into the seats and surrounded by the audience on three sides.[320] French architect Jean Nouvel designed a new Guthrie that opened in 2006 overlooking the Mississippi River.[320] The design team reproduced the thrust stage with some alterations, and they added a proscenium stage and an experimental stage.[320]

Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, the Shubert (now the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts), State, and Pantages Theatres, vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue that are now used for concerts, plays,[321] and performing arts.[322] Every August, the Minnesota Fringe Festival hosts performances in venues across town.[323] The May Day Parade is held in south Minneapolis each May.[324]

Music

Main article: Music of Minnesota

Hip height portrait of Prince playing guitar at night wearing white suit with metallic silver ornament
Prince studied at the Minnesota Dance Theatre[325] through the Minneapolis Public Schools.[326]

Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under music director Thomas Søndergård.[327] The orchestra won a 2014 Grammy for their recording of Symphonies Nos. 1 & 4 by Sibelius,[328] and a 2004 Grammy for composer Dominick Argento with their recording of Casa Guidi.[329] Minneapolis's opera companies include Minnesota Opera,[330] the Gilbert & Sullivan Very Light Opera Company,[331] and Really Spicy Opera.[332]

Singer and multi-instrumentalist Prince was a child prodigy,[333] born in Minneapolis and an area resident for most of his life.[334] Minneapolis became what Pitchfork called the "center of music in the '80s" thanks to the nightclub First Avenue and musicians like Prince, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacements.[335] The city hosts several other concert venues including the Cedar and the Dakota,[336] and Live Nation books the Armory and the Uptown Theater.[337]

Historical museums

The phrase "Black Lives Matter" is displayed on a road. Inside each letter is a different artistic design.
Black Lives Matter mural (2020) organized by the Minnesota African American Heritage Museum and Gallery[338]

Exhibits at Mill City Museum feature the city's history of flour milling.[339] The Bakken, formerly known as the Bakken Library and Museum of Electricity in Life,[340] shifted focus in 2016 from electricity and magnetism to invention and innovation, and in 2020 opened a new entrance on Bde Maka Ska.[341] Hennepin History Museum is housed in a former mansion.[342] Minnehaha Depot was built in 1875.[343]

The American Swedish Institute occupies a former mansion on Park Avenue.[344] The American Indian Cultural Corridor, about eight blocks on Franklin Avenue, houses All My Relatives Gallery.[345] In 2013, the Somali Museum of Minnesota opened on Lake Street.[346] The Minnesota African American Heritage Museum and Gallery was founded in 2018.[347]

Libraries and literary arts

In 2008, the Minneapolis Public Library merged with the Hennepin County Library. Fifteen of the system's 41 branches serve Minneapolis.[348] The downtown Central Library, designed by César Pelli, opened in 2006.[349] Seven special collections hold resources for researchers.[350]

The nonprofit literary presses Coffee House Press, Graywolf Press, and Milkweed Editions are based in Minneapolis.[351] The University of Minnesota Press publishes books, journals, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.[352] The Open Book facility houses The Loft Literary Center, Milkweed, and the Minnesota Center for Book Arts.[353] Other Minneapolis publishers are 1517 Media,[354] Button Poetry,[355] and Lerner Publishing Group.[356]

Cuisine

See also: Cuisine of the Midwestern United States § Minneapolis and Saint Paul

After the flight to the suburbs began in the 1950s, streetcar service ended citywide.[357] One of the largest urban food deserts in the US developed on the north side of Minneapolis, where as of mid-2017, 70,000 people had access to only two grocery stores.[358] When Aldi closed in 2023, the area again became a food desert with two full-service grocers.[359] The nonprofit Appetite for Change sought to improve the diet of residents, competing against an influx of fast-food stores,[360] and by 2017 it administered ten gardens, sold produce in the mid-year months at West Broadway Farmers Market, supplied its restaurants, and gave away boxes of fresh produce.[361] West Broadway is one of twenty farmers markets and mini-markets operating in the city, and among them, four are open during winter.[362]

Minneapolis-based individuals who have won the food industry James Beard Foundation Award include chef Gavin Kaysen,[363] writer Dara Moskowitz Grumdahl,[364] television personality Andrew Zimmern,[365] and chef Sean Sherman,[366] whose restaurant Owamni received James Beard's 2022 best new restaurant award.[367]

Conceived in Minneapolis as a malted milkshake in candy form, the Milky Way bar of nougat, caramel, and chocolate was made in the North Loop neighborhood during the 1920s.[368] Both purported originators of the Jucy Lucy burger—the 5-8 Club and Matt's Bar—have served it since the 1950s.[369] East African cuisine arrived in Minneapolis with the wave of migrants from Somalia that started in the 1990s.[370] The Herbivorous Butcher, described by CBS News as the "first vegan 'butcher' shop in the United States", opened in 2016.[371]

Sports

Main articles: Sports in Minneapolis–Saint Paul and Sports in Minnesota

Minneapolis has four professional sports teams. The American football team Minnesota Vikings and the baseball team Minnesota Twins have played in the state since 1961. The Vikings were a National Football League expansion team and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota.[372] The Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991, and have played at Target Field since 2010.[373] The Vikings played in the Super Bowl following the 1969, 1973, 1974, and 1976 seasons, losing all four games.[374] The basketball team Minnesota Timberwolves returned National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball to Minneapolis in 1989, and were followed by Minnesota Lynx in 1999. Both basketball teams play in the Target Center.[375] In the 2010s, the Lynx were the most-successful Minnesota professional sports team and a dominant force in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA), winning four WNBA championships from 2011 to 2017.[376]

Minnesota Wild, a National Hockey League team, play at the Xcel Energy Center;[377] and the Major League Soccer soccer team Minnesota United FC play at Allianz Field, both of which are located in Saint Paul.[378]

In addition to professional sports teams, Minneapolis hosts a majority of the Minnesota Golden Gophers' college sports teams of the University of Minnesota. The Gophers football team plays at Huntington Bank Stadium and have won seven national championships.[379] The Gophers women's ice hockey team is a six-time NCAA champion.[380] The Gophers men's ice hockey team plays at 3M Arena at Mariucci, and won five NCAA championships.[381] Both the Golden Gophers men's basketball and women's basketball teams play at Williams Arena.[382]

Six golf courses are located within the Minneapolis city limits.[383] The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m2) U.S. Bank Stadium was built for the Vikings at a cost of $1.122 billion, $348 million of which was provided by the state of Minnesota and $150 million by the city of Minneapolis. The stadium, which was called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project", opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, which was expanded to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl.[384] U.S. Bank Stadium also hosts indoor running and rollerblading nights.[385] Each January, the U.S. Pond Hockey Championships are held on Lake Nokomis.[386] The Twin Cities Marathon held in October is a Boston Marathon qualifier.[387]

Parks and recreation

Main article: Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board

Seven young people in canoe, shoreline is green, women paddling, all wearing life vests, bridge span and university visible behind them
Canoeing on the Mississippi

Landscape architect Horace Cleveland's "crowning achievement" is the Minneapolis park system.[388] In the 1880s, he preserved geographical landmarks and linked them with boulevards and parkways.[389] In their introduction to a modern reprint of Cleveland's treatise on landscape architecture, Nadenicek and Neckar add that "Cleveland was successful in Minneapolis in great measure because he operated with kindred spirits" like William Watts Folwell and Charles M. Loring.[390] In his book The American City: What Works, What Doesn't, Alexander Garvin wrote Minneapolis built "the best-located, best-financed, best-designed, and best-maintained public open space in America".[391]

The city's parks are governed and operated by the independent Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board park district.[392] Beyond its network of 185 neighborhood parks,[393] the park board owns the city's canopy of trees,[394] and nearly all land that borders the city's waterfronts.[395] The park board owns property outside the city limits including the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary which is part of its largest park, Theodore Wirth Park, shared with Golden Valley, Minnesota.[396]

Minnehaha Falls in the summer

As of 2020, approximately 15 percent of land in Minneapolis is parks, in accordance with the national median, and 98 percent of residents live within one-half mile (0.8 km) of a park.[397] The city's Chain of Lakes, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bicycle paths, and running and walking paths, and is used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians[398] run parallel along the 51-mile (82 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.[399] The Minneapolis Aquatennial, a festival of the city's water features, is held each July.[400] Parks are interlinked in many places, and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers.[401] Among walks and hikes running along the Mississippi River, the five-mile (8 km), hiking-only Winchell Trail offers views of and access to the Mississippi Gorge and a rustic hiking experience.[402]

Cleveland lobbied for a park on the riverfront to include the city's other waterfall.[403] In 1889, George A. Brackett arranged financing, and his associate Henry Brown paid the state to cover the condemnation of surrounding land.[404] The 53-foot (16 m) waterfall Minnehaha Falls is one of Minnesota's first state parks.[405] The falls became what historian Mary Lethert Wingerd calls a "civic emblem", appearing on products and in placenames.[406]

Minneapolis's climate provides opportunities for winter activities such as ice fishing, snowshoeing, ice skating, cross-country skiing, and sledding at many parks and lakes between December and March.[407] Scaling back on skate rental and warming houses since the COVID-19 pandemic, as of 2021, the park board maintained 20 outdoor ice rinks in winter.[408]

Government

Main articles: Minneapolis City Council, Government of Minneapolis, Minneapolis Police Department, Timeline of race relations and policing in Minneapolis–Saint Paul, and 2021 Minneapolis Question 2

A photograph of the Minneapolis City Hall
Built between 1889 and 1906, Minneapolis City Hall (seen from The People's Plaza) is on the National Register of Historic Places.[409]

The Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL), affiliated with the Democratic Party, is the dominant political force in Minneapolis. The city has not elected a Republican mayor since 1975.[410] At the federal level, Minneapolis is in Minnesota's 5th congressional district, which has been represented by Democrat Ilhan Omar since 2018. Both of Minnesota’s US Senators, Amy Klobuchar and Tina Smith, are Democrats who were elected or appointed while residing in Minneapolis.[411][412] Jacob Frey, a former DFL city council member, was elected as the mayor of Minneapolis in 2017 and re-elected in 2021.[413] The city conducts its municipal elections using instant-runoff voting, which was first implemented ahead of the 2009 elections.[414]

The Minneapolis City Council has 13 members who represent the city's 13 wards.[415] In 2021, a ballot question shifted more weight from the city council to the mayor, a change that proponents had tried to achieve since the early 20th century.[416] The mayor and city council now share responsibility for the city's finances.[417] The city's primary source of funding is property tax,[418] and there is a sales tax of 9.03 percent[419] on purchases made within the city, which is a combination of state, county, special district taxes, a city sales tax of 0.50 percent, and a local use tax for out-of-state purchases.[420][421] The Park and Recreation Board is an independent city department with nine elected commissioners who levy their own taxes, subject to city charter limits.[392] The Board of Estimation and Taxation, which oversees city levies, is also an independent department.[422]

The restructured mayor's role created a new Minneapolis Office of Community Safety, with its commissioner overseeing the police and fire departments, 911 dispatch, emergency management, and violence prevention.[423] Within the office, four emergency response units serve the city: Behavioral Crisis Response (BCR), fire, emergency medical services, and police.[424] Canopy Mental Health & Consulting, also known as Canopy Roots, operates BCR free of charge [424] to respond to crises and some 911 calls that do not require police.[425]

A half-dozen officers wearing light blue shirts, black gas masks and black bullet-proof vests, carrying long tear gas launchers, standing in front of a corner brick and glass building with boarded up windows, identified with the seal of Minneapolis and "Minneapolis Police" in large white letters
Police guard the third precinct the day before it was burned down during the George Floyd protests.

After the murder of George Floyd in 2020, about 166 police officers left of their own accord either to retirement or to temporary leave—many with PTSD[426]—and a crime wave resulted in more than 500 shootings.[427] A Reuters investigation found that killings surged when a "hands-off" attitude resulted in fewer officer-initiated encounters.[428] After Floyd's murder, chiefs reprimanded a dozen officers for misconduct[429] and the city had paid out US$50 million for police conduct claims through early 2024.[430] Violent crime rose three percent across Minneapolis in July 2022 compared with 2021,[431] and in 2020, it rose 21 percent compared to the average of the previous five years.[432] Violent crime was down for 2022 in every category except assaults. Carjackings, gunshots fired, gunshot wounds, and robberies decreased, and homicides were down 20 percent compared to the previous year.[433] In 2024 came approval of an independent monitor of the court-enforceable consent decree, an agreement negotiated with the Minnesota Department of Human Rights and the United States Department of Justice to compel reformed policing practices.[434]

In 2015, the city council passed a resolution making fossil fuel divestment city policy,[435] joining 17 cities worldwide in the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance. Minneapolis's climate plan calls for an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.[436] In 2021, the city council voted unanimously to abolish its required minimum number of parking spaces for new construction.[437] Minneapolis has a separation ordinance that directs local law-enforcement officers not to "take any law enforcement action" for the sole purpose of finding undocumented immigrants, nor to ask an individual about his or her immigration status.[438]

Education

Primary and secondary

Volunteer missionaries,[439] the Pond brothers received permission from the US Indian agency[440] at Fort Snelling in 1834 to teach new farming techniques and a new religion to Chief Cloud Man and his community on the east shore of Bde Maka Ska.[274] That year, J. D. Stevens and the Ponds built an Indian mission near Lake Harriet, which was the first educational institution in Minneapolis.[274] In the treaty of 1837, the US promised payment to the Dakota but instead gave the monies to the missionaries earmarked for education, and in protest, fewer than ten Dakota students attended.[441] When more settlers moved to the area, by 1874, ten school buildings served nearly 4,000 students. The city of Minneapolis joined with St. Anthony and by 1922, together they enrolled 70,000 students.[442]

Teacher faces a full classroom, children raising arms to speak, teacher is holding a sign that says "Aislador" (insulator)
Dual language science outreach at Emerson, one of nine[443] magnet elementary schools

Minneapolis Public Schools served 28,689 K–12 students as of October 2022,[444] in more than fifty schools, divided between community and magnet.[445] As of 2023, enrollment was declining about 1.5 percent per year, and approximately 60 percent of school age children attended district schools.[444] Many students enrolled in alternatives such as charter schools, of which the city has thirty as of 2023.[446] By state law, charter schools are open to all students and are tuition free.[447] In 2022, about 1200 at-risk students attended district Contract Alternative Schools.[448]

The public school district adopted a comprehensive district design beginning with the 2020–2021 school year to address academics, equity, financial sustainability, and to end disadvantages for students of color and students from low-income neighborhoods.[445] School district demographics were 41 percent White students, 35 percent Black students, 14 percent Hispanic, and 5 percent each were Asian and Native American.[449] English-language learners were about 17 percent,[449] in a district that spoke 100 languages at home.[450] About 15 percent were special education students.[449] As of fall 2023, every public school student in the state receives one free breakfast and one free lunch each school day.[451] In 2022, the district's graduation rate was 77 percent, an improvement of three percent over the previous year.[452]

Colleges and universities

See also: Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system

striking geometric metallic building in front of more traditional ones
University of Minnesota teaching art museum, teaching hospital, and student union (left to right)

The University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus is headquartered in Minneapolis.[453] With more than 50,000 students in 2023, it is the sixth largest campus in the US by enrollment.[454] College rankings for 2023 place the school in the range of 44th[455] (2024) to 195th for academics worldwide.[454][453] QS found a decline in rank over a decade.[453] Shanghai found excellence in ecology and library & information science.[455] Among the 2,000 schools U.S. News & World Report compared in its 2022–2023 best global universities rankings, the University of Minnesota was 57th.[456] After closing in 1858, the University of Minnesota was revived using land taken from the Dakota people under the Morrill Land-Grant Acts in 1862.[457][o] The school has unusual autonomy that has existed in Minnesota since 1858, when the state constitution included the provision: regents are in control, independent of city government.[460]

Augsburg University, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges; the first two offer master's programs.[461] The public two-year Minneapolis Community and Technical College[462] and the private Dunwoody College of Technology[463] provide career training and associate degrees and the latter offers a bachelor's program. Saint Mary's University of Minnesota has a Twin Cities campus for its graduate and professional programs.[464] Opening a new Minneapolis site in 2024, Red Lake Nation College is an accredited federally recognized tribal college site that teaches Ojibwe culture.[465] The large, principally online universities Capella University[466] and Walden University[467] are both headquartered in the city. The public four-year Metropolitan State University[468] and the private four-year University of St. Thomas[469] are post-secondary institutions based elsewhere that have campuses in Minneapolis. The city has more than twenty-five licensed career schools.[470]

Media

Main article: Media in Minneapolis–Saint Paul

As of March 2024, Minnesota Newspaper Association members who publish in Minneapolis include Insight News, Finance & Commerce, Longfellow Nokomis Messenger, Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, Minnesota Women's Press, North News, Northeaster, Southwest Connector, Star Tribune, and St. Paul – Midway Como Frogtown Monitor.[471] La Prensa de Minnesota,[472] Vida y Sabor,[473] and The American Jewish World[474] are published in the city.[475] Other papers are Southwest Voices,[476] Streets.mn,[477] Bring Me The News,[478] Racket,[479] MinnPost,[480] and Minnesota Daily.[481]

Media Tales called Minnesota a "plentiful" source of national trade magazines; companies in Minneapolis publish Foodservice News and Franchise Times.[482] Some other magazines published in the city are American Craft;[483] business publications Enterprise Minnesota[484] and Twin Cities Business;[485] the literary journal Rain Taxi;[486] university student publications Great River Review,[487] Minnesota Journal of International Law,[488] and Minnesota Law Review;[489] and professional magazines Architecture Minnesota,[490] Bench & Bar,[491] and Minnesota Medicine.[492]

In 2023, Nielsen found the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area to be the 15th largest designated market area, down from 14th in 2022.[493] About 75 radio stations may be heard in the Minneapolis market, some of them distantly.[494] The Twin Cities have 1,742,530 TV homes.[495] TV Guide lists 151 TV channels for Minneapolis.[496]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Main articles: Transportation in Minnesota, Metro (Minnesota), and Trails in Minneapolis

Yellow and blue light rail train travels downhill across a grade crossing; a pedestrian bridge is behind
A Metro Blue Line train traveling from the Lake Street/Midtown station

The 2020 census found that the average commute to work for the Minneapolis population was 22 minutes.[497] The most common means of transportation to work was driving alone (45 percent), the least common was bicycling (1.7 percent), and others were carpooling (6.5 percent), taking public transit (5.6 percent), and walking (4.8 percent).[497]

A division of the Metropolitan Council, Metro Transit operates public transportation in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area.[498] The system has two light rail lines, one commuter rail line, about six bus rapid transit (BRT) lines,[499] and about 90 bus lines with over 8,000 stops.[500] As of 2021, riders of Metro Transit system-wide were 44 percent persons of color.[501] Bus ridership in the Twin Cities was 91.6 million in 2019, a three-percent decline over the previous year and part of a national trend in falling local bus ridership, while commuter rides were down, and ridership on light rail and BRTs remained steady or grew slightly.[502]

The Metro Blue Line light rail line connects the Mall of America and Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport in Bloomington to downtown, and the Green Line travels from downtown through the University of Minnesota campus to downtown Saint Paul. A Blue Line extension to the northwest suburbs re-entered the planning stages for a new route alignment in 2020.[503] A Green Line extension is planned to connect downtown with the southwestern suburbs.[p] BRT lines are 25 percent faster than regular bus lines because riders pay before boarding, stops are limited, and sometimes they employ signal prioritization.[505] The newest BRT line, the D Line, runs along one of Minnesota's most used bus lines, the 18-mile (29 km) route 5, where a quarter of households do not have access to a car.[505] The 40-mile (64 km) Northstar Commuter rail runs from Big Lake, Minnesota, to downtown Minneapolis. Commuter rides decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and as of 2023, service cut back to four from twelve daily trips.[506]

Person on a bike waiting at a stoplight in the snow.
A cyclist in winter

Hundreds of homeless people nightly sought shelter on Green Line trains until overnight service was cut back in 2019.[507] Short more than a hundred police officers, in 2022, the Metro Council hired community groups to help police light rail stations; these non-profits can guide passengers to mental health services and shelters.[508] In 2023, crime in the Metro Transit system spiked 32% over the previous January, but for the year, ridership was up 15% to about 60% of the pre-pandemic level.[508] In 2007, the Interstate 35W bridge over the Mississippi, which was overloaded with 300 short tons (270,000 kg) of repair materials, collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145. The bridge was rebuilt in 14 months.[509]

Evie Carshare, owned by Minneapolis and Saint Paul since 2022, is a fleet of 145 electric cars available for one-way trips in a 35-square-mile (91 km2) area of the Twin Cities.[510] Replacing Nice Ride in 2023, for part of the year Lime, Spin and Veo had bicycles and scooters for rent with an app.[511]

Minneapolis has 16 miles (26 km) of on-street protected bikeways, 98 miles (158 km) of bike lanes and 101 miles (163 km) of off-street bikeways and trails.[512] Off-street facilities include the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway, Midtown Greenway, Little Earth Trail, Hiawatha LRT Trail, Kenilworth Trail, and Cedar Lake Trail.[513] The Minneapolis Skyway System, 9.5 miles (15.3 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, links 80 city blocks downtown with access to second-floor restaurants, retailers, government, sports facilities, doctor's offices and other businesses that are open on weekdays.[514] Fifteen commercial passenger airlines serve Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP).[515] MSP is the headquarters of Sun Country Airlines.[516] After it merged with Northwest Airlines in 2009, Delta Air Lines flew 80% of the airport's traffic,[517] and MSP was Delta's second-largest US hub.[518]

Services and utilities

Waist high portrait of young woman wearing electric green shirt and navy blue baseball cap standing on Marquette Av downtown
Downtown Improvement District ambassador

Xcel Energy supplies electricity,[519] and CenterPoint Energy provides gas.[519] The water supply is managed by four watershed districts that correspond with the Mississippi and three streams that are river tributaries.[520]

The city has nineteen fire stations.[521] Requests for non-emergency information or service requests can be made through Minneapolis 311. The call center operates in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Somali, and offers 220 language options.[522] Email, TTY, text, voice, and a mobile app can access the center.[523]

The Minneapolis Department of Public Works is responsible for services including snow plowing, solid waste removal, traffic and parking, water treatment, transportation planning and maintenance, and fleet services for the city.[524] Among its engineering functions, the department was increasing the capacity of a 4,200-foot (1,300 m) storm water tunnel system 80 feet (24 m) under Washington to Chicago Avenues, and had completed 97 percent of the excavation phase and 41 percent of the lining phase as of August 2023.[525] Designed for downtown's concrete landscape, the system will drain runoff into the Mississippi in case of a 100-year storm.[526]

Downtown Improvement District ambassadors, who are identified by their blue-and-green-yellow fluorescent jackets, daily patrol a 120-block area of downtown to greet and assist visitors, remove trash, monitor property, and call police when they are needed. The ambassador program is a public-private partnership that is paid for by a special downtown tax district.[527]

Health care

See also: COVID-19 pandemic in Minnesota and COVID-19 pandemic in Minnesota § Economy

Four story cement colored pillars frame building with black windows, seen from across the street, three cars in front
Hennepin County Medical Center has the state's busiest emergency room.[528]

Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Children's Minnesota, Hennepin Healthcare, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Medical Center, M Health Fairview University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, and Phillips Eye Institute serve the city.[529]

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Heart Hospital,[530] where by 1957, more than 200 patients—most of whom were children—had survived open-heart operations.[531] Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.[532]

Hennepin Healthcare, a public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center,[533] opened in 1887 as City Hospital, and has been known as Minneapolis General Hospital, Hennepin County General Hospital, and Hennepin County Medical Center or HCMC.[534]

In 2021, opioid overdoses killed 197 people in Minneapolis.[535] For the state in 2021, Black persons were three times and Native American persons were ten times more likely to die from an opioid overdose than White persons.[536] The mayor's proposed 2024 budget added funds for the Turning Point treatment center, that provides care specifically for African Americans.[537] The Red Lake Band of Chippewa is building a culturally sensitive treatment center for opioid and fentanyl addiction. Minneapolis transferred two city-owned properties to the Red Lake Nation for the facility.[538][539]

The Mashkiki Waakaa'igan Pharmacy—funded by the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa—dispenses free prescription drugs and culturally sensitive care to members of any federally recognized tribes living in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, regardless of insurance status.[540]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Minneapolis

Sister cities

Minneapolis's sister cities are:[541]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pronounced /ˌmɪniˈæpəlɪs/ MIN-ee-AP-ə-liss)[12]
  2. ^ Because President Thomas Jefferson had not authorized Pike's trip, which was made at the behest of James Wilkinson, the new governor of the Louisiana territory, Pike did not have the authority to make a treaty.[31] Pike valued the land at $200,000 in his journal but omitted the value in Article 2 of the treaty. Pike gave the chiefs 60 US gallons (230 L) of liquor and $200 in gifts at the signing.[32] In 1808, the US Senate authorized one hundredth of Pike's estimate and added acreage,[32] paying $2,000 for the land in 1819.[33]
  3. ^ In the 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux and Treaty of Mendota, the US took all Dakota land west of the Mississippi,[40] about 24 million acres (97,000 km2),[41] in exchange for a 10-mile (16 km) wide reservation on the Minnesota River[42] and about $3 million ($110 million in 2023). After expenses, the Dakota were promised fifty years of annuities in goods[43] and interest on $1,360,000 and $1,410,000; the US kept the principal.[44] The Dakota could not read English, and their interpreters worked for the US.[39] In Mendota, negotiator Wakute said he feared signing a treaty because the prior treaty was changed from the one he had signed.[45] Indeed, the US Congress ratified amendments after the fact, and refused to consider payment unless the Dakota agreed to their new terms—in 1852 Congress struck the reservation from the final treaty.[46] Negotiators Luke Lea and Alexander Ramsey had promised the Dakota they would prosper, and rushed the transaction.[47] The chiefs were asked to sign a third paper in 1851—onlookers assumed it was a third copy of the treaty[48]—that Ramsey later declared was a "solemn acknowledgment" of the Dakota's debt to traders.[49] Ramsey, as territorial governor, enforced the trader's paper, distributing the monies to himself, Henry Sibley, and their friends.[50]
  4. ^ Part of the delay was a month's indecision in the US Treasury about appropriating gold or greenbacks and in Congress, which was preoccupied with Civil War finance. Gold arrived in the region just a few hours after settlers had been killed and war had begun.[54]
  5. ^ The University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online requires a Dakota font to read special characters.[68] Here, Dakota to Latin alphabet transliteration is borrowed from Lerner Publishing in Minneapolis.[69]
  6. ^ In Atwater's history, Baldwin gives the Sioux word as Minne.[70] Riggs gives mini.[71] Williamson who was most familiar with Santee has Mini, and in the Yankton dialect, mni.[72] Here, mni is from the University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online.[73]
  7. ^ Soldiers from Fort Snelling built a sawmill in 1820, and a gristmill in 1823, on the west bank near the falls.[76][77] The city's first commercial sawmill was built in 1848, and the first commercial gristmill in 1849.[78]
  8. ^ "Minneapolis would be the nation's flour capital for 50 years." and "Begun in 1848, timber milling had lasted for almost 50 years."[79]
  9. ^ In 1928, Washburn-Crosby merged with other local millers and changed its name to General Mills to reflect a wider product base including convenience foods like Wheaties.[101]
  10. ^ Minneapolis experienced the largest urban renewal plan undertaken in the US as of 2022.[137]
  11. ^ In a 1975 article, reporter John Carman said the city's highest point is 967 feet (295 m) at Deming Heights Park in the Waite Park neighborhood.[163] The US Geological Survey lists the highest elevation as 980 feet (300 m) but does not give a location.[162] Geography professor John Tichy said the highest point is the site of Waite Park Elementary School at approximately 985 feet (300 m) above sea level.[164] All of the cited sources that list locations say the highest point is within the Northeast section of the city.
  12. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e., the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at the said location from 1991 to 2020.
  13. ^ Official records for Minneapolis/Saint Paul were kept by the Saint Paul Signal Service in that city from January 1871 to December 1890, the Minneapolis Weather Bureau from January 1891 to April 8, 1938, and at Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport (KMSP) since April 9, 1938.[188]
  14. ^ Separately, Myers describes how the Minneapolis police department's adoption of CODEFOR in 1998 increased policing in areas of Minneapolis that were disproportionately nonwhite, with dual results: "Minority residents are afforded improved safety and law enforcement services; minority offenders unsurprisingly may be disproportionately apprehended for relatively minor transgressions in order to achieve the higher levels of safety."[269]
  15. ^ The Treaty of 1837 forced Dakota to make the largest land cession—all of their land east of the Mississippi.[458] Then the Dakota ceded more of their land in the Treaty of 1851.[459]
  16. ^ About a decade late, the Southwest line is expected to open in 2027, and has cost $1.8 billion as of 2022.[504]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Saint Paul vs. Minneapolis". Visit Saint Paul. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  2. ^ "Minneapolis St. Paul". American Automobile Association. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  3. ^ "Official Seal of the City of Minneapolis". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Minneapolis, Minnesota", Geographic Names Information System, United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, retrieved May 1, 2023
  5. ^ Swanson, Kirsten (November 5, 2021). "Voters approve charter amendment to change Minneapolis government structure". KSTP-TV. Hubbard Broadcasting. Archived from the original on December 2, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  6. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 24, 2022. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Profile of Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2020". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 28, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  8. ^ a b "City and Town Population Totals: 2020–2022". US Census Bureau. June 25, 2023. Archived from the original on July 11, 2022. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  9. ^ "List of 2020 Census Urban Areas". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved January 8, 2023.
  10. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 24, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  11. ^ "Total Real Gross Domestic Product for Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI (MSA)". fred.stlouisfed.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2024. Retrieved January 4, 2024.
  12. ^ "Minnesota Pronunciation Guide". Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
  13. ^ "Charter". Municode. CivicPlus. November 16, 2023. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved January 24, 2024.
  14. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population in the United States and Puerto Rico". US Census Bureau. July 1, 2021. Archived from the original on February 13, 2023. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  15. ^ Sturdevant, Andy (September 26, 2012). "Tangletown: a neighborhood that feels like its name". MinnPost. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  16. ^ a b "Introduction to Twin Cities Geology". Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. US National Park Service. December 11, 2017. Archived from the original on May 11, 2023. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  17. ^ Thompson, Derek (March 2015). "The Miracle of Minneapolis". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 25, 2023. Retrieved April 28, 2023. By spreading the wealth to its poorest neighborhoods, the metro area provides more-equal services in low-income places, and keeps quality of life high just about everywhere.
  18. ^ Weber 2022, p. 4, "The overarching goal is to take what may be the most significant issue facing contemporary Minneapolis—the crippling disparities among its people, exposed to the world in 2020, after the murder of George Floyd—and present a history that examines why those disparities exist, even as the city makes a legitimate argument for itself as a must-see or must-live kind of place.".
  19. ^ Lass 2000, p. 40.
  20. ^ Furst, Randy (October 8, 2021). "Which Indigenous tribes first called Minnesota home?". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 3, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  21. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 365n.
  22. ^ McConvell, Rhodes & Güldemann 2020, pp. 560, 564, "Finally in this time frame other groups of Ojibwes began pushing to the west and southwest, at the expense of the Dakota groups".
  23. ^ Treuer 2010, p. 3.
  24. ^ a b c Westerman & White 2012, p. 15.
  25. ^ Weber 2022, p. 6.
  26. ^ Westerman & White 2012, pp. 3–4, "William H. Keating, a geologist who came to the Minnesota area on an exploratory expedition in 1823, observed, 'The Dacotas have no tradition of having ever emigrated, from any other place, to the spot on which they now reside...'.
  27. ^ DeCarlo 2020, p. 15.
  28. ^ a b "The US-Dakota War of 1862". Minnesota Historical Society. November 23, 2015. Archived from the original on September 20, 2023. Retrieved April 13, 2024.
  29. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 194.
  30. ^ Westerman & White 2012, pp. 134, 136, Page 136: "Treaties played a crucial role in the increasing separation of the Dakota from their homeland in the years between 1805 and 1858, leading up to their ultimate expulsion by military force in 1863–64." and page 134: "For the Dakota the word cessions might well be replaced with seizures..." and "Collectively these treaties included three great cessions, comprising the Treaties of 1825, 1837, and 1851".
  31. ^ Weber 2022, p. 14.
  32. ^ a b Westerman & White 2012, p. 141.
  33. ^ Weber 2022, p. 13.
  34. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 4.
  35. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 77.
  36. ^ Watson, Catherine (September 16, 2012). "Ft. Snelling: Citadel on a Minnesota bluff". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  37. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 82.
  38. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 4, "government officials put great pressure on Dakota leaders to be quick about signing a treaty...".
  39. ^ a b "Minnesota Treaties". Minnesota Historical Society. August 14, 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
  40. ^ Lass 2000, p. 108.
  41. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 182.
  42. ^ Folwell 1921, p. 216.
  43. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 171.
  44. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 30.
  45. ^ Westerman & White 2012, pp. 5, 188.
  46. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 197.
  47. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 189–192.
  48. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 180–181.
  49. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 191.
  50. ^ Anderson 2019, pp. 32–33. Anderson examined the Dousman Papers to formulate estimates of the funds that were diverted to White officials.
  51. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 187, 193.
  52. ^ "Treaties". Minnesota Historical Society. July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021. These treaties, which were almost wholly dishonored by the U.S. government...
  53. ^ Blegen 1975, p. 265–267.
  54. ^ Folwell 1921, pp. 237–238.
  55. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 55: "...they had to beg for food from the settlers or starve".
  56. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 307, The uprising involved at most 1,000 of the Dakota population of more than 7,000.
  57. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 309.
  58. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 309, 314.
  59. ^ a b "US-Dakota War of 1862". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 30, 2023. Retrieved November 6, 2023.
  60. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 313, "what could only be termed a kangaroo court...".
  61. ^ Westerman & White 2012, p. 194, "The remaining seventeen hundred women, children, and elderly, including hundreds of noncomabatants, some of whom had protected white settler refugees from the war, were rounded up and force-marched to a concentration camp beneath the bluffs of Fort Snelling....".
  62. ^ Wingerd 2010, p. 320.
  63. ^ Vogel 2013, p. 540.
  64. ^ Anderson 2019, p. 188.
  65. ^ "Forced Marches & Imprisonment". Minnesota Historical Society. August 23, 2012. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  66. ^ "Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence". US National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  67. ^ "John H. Stevens House Museum". US National Park Service. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  68. ^ "Bdeota O™uåwe". University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  69. ^ Kimmerer & Smith 2022, p. 302.
  70. ^ a b Baldwin 1893a, p. 39.
  71. ^ Riggs 1992, p. 314.
  72. ^ Williamson 1992, p. 257.
  73. ^ "mni". University of Minnesota Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  74. ^ a b c Christianson, Theodore (1935). Minnesota: The Land of Sky-tinted Waters: A History of the State And Its People. Chicago: American Historical Society. Courtesy Star Tribune and the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library, in McKinney, Matt (August 19, 2022). "How did Stillwater become home to Minnesota's first prison?". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 19, 2022. Retrieved August 19, 2022.
  75. ^ "A History of Minneapolis: Governance and Infrastructure". Hennepin County Library. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  76. ^ Liebling & Morrison 1966, p. 18.
  77. ^ Kane 1987, p. 165.
  78. ^ Gras 1922, pp. 300–301.
  79. ^ Anfinson et al. 2003.
  80. ^ a b Kane 1987, p. 106.
  81. ^ Minnesota Historical Society 2003, p. 1.
  82. ^ Hart, Joseph (June 11, 1997). "Lost City". City Pages. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  83. ^ Kane 1987, pp. 81, 122.
  84. ^ Liebling & Morrison 1966, p. 181.
  85. ^ de Beaulieu, Ron (Winter 2023). "History: The Mill Explosion". Minnesota Alumni. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on June 5, 2023. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  86. ^ Lileks, James (August 10, 2018). "Minnesota Moment: Grain Belt stopped Northeast fire of 1893". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 22, 2023. Retrieved December 1, 2023.
  87. ^ Blegen 1975, p. 320.
  88. ^ Larson 2007, p. 15.
  89. ^ Lass 2000, pp. 173–174.
  90. ^ Larson 2007, p. 146.
  91. ^ Frame, Robert M. III; Hess, Jeffrey (January 1990). "Historic American Engineering Record MN-16: West Side Milling District" (PDF). US National Park Service. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
  92. ^ Larson 2007, pp. 7, 29.
  93. ^ Lass 2000, p. 173.
  94. ^ Kane 1987, p. 108, "Another factor which contributed to the decline of sawmilling at the falls was steam power".
  95. ^ Lass 2000, p. 180.
  96. ^ National Park Service and United States Department of the Interior (1966). "The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: Theme XVII-b" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 27, 2023. Retrieved August 27, 2023. The last of Minneapolis' once great sawmills, that of Frederick Weyerhaeuser and Associates, closed forever in 1919.
  97. ^ Risjord 2005, p. 131, "By then, however, the pine woods were virtually exhausted".
  98. ^ Lass 2000, p. 180, Here, Lass calls the lumbermen's actions as cutting at a "rapacious rate", and calls out a "rapacious assault on the coniferous forests" on page 196.
  99. ^ Price 2005, p. 36.
  100. ^ Gray 1954, p. 32.
  101. ^ a b Danbom 2003, p. 283.
  102. ^ Lass 2000, p. 162.
  103. ^ a b c d Danbom 2003, p. 277.
  104. ^ Kane 1987, p. 118.
  105. ^ Gray 1954, p. 41.
  106. ^ Liebling & Morrison 1966, p. 180.
  107. ^ Lass 2000, p. 238.
  108. ^ Lass 2000, p. 238, "The anticipated decline came rather abruptly during the 1920s. By the end of that decade the Mill City produced only slightly more than half as much flour as it had at its zenith, and ranked third after Buffalo and Kansas City, Missouri.".
  109. ^ Kane 1987, p. 186.
  110. ^ Johnson, Chloe (October 17, 2022). "Army Corps studying dam removal that could restore free-flowing Mississippi River in Twin Cities". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 28, 2023. Retrieved June 28, 2023.
  111. ^ Liebling & Morrison 1966, p. 29.
  112. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 104, "Thus while Minneapolis began to lose jobs in the mills, it began to acquire other jobs in management, financial administration, advertising, market research, product research and design, and other mid-level management and administrative positions. The effect was to upgrade the workforce...".
  113. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 111, "The university's role grew more and more important as the 20th century rolled along, for basic research and experimentation grew more complex and costly and as time went by.".
  114. ^ Weber 2022, p. 74.
  115. ^ Wallace, Lewis (February 21, 2014). "Love the ice cream truck? Thank inventor Fred Jones". Marketplace. Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on May 23, 2023. Retrieved May 23, 2023.
  116. ^ "Man behind first wearable external pacemaker dies at age 94". CTV News. Bell Media. Associated Press. October 22, 2018. Archived from the original on May 24, 2023. Retrieved May 23, 2023.
  117. ^ "Honeywell". Charles Babbage Institute. University of Minnesota Libraries. Archived from the original on May 22, 2023. Retrieved May 22, 2023.
  118. ^ a b "Control Data Corporation". Charles Babbage Institute. University of Minnesota Libraries. Archived from the original on May 22, 2023. Retrieved May 22, 2023.
  119. ^ Gihring, Tim (August 11, 2016). "The rise and fall of the Gopher protocol". MinnPost. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved May 22, 2023.
  120. ^ "The Teamsters Strike of 1934". St Louis Park Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 25, 2023. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  121. ^ Weber 2022, p. 71.
  122. ^ Nathanson 2010, pp. 41–47.
  123. ^ Hatle & Vaillancourt 2009–2010, p. 362.
  124. ^ Chalmers 1987, p. 149.
  125. ^ Nathanson 2010, p. 58.
  126. ^ Ladd-Taylor 2005, p. 242, "Eitel, the founder of the private Eitel Hospital and a vice-president of Dight's eugenics society, performed the first 150 surgeries; his nephew George D. Eitel took over the work after the old man died in 1928".
  127. ^ Nathanson, Iric (July 22, 2008). "Remembering the truckers strike of 1934". MinnPost. Archived from the original on June 8, 2023. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  128. ^ Walker 1937, pp. 98–99.
  129. ^ "The Minneapolis Strike". International Brotherhood of Teamsters. February 4, 2020. Archived from the original on June 6, 2023. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  130. ^ "Anti-Semitism in Minneapolis". Religions in Minnesota. Carleton College. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  131. ^ Weber 1991, pp. 88–89.
  132. ^ Caro 2002, pp. 440, 454.
  133. ^ Reichard 1998, p. 62.
  134. ^ a b c Holder, Sarah (June 5, 2020). "Why This Started in Minneapolis". CityLab. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  135. ^ Nathanson 2010, Chapter 4: Plymouth Avenue Is Burning.
  136. ^ Riemenschneider, Chris (September 5, 2019). "Prince co-author details 'extremely unlikely' story behind new memoir in New Yorker article". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 17, 2023. Retrieved May 17, 2023.
  137. ^ Weber 2022, p. 128.
  138. ^ Hart, Joseph (May 6, 1998). "Room at the Bottom". City Pages. Vol. 19, no. 909. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  139. ^ Weber 2022, p. 141, "Explaining the name, Clyde Bellecourt remembered Alberta Downwind saying at AIM's founding: Indian is the word that they used to oppress us. Indian is the word we'll use to gain our freedom".
  140. ^ Davis 2013, p. 193.
  141. ^ Weber 2022, pp. 139.
  142. ^ Nathanson 2010, pp. 126–130, 132.
  143. ^ a b Mumford, Tracy (July 16, 2015). "For Mpls. couple, gay marriage ruling is a victory 43 years in the making". MPR News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2023. Retrieved June 2, 2023.
  144. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage in Minnesota". Minnesota Issues Resource Guides. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. July 2022. Archived from the original on June 5, 2023. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  145. ^ Weber 2022, pp. 158–159.
  146. ^ Ceron, Ella (April 27, 2022). "Damning Report After Floyd Murder Finds Rampant Police Discrimination in Minneapolis". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  147. ^ Paybarah, Azi (April 20, 2021). "How a teenager's video upended the police department's initial tale". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  148. ^ Stockman, Farah (July 3, 2020). "'They Have Lost Control': Why Minneapolis Burned". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 3, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  149. ^ Caputo, Angela; Craft, Will; Gilbert, Curtis (June 30, 2020). "'The precinct is on fire': What happened at Minneapolis' 3rd Precinct—and what it means". MPR News. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  150. ^ Silverstein, Jason (June 4, 2021). "The global impact of George Floyd: How Black Lives Matter protests shaped movements around the world". CBS News. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  151. ^ Mitchell 2022, p. 44, "Two years have passed since Floyd was killed, but the site where he died...continues to be contested space—an ongoing site of protest—but also a sacred location".
  152. ^ Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board, Environmental Management (November 2022). Water Resources Report 2021 (PDF) (Report). Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. p. 17-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 19, 2023. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  153. ^ Wright 1990, pp. 3–4.
  154. ^ Wright 1990, p. 4.
  155. ^ a b Wright 1990, p. 14.
  156. ^ Fremling 2005, pp. 56–60.
  157. ^ "Minneapolis". Emporis. Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  158. ^ "Physical Environment". City of Minneapolis. p. 39. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  159. ^ Water Resources Management Plan (PDF) (Report). City of Minneapolis. December 14, 2021. pp. 3–14, ES-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  160. ^ Water Resources Management Plan (PDF) (Report). City of Minneapolis. December 14, 2021. p. 3-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  161. ^ Harms, G. F. (October 1959). Soil Survey of Scott County, Minnesota (PDF) (Report). Soil Conservation Service. p. 59. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  162. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". US Geological Survey. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved January 14, 2023.
  163. ^ Carman, John (September 8, 1975). "Twin Cities: Different as night and day". Minneapolis Star. pp. 1B, 5B. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  164. ^ Tichy, John (July 18, 1996). "Waite Park School sits on Minneapolis' highest point". Star Tribune. p. E17. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  165. ^ "Community and neighborhoods". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on December 8, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  166. ^ "Neighborhood Organizations". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 6, 2023. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  167. ^ a b c "A Primer for the Neighborhood Revitalization Program" (PDF). Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program. pp. 2, 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 2, 2023. Retrieved September 3, 2023.
  168. ^ "Neighborhood and Community Relations: 2022–2027 Financial Plan". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023 – via OpenGov.
  169. ^ Yeoman, Shirley (February 9, 2012). "Saying good-bye to NRP". Twin Cities Daily Planet. Archived from the original on September 3, 2023. Retrieved September 3, 2023.
  170. ^ Neighborhood and Community Relations (February 2020). "Neighborhoods 2020 Program Guidelines" (PDF). Legislative Information Management System. City of Minneapolis. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2024. Retrieved May 22, 2024.
  171. ^ Martucci, Brian (January 15, 2024). "Neighborhood org funding shift is leaving some struggling to maintain operations". Southwest Voices. Archived from the original on May 22, 2024. Retrieved May 22, 2024.
  172. ^ Gordon, Cam (August 30, 2023). "'Change isn't cheap' says Mayor Frey". Longfellow Nokomis Messenger. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  173. ^ "City Council approves Minneapolis 2040 plan". Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder. December 7, 2018. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  174. ^ Grabar, Henry (December 7, 2018). "Minneapolis Confronts Its History of Housing Segregation". Slate. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  175. ^ Kahlenberg, Richard D. (October 24, 2019). How Minneapolis Ended Single-Family Zoning (Report). The Century Foundation. Archived from the original on March 13, 2023. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  176. ^ Shaffer, Scott (February 7, 2018). "Low-density Zoning Threatens Neighborhood Character". Streets.mn. Archived from the original on March 13, 2023. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  177. ^ Trickey, Erick (July 11, 2019). "How Minneapolis Freed Itself From the Stranglehold of Single-Family Homes". Politico. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  178. ^ Schuetz, Jenny (December 12, 2018). "Minneapolis 2040: The most wonderful plan of the year". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  179. ^ Du, Susan (September 6, 2023). "Minneapolis cannot proceed with 2040 Plan, court rules". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  180. ^ Du, Susan (May 13, 2024). "Appeals court reverses 2040 Plan injunction; Minneapolis to revive stalled developments". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 16, 2024. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  181. ^ Peel, Finlayson & McMahon 2007, p. 1639.
  182. ^ "Normals, Means, and Extremes for Minneapolis/Saint Paul" (PDF). US National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC. 1971–2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  183. ^ Pioneer Press staff (January 24, 2012). "USDA: Milder winters mean some changes in plant hardiness zones". St. Paul Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  184. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Service. 2023. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved February 3, 2024.
  185. ^ Fisk, Charles (February 11, 2011). "Graphical Climatology of Minneapolis-Saint Paul Area Temperatures, Precipitation, and Snowfall". ClimateStations.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  186. ^ a b "Twin Cities Area total monthly and seasonal snowfall in inches [1883–2016]". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  187. ^ "Ranking of Cities Based on % Annual Possible Sunshine". NOAA: US National Climatic Data Center. 2004. Archived from the original on May 22, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
  188. ^ "Threaded Station Extremes (Long-Term Station Extremes for America)". US National Centers for Environmental Information, US National Weather Service, and Regional Climate Centers. Archived from the original on May 19, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
  189. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". US National Weather Service, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  190. ^ "Station: Minneapolis/St Paul AP, MN". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991–2020). US National Weather Service, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on December 20, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  191. ^ "WMO climate normals for Minneapolis/INT'L ARPT, MN 1961–1990". US National Weather Service, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  192. ^ "Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA – Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Ezoic. Archived from the original on June 27, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  193. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  194. ^ a b "Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino By Race". US Census Bureau. August 12, 2021. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  195. ^ a b c "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
  196. ^ "A History of Minneapolis: Mdewakanton Band of the Dakota Nation". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  197. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 48.
  198. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 203.
  199. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 217.
  200. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 214.
  201. ^ a b Anderson, G.R. Jr. (October 1, 2003). "Living in America". City Pages. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  202. ^ HACER 1998, p. 19.
  203. ^ League of Women Voters 2002, p. 7.
  204. ^ Stipanovich 1982, pp. 224–225.
  205. ^ Stipanovich 1982, pp. 220–222, 224.
  206. ^ The Minneapolis '76 Bicentennial Commission 1976, p. 18.
  207. ^ Stipanovich 1982, p. 239.
  208. ^ a b Nathanson, Iric. "Jews in Minnesota" (PDF). Jewish Community Relations Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 28, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  209. ^ Vecoli 1981, p. 450.
  210. ^ Saloutos 1981, pp. 472, 474.
  211. ^ Stipanovich 1982, pp. 244–247.
  212. ^ Stipanovich 1982, pp. 48, 241.
  213. ^ Mason 1981a, pp. 531, 533–534.
  214. ^ Mason 1981a, p. 540.
  215. ^ Albert 1981, p. 561, "...Minneapolis received by far the greater share (see Table 30.2). Camp Savage and Fort Snelling, the greatest magnets for wives, relatives, and friends of those stationed there, were more accessible from Minneapolis than from St. Paul".
  216. ^ Albert 1981, p. 558.
  217. ^ Nesterak, Max (November 1, 2019). "Uprooted: The 1950s plan to erase Indian Country". American Public Media. Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on February 7, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023. Other cities like Cleveland, Salt Lake City, Dallas, Oakland, Cleveland, and Minneapolis would later be added in an ever-changing line-up of relocation cities.
  218. ^ Mason 1981c, p. 572.
  219. ^ Mason 1981b, p. 546.
  220. ^ Mason 1981d, pp. 582, 584, 586, 590.
  221. ^ Mason 1981d, pp. 586, 588, 589.
  222. ^ "Tibetans". International Institute of Minnesota. Archived from the original on April 2, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  223. ^ Hirsi, Ibrahim (August 13, 2019). "Lured by jobs and housing, Karen refugees spread across Minnesota". MPR News. Archived from the original on April 3, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  224. ^ Shah, Allie (May 28, 2011). "Asian Indian numbers in metro surge". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 2, 2023. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  225. ^ Weber 2022, p. 113.
  226. ^ Taylor 1981, p. 82.
  227. ^ Spangler 1961, p. 94, "Minnesota Negroes had the lowest illiteracy rate in the nation during this period" [in the period 1885 to 1920, 3.4 percent].
  228. ^ Taylor 2002, p. 34, c. 1930 "In Minneapolis only 1.7% of blacks over 10 years of age were illiterate".
  229. ^ Taylor 1981, p. 76.
  230. ^ a b Taylor 1981, p. 84.
  231. ^ Taylor 1981, p. 90, footnote 57.
  232. ^ Biewen, John (August 19, 1997). "Moving Up: Part One". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  233. ^ Maruggi & Gerten 2013.
  234. ^ "A History of Minneapolis: 20th Century Growth and Diversity". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  235. ^ Weber 2022, p. 159: "President Donald Trump's executive order in 2017 banned new immigration from Somalia and several other majority-Muslim nations. Just forty-eight people came to Minnesota from Somalia in 2018, down from more than fourteen hundred in 2016," and further reading p. 187.
  236. ^ "People Reporting Single Ancestry". American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. 2022. Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2024.
  237. ^ Conron, Kerith J.; Luhur, Winston; Goldberg, Shoshana K. (December 2020). "LGBT Adults in Large US Metropolitan Areas" (PDF). Williams Institute. University of California, Los Angeles School of Law. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 30, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
  238. ^ "MEI 2023: See Your Cities' Scores". Human Rights Campaign. 2023. Archived from the original on May 15, 2024. Retrieved May 15, 2024.
  239. ^ Halbach, Ashley (January 17, 2023). "Twin Cities Pride Festival expanding ahead of June 2023 event". KSTP-TV. Hubbard Broadcasting. Archived from the original on May 14, 2023. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  240. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2022 Population". US Census Bureau. July 1, 2022. Archived from the original on July 17, 2023. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  241. ^ "Community profile". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023 – via OpenGov.
  242. ^ a b c "Race". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  243. ^ "Ethnicity". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  244. ^ a b c d "Selected social characteristics in the United States". American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  245. ^ "Minneapolis data viewer". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 28, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  246. ^ "Income in the past 12 months". American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. 2021. Archived from the original on November 30, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  247. ^ "Selected housing characteristics". American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  248. ^ "Poverty status in the past 12 months". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  249. ^ "Educational attainment". American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  250. ^ a b Ingraham, Christopher (May 30, 2020). "Racial inequality in Minneapolis is among the worst in the nation". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  251. ^ Freemark, Yonah; Noble, Eleanor; Su, Yipeng (June 2021). "Who Owns the Twin Cities? An Analysis of Racialized Ownership Trends in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties" (PDF). Urban Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 31, 2024. Retrieved January 31, 2024.
  252. ^ Walker et al. 2023, p. 6, "The first racial covenant in Minneapolis was recorded by Edmund Walton in 1910...".
  253. ^ Kaul, Greta (February 22, 2019). "With covenants, racism was written into Minneapolis housing. The scars are still visible". MinnPost. Archived from the original on March 6, 2023. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  254. ^ Delegard & Ehrman-Solberg 2017, pp. 73–74, "...the Seven Oaks Corporation, a real estate developer that inserted this same language into thousands of deeds across the city.".
  255. ^ Walker et al. 2023, p. 5, "...the Mapping Prejudice team showed that, prior to the introduction of covenants in 1910, the residences of people of color were dispersed throughout the city, yet as developers added thousands of racial covenants to deeds in Minneapolis until 1955, the city's neighborhoods became increasingly racially segregated".
  256. ^ Delegard & Ehrman-Solberg 2017, p. 75.
  257. ^ Navratil, Liz (March 3, 2021). "Minneapolis starts program to disavow racial covenants". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  258. ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd's Death and the Long History of Racism in Minneapolis". Time. Archived from the original on November 17, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022. Delegard told Time, 'Structural racism is really baked into the geography of this city and as a result it really permeates every institution in this city.'
  259. ^ "Goals: 1. Eliminate disparities". Department of Community Planning & Economic Development. City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on November 17, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022. ...in 2010, Minneapolis led the nation in having the widest unemployment disparity between African-American and white residents. This remains true in 2018. And disparities also exist in nearly every other measurable social aspect, including of economic, housing, safety and health outcomes, between people of color and indigenous people compared with white people." and "In Minneapolis, 83 percent of white non-Hispanics have more than a high school education, compared with 47 percent of black people and 45 percent of American Indians. Only 32 percent of Hispanics have more than a high school education.
  260. ^ Furst, Randy; Webster, MaryJo (September 6, 2019). "How did Minn. become one of the most racially inequitable states?". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021. The privileges of whites go back much further ... to when American Indians were forced off their land in the 1860s.
  261. ^ Weber 2022, pp. 84, 88.
  262. ^ Larsen, Elizabeth Foy (Fall 2020). "The Minnesota Paradox". Minnesota Alumni. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 28, 2023. Retrieved May 28, 2023.
  263. ^ Weber 2022, p. 132, 35W "...went through a Mexican and Black neighborhood".
  264. ^ "What is a Covenent: How racial covenants impact us today". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 28, 2023. Retrieved May 28, 2023.
  265. ^ "Goals: 1. Eliminate disparities". Department of Community Planning & Economic Development. City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on November 17, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2023.
  266. ^ Factors outlined include racial gaps in opportunity, limited pre-school subsidy programs, educator bias, differences in families' and schools' economic resources, less-experienced teachers, and completion rate gaps. Grunewald, Rob; Horowitz, Ben; Ky, Kim-Eng; Tchourumoff, Alene (January 11, 2021). Minnesota's education system shows persistent opportunity gaps by race (Report). Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on June 18, 2023. Retrieved June 18, 2023. This article highlights evidence of how systemic racism undermines the education system in Minnesota.
  267. ^ Wigdahl, Heidi (June 11, 2020). "A look at the history of racial covenants and housing discrimination in Minneapolis". KARE-TV News. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  268. ^ Myers, Samuel L. Jr. "The Minnesota Paradox". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 29, 2023. Retrieved May 29, 2023.
  269. ^ Myers 2002.
  270. ^ McNamara, Audrey (July 17, 2020). "Minneapolis declares racism a public health emergency". CBS News. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on May 18, 2023. Retrieved May 18, 2023.
  271. ^ Sommer, Laura (June 18, 2020). "Minneapolis Has A Bold Plan To Tackle Racial Inequity. Now It Has To Follow Through". NPR. Archived from the original on May 18, 2023. Retrieved May 18, 2023.
  272. ^ "National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota". Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  273. ^ a b "Adults in the Minneapolis metro area". Pew Research Center. 2014. Archived from the original on May 9, 2023. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  274. ^ a b c d e "A History of Minneapolis: Religion". Hennepin County Library. Archived from the original on April 23, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  275. ^ Millett 2007, p. 127.
  276. ^ "About St. Mary's". St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral. 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  277. ^ "Our History: Beginnings". Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary. Archived from the original on December 1, 2023. Retrieved November 28, 2023.
  278. ^ Millett 2007, p. 84.
  279. ^ "Timeline of Historic Events". Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  280. ^ Millett 2007, pp. 159–160, "Christ Church was Saarinen's last building" and "the addition was among Eero's last commissions".
  281. ^ a b Halvorsen Ludt, Tamara; Fritz, Laurel; Anderson, Lauren (June 2020). Minneapolis in the Modern Era: 1930–1975 (PDF). Community Planning and Economic Development (Report). City of Minneapolis. pp. 7.24, 7.27. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 22, 2022. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  282. ^ Barlow & Silk 2004, p. 139.
  283. ^ "Somalis". International Institute of Minnesota. January 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  284. ^ "Minneapolis allows Islamic call to prayer five times per day". Al Jazeera. April 14, 2023. Archived from the original on May 8, 2023. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
  285. ^ Hagen, Nina (May 16, 2016). "Guide to Local Meditation Centers". Minnesota Monthly. Greenspring Media. Archived from the original on March 19, 2023. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  286. ^ Schubert, Keith; Duggan, J.D. (February 7, 2024). "Target loses top spot as largest downtown Minneapolis employer". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. Archived from the original on February 15, 2024. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  287. ^ a b c "Fortune 500 Companies". Fortune. 2023. Archived from the original on August 13, 2023. Retrieved August 13, 2023.
  288. ^ Lass 2000, p. 164.
  289. ^ "Trading of Wheat – Minneapolis Grain Exchange". North Dakota Wheat Commission. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved January 14, 2023.
  290. ^ Lass 2000, pp. 164, 181.
  291. ^ Misa 2013, p. 200.
  292. ^ "Minneapolis Area Economic Summary" (PDF). US Bureau of Labor Statistics. August 31, 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 30, 2022. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  293. ^ Wheeler, Charlotte (June 13, 2022). "Markets with the Most Fortune 500 Headquarters". RealPage. Archived from the original on February 20, 2023. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  294. ^ Hammerand, Jim (February 3, 2012). "Accenture cuts 1 floor, all cubes". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2023.
  295. ^ St. Anthony, Neal (November 17, 2016). "Minneapolis-based Bellisio Foods sells for $1.08 billion to Thailand company". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  296. ^ St. Anthony, Neal (August 25, 2012). "Canadian Pacific's U.S. HQ moves to new digs". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  297. ^ "Saint Paul—Governor Tim Pawlenty announced today that Coloplast will move its North American corporate headquarters to Minnesota beginning this fall" (Press release). Coloplast. July 5, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  298. ^ "Our Company". RBC Wealth Management. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  299. ^ "Our offices: Minneapolis". Deloitte. Archived from the original on March 19, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  300. ^ "PwC US offices: Minneapolis". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on February 3, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  301. ^ Black, Sam (April 7, 2014). "ING rebrands Minneapolis unit as Voya Financial". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
  302. ^ "Plan Your Visit". Minneapolis Institute of Art. Archived from the original on April 14, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  303. ^ Whitmore 2004, Whitmore cites a 1903 article in the New York Herald, "...the gallery is open to the public six days in the week, and all who ring his bell and ask to see the old masters receive not only permission from the white-aproned maid who answers the ring, but also a catalogue as well.".
  304. ^ "About: Walker Art Center History". Walker Art Center. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  305. ^ "Minneapolis Sculpture Garden". Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. Archived from the original on March 6, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  306. ^ Hess 1985, p. 28.
  307. ^ "Collection". Minneapolis Institute of Art. Archived from the original on September 20, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  308. ^ "Minneapolis Institute of Art". Society of Architectural Historians. July 17, 2018. Archived from the original on April 14, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023. This ambitious plan was not realized...
  309. ^ "The Museum". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on April 14, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  310. ^ Kerr, Euan (October 2, 2011). "Weisman celebrates reopening with its designer in attendance". MPR News. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  311. ^ "History: TMORA". The Museum of Russian Art. September 30, 2015. Archived from the original on December 19, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  312. ^ "Art-A-Whirl® Weekend". The Current. Minnesota Public Radio. 2023. Archived from the original on June 3, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  313. ^ "Northeast Minneapolis Named Best Art District". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  314. ^ Bly & Schechter 1979, p. 33, "In 1963, the Tyrone Guthrie Theater was founded in Minneapolis as an alternative to Broadway and its commercialism.".
  315. ^ Blegen 1975, p. 503.
  316. ^ Blegen 1975, pp. 503–504.
  317. ^ Guilfoyle 2015, pp. 455–484.
  318. ^ Zeigler 1973, pp. 74, 75, 87, 241.
  319. ^ "Project Fact Sheet" (PDF). Guthrie Theater. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2023. Retrieved July 24, 2023.
  320. ^ a b c Russell, James S. (August 2006). "Guthrie Theater: Minneapolis, Minnesota" (PDF). Architectural Record. Vol. 194, no. 8. The McGraw-Hill Companies. pp. 108, 117. ISSN 0003-858X. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 24, 2023. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  321. ^ "Looking back". Hennepin Theatre Trust. May 6, 2016. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved January 14, 2023.
  322. ^ "Mission & History and Who we are: Programs". Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts. Artspace Projects. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved January 14, 2023.
  323. ^ Blackwood, Alisa. "O's Minneapolis Travel Guide". Harpo Productions. Archived from the original on May 19, 2024. Retrieved May 19, 2024.
  324. ^ "MayDay Parade returns to South Minneapolis" (video). Unicorn Riot. May 7, 2023. Archived from the original on May 16, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023 – via YouTube.
  325. ^ Palmer, Caroline (May 5, 2016). "Dancers recall Prince as a hard-working 'darling' in tights and ballet slippers". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018. While growing up, Prince had ballet training through an initiative called the Urban Arts Program...Prince took classes with MDT in Dinkytown.
  326. ^ Regan, Sheila (February 8, 2022). "New documentary looks back at Minneapolis' 1970s-era experimental arts program". MinnPost. Archived from the original on April 22, 2023. Retrieved April 22, 2023. FITC began as a program offered through the Minneapolis Public Schools, under the umbrella of the Urban Arts Program....(Among the notable alumni of the Urban Arts program was none other than Prince himself.)
  327. ^ "Meet the Music Director Designate: Thomas Søndergård". Minnesota Orchestral Association. July 28, 2022. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  328. ^ Wurzer, Cathy (January 26, 2014). "Minnesota Orchestra wins Grammy". MPR News. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  329. ^ "Best Contemporary Composition". NPR. February 9, 2004. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  330. ^ Cameron, Linda (July 18, 2016). "Best Operas In Minnesota". CBS News Minnesota. CBS Broadcasting. Archived from the original on May 14, 2023. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  331. ^ Royce, Graydon (March 6, 2014). "Theater: Gilbert & Sullivan Very Light Opera Company". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  332. ^ Longbella, Maren (August 7, 2016). "Fringe review: 'Game of Thrones: The Musical'". St. Paul Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on May 14, 2023. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  333. ^ Roise, Charlene; Gales, Elizabeth; Koehlinger, Kristen; Goetz, Kathryn; Hess, Roise and Company; Zschomler, Kristen; Rouse, Stephanie; Wittenberg, Jason (December 2018). Minneapolis Music History, 1850–2000: A Context (PDF) (Report). City of Minneapolis. p. 42. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 15, 2023. Retrieved May 1, 2023. A true musical prodigy, Prince mastered the piano by about age eight while living at 2620 Eighth Avenue North, where he could play anything he heard by ear on the piano and began songwriting.
  334. ^ Gabler, Jay (January 27, 2018). "So you're a Prince fan visiting Minnesota: Five must-see stops". The Current. Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  335. ^ Matos, Michaelangelo (March 14, 2016). "Everybody Is a Star: How the Rock Club First Avenue Made Minneapolis the Center of Music in the '80s". Pitchfork. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on April 16, 2023. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  336. ^ Moran, Lydia (January 28, 2019). "A Guide to Twin Cities Concert Venues". Mpls. St. Paul. Key Enterprises. Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  337. ^ "Uptown Theater Minneapolis". Live Nation. Archived from the original on June 11, 2023. Retrieved June 11, 2023.
  338. ^ Eler, Alicia (October 2, 2020). "Exhibits at Minnesota African American museum keep George Floyd's spirit alive". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 28, 2022. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  339. ^ "Mill City Museum: Learn". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 20, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  340. ^ Vollmar 2003.
  341. ^ Eler, Alicia (October 8, 2020). "Minnesota's quirky Bakken Museum reinvents itself with $4.5M face lift". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  342. ^ Farber, Zac (September 9, 2019). "New director says Hennepin History Museum has 'room for growth'". Southwest Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  343. ^ "Minnehaha Depot: Learn". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 20, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  344. ^ "Detail of the grand hall fireplace, American Swedish Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota". Minnesota Digital Library. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  345. ^ Cipolle, Alex V. (October 20, 2021). "In Minneapolis, a Thriving Center for Indigenous Art". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  346. ^ Feyder, Susan (October 20, 2013). "Somali culture on display". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  347. ^ Eler, Alicia (September 28, 2018). "Minnesota finally gets an African-American museum, thanks to two visionary women". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  348. ^ "Minneapolis PL Merges with Hennepin County Library". American Libraries. American Library Association. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on August 31, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  349. ^ Millett, Larry (June 23, 2017). "Minneapolis' 'library block' has a fascinating history of loss and renewal". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 24, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  350. ^ "Collections". Hennepin County Library. Archived from the original on February 12, 2023. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  351. ^ Espeland, Pamela (September 14, 2021). "New leaders at the Ordway and Coffee House Press; new Minnesota poet laureate". MinnPost. Archived from the original on September 14, 2021. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  352. ^ "Minnesota Scholarship Online: About". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  353. ^ Chamberlain, Lisa (April 30, 2008). "With Books as a Catalyst, Minneapolis Neighborhood Revives". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 12, 2023. Retrieved May 12, 2023.
  354. ^ Byle, Ann (November 22, 2022). "Christian Publishers Sharpen a Direct-to-Consumer Focus". Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  355. ^ Boog, Jason (August 25, 2017). "Is Poetry the New Adult Coloring Book?". Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on April 9, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  356. ^ Jones, Iyana (April 24, 2023). "Lerner Publishing Group's New Partnership Centers Accessibility". Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  357. ^ Wood, Drew (March–April 2018). "The Fierce Urgency of North". Minnesota Business. Tiger Oak Media. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  358. ^ Kamal, Rana (July 23, 2017). "Minnesota Among Worst States for Food Deserts". The CW Twin Cities. Sinclair Broadcast Group. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  359. ^ Sitaramiah, Gita (February 6, 2023). "Aldi to close north Minneapolis store, leaving few full-service options". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 7, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  360. ^ Noguchi, Yuki (November 27, 2020). "A Garden Is The Frontline In The Fight Against Racial Inequality And Disease". NPR. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  361. ^ Phillips, Brandi D. (June 7, 2017). "Appetite for Change creates oasis in Northside food desert". Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  362. ^ "Markets A to Z". Farmers Markets of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on May 20, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  363. ^ "Gavin Kaysen". James Beard Foundation. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  364. ^ "Dara Moskowitz Grumdahl". James Beard Foundation. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  365. ^ "Andrew Zimmern". James Beard Foundation. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  366. ^ "Sean Sherman". James Beard Foundation. Archived from the original on March 29, 2023. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  367. ^ Kormann, Carolyn (September 19, 2022). "How Owamni Became the Best New Restaurant in the United States". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 18, 2023. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  368. ^ Johnson, Brooks (October 5, 2023). "The Milky Way bar, born in a Minneapolis diner, turns 100". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on October 6, 2023. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  369. ^ Weibel, Alexa. "Juicy Lucy Burger". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  370. ^ Rosenberg, Meredith (August 19, 2017). "Camel burgers and beyond: Minneapolis' Somali food scene". The Philadelphia Tribune. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  371. ^ "DeRusha Eats: The Herbivorous Butcher". CBS News Minnesota. CBS Broadcasting. January 21, 2016. Archived from the original on February 18, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  372. ^ Murphy, Brian (November 12, 2015). "The Twins and Vikings: How they started". St. Paul Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on August 19, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  373. ^ "Baseball Stadiums in Minnesota". Minnesota Issues Resource Guides. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. October 2022. Archived from the original on April 15, 2023. Retrieved April 15, 2023.
  374. ^ "Football Stadiums in Minnesota and the Vikings". Minnesota Issues Resource Guides. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. September 2022. Archived from the original on April 15, 2023. Retrieved April 15, 2023.
  375. ^ "Basketball in Minnesota and the Target Center Arena". Minnesota Issues Resource Guides. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. September 2022. Archived from the original on April 15, 2023. Retrieved April 15, 2023.
  376. ^ Davidson, Katie (November 25, 2019). "The 2010s: Minnesota Lynx all-decade team, with a twist". The Athletic. Archived from the original on November 2, 2023. Retrieved November 2, 2023.
  377. ^ "Minnesota Wild". Xcel Energy Center. Archived from the original on January 15, 2023. Retrieved January 15, 2023.
  378. ^ "All About Allianz: Guide to the Home of Minnesota United". Visit Saint Paul Official Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on April 17, 2023. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  379. ^ "University of Minnesota Official Athletic Site – Traditions". CBS Interactive. December 2, 2014. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  380. ^ Graff, Chad (March 20, 2016). "Gophers women's hockey wins fourth NCAA championship in five years". St. Paul Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  381. ^ "NCAA Champions". University of Minnesota Athletics. Learfield. Archived from the original on August 21, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  382. ^ Nelson, Joe (November 13, 2020). "Few or no fans to be allowed at Gopher basketball home games". Bring Me The News. The Arena Group. Archived from the original on April 17, 2023. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  383. ^ "Minneapolis, Minnesota Golf Courses". GolfLink. LoveToKnow. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  384. ^ Nelson, Tim (July 22, 2016). "Colossus of 'whoas': Vikings open U.S. Bank Stadium". MPR News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  385. ^ Pheifer, Pat (December 27, 2016). "Indoor skaters flock to U.S. Bank Stadium". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  386. ^ "U.S. Pond Hockey Championships". SportsEngine. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  387. ^ "Qualifying Races Around The World". Boston Athletic Association. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  388. ^ Nadenicek & Neckar 2002, p. xxxix, "With other societal superintendents influenced by the ideals of New England, Cleveland was later able to design and implement his crowning achievement, the Minneapolis Park System.".
  389. ^ Nadenicek & Neckar 2002, pp. xli, "Cleveland successfully linked boulevards, small neighborhood parks of Parisian derivation, prairie ponds with wild islands, and lake-edge parkways".
  390. ^ Nadenicek & Neckar 2002, p. xli.
  391. ^ Garvin 2013, p. 75.
  392. ^ a b "Code of Ordinances: Charter Article VI". Municode. CivicPlus. December 14, 2022. Archived from the original on February 1, 2023. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  393. ^ "Parks & Lakes". Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. Archived from the original on July 22, 2023. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  394. ^ Smith 2008, p. 39, In 1887, the park board "was given broad authority to plant and care for trees along all city streets, not just on park property".
  395. ^ Smith 2008, p. x.
  396. ^ Smith 2008, p. 47.
  397. ^ "ParkScore". Trust for Public Land. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2023 – via Internet Archive.
  398. ^ "Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway". AllTrails. Archived from the original on April 17, 2023. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  399. ^ "Bike the 51-Mile Grand Rounds Scenic Byway in Minneapolis". Explore Minnesota Tourism. Archived from the original on January 22, 2023. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  400. ^ Marsh, Steve (July 22, 2019). "Aquatennial: The Ultimate Summer Block Party". Mpls. St. Paul. Key Enterprises. Archived from the original on March 19, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  401. ^ "Mississippi National River and Recreation Area". US National Park Service. Archived from the original on April 17, 2023. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  402. ^ "Walks and Hikes". US National Park Service. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  403. ^ Smith 2008, pp. 44–46.
  404. ^ Smith 2008, p. 46.
  405. ^ "Minnehaha Regional Park". Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  406. ^ Wingerd 2010, pp. 352–353.
  407. ^ "Winter Activities". Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  408. ^ Hutton, Rachel (January 6, 2021). "The art (and science) of making outdoor ice rinks in Minnesota". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  409. ^ Millett 2007, p. 41.
  410. ^ "The man who was mayor of Minneapolis for just one day". MPR News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  411. ^ "Sen. Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn". Roll Call. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  412. ^ "Sen. Tina Smith, D-Minn". Roll Call. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  413. ^ Montgomery, David H. (November 4, 2021). "How Jacob Frey won reelection". MPR News. Archived from the original on January 8, 2022. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  414. ^ Regan, Sheila; Coleman, Nick; Nelson, Kathryn G. (November 6, 2013). "Minneapolis Mayoral Election: Betsy Hodges Almost Claims Her Almost Victory; RCV Count Goes Slow". The UpTake. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  415. ^ Tu, Cynthia; Hazzard, Andrew (October 26, 2023). "2023 Minneapolis City Council race: Who's running, where candidates stand on key issues". Sahan Journal. Archived from the original on November 2, 2023. Retrieved November 2, 2023.
  416. ^ Nathanson, Iric (November 5, 2021). "Why it only took 120 years for Minneapolis to adopt a 'strong mayor' system". MinnPost. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  417. ^ McLaughlin, Shaymus (November 2, 2021). "Minneapolis' Ballot Question 1 passes, shifting more power from city council to mayor". Bring Me the News. The Arena Group. Archived from the original on November 28, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  418. ^ "Budget-in-Brief". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on April 20, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2023 – via OpenGov.
  419. ^ Magan, Christopher (October 3, 2023). "Metro sales taxes jumped Oct. 1. Here's where the money will go". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on October 3, 2023. Retrieved October 4, 2023.
  420. ^ "Local use tax". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  421. ^ "2023 Minneapolis, Minnesota Sales Tax". Tax-Rates.org – The Federal & State Tax Information Portal. Archived from the original on February 12, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  422. ^ "Code of Ordinances: Charter Article V". Municode. CivicPlus. December 14, 2022. Archived from the original on February 1, 2023. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  423. ^ Ibrahim, Mohamed (August 23, 2022). "How Cedric Alexander aims to tackle Minneapolis' policing woes". MinnPost. Archived from the original on September 20, 2022. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  424. ^ a b "Behavioral Crisis Response Team quick guide" (PDF). City of Minneapolis. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 12, 2023. Retrieved April 25, 2024.
  425. ^ "2021-00736 – Behavioral Crisis Response pilot". Legislative Information Management System. City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on September 20, 2022. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  426. ^ Furst, Randy (April 2, 2022). "As police claims of PTSD soar in Minneapolis, public officials scramble to find solutions". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 13, 2022. Retrieved November 13, 2022.
  427. ^ Navratil, Liz (December 10, 2020). "Divided Minneapolis City Council votes to cut $8 million from police budget". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  428. ^ Heath, Brad (September 13, 2021). "Special Report: After Floyd's killing, Minneapolis police retreated, data shows". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  429. ^ Sawyer, Liz (April 5, 2024). "Minneapolis police officers reprimanded for misconduct in aftermath of George Floyd's murder". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 28, 2024. Retrieved May 28, 2024.
  430. ^ City Attorney (February 12, 2024). "Officer Conduct Payout Amounts by Year". City of Minneapolis. Retrieved May 28, 2024.
  431. ^ Navratil, Liz; Mahamud, Faiza (July 12, 2022). "Pressure mounts against Minneapolis City Council's Rainville". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  432. ^ Jany, Libor (February 6, 2021). "Minneapolis violent crimes soared in 2020 amid pandemic, protests". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  433. ^ Kolls, Jay (January 3, 2023). "Minneapolis violent crime numbers drop significantly in 2022". KSTP-TV. Hubbard Broadcasting. Archived from the original on January 3, 2023. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  434. ^ Pross, Katrina (February 2, 2024). "Independent monitor chosen to oversee Minneapolis police reforms". Sahan Journal. Archived from the original on May 18, 2024. Retrieved May 19, 2024.
  435. ^ "Fossil Fuel Divestment Resolution (RCA-2020-00783)". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 2, 2023. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  436. ^ "The District Among 17 Leading International Cities to Launch Global Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance". Department of Energy & Environment (Press release). Dc.gov. March 30, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2023. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  437. ^ Yudhishthu, Zak (August 31, 2023). "Ending minimum parking requirements was a policy win for the Twin Cities". Minnesota Reformer. Archived from the original on November 8, 2023. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  438. ^ Melo, Frederick (January 27, 2017). "Are St. Paul and Minneapolis 'sanctuary cities'? Trump's federal cuts raise questions". St. Paul Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  439. ^ The brothers titled their book Two Volunteer Missionaries Among the Dakotas. Virtue, Ethel B. "Pond Family Papers". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 3, 2023. Retrieved June 3, 2023.
  440. ^ "The US Indian Agency (1820–1853)". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  441. ^ Clemmons 2005, p. 181.
  442. ^ "A Brief History". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on June 3, 2023. Retrieved June 3, 2023.
  443. ^ "Magnet Schools with innovative programs". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on August 19, 2023. Retrieved August 18, 2023.
  444. ^ a b Klecker, Mara (February 22, 2023). "Minneapolis Public Schools predicts enrollment decline, budget shortfall". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  445. ^ a b Whitler, Melissa (April 11, 2022). "What is the Comprehensive District Design?". Southwest Voices. Archived from the original on February 20, 2023. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  446. ^ "Directory: Schools". MN Association of Charter Schools. Archived from the original on February 25, 2023. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  447. ^ "Charter Schools". Minnesota Department of Education. Archived from the original on February 24, 2023. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  448. ^ "MPS Alternative and Extended Learning Programs...Where Students Have a Choice with Learner Options". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  449. ^ a b c "Edison High School". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 21, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  450. ^ "Welcome to the Multilingual Department". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 21, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  451. ^ "MN Free School Meals Program". Minnesota Department of Education. Archived from the original on February 4, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  452. ^ "Minneapolis Public Schools sees graduation rates increase". Minneapolis Public Schools. April 25, 2023. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
  453. ^ a b c "University of Minnesota Twin Cities". QS Quacquarelli Symonds. 2024. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  454. ^ a b "University of Minnesota". Times Higher Education. 2024. Archived from the original on February 19, 2023. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  455. ^ a b "University of Minnesota, Twin Cities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. 2024. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  456. ^ "University of Minnesota Twin Cities". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  457. ^ Vue, Katelyn (July 7, 2020). "Over 150 years ago, tribal land revived the University. Now, American Indian leaders, students and faculty want this history addressed". Minnesota Daily. Archived from the original on November 25, 2023. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  458. ^ Almeroth-Williams, Tom (April 6, 2020). "The great university land-grab". University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on February 14, 2024. Retrieved April 11, 2024. The Treaty of 1837 gave 1,062,334 acres, more than any other land cession, to 33 LGUs
  459. ^ Bhattacharya, Ananya (July 10, 2023). "Native Americans are struggling to put a dollar value on how much "land-grab" universities owe them". Quartz. Archived from the original on November 25, 2023. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  460. ^ Callaghan, Peter (January 25, 2022). "From academics to COVID mandates, why the University of Minnesota gets to do pretty much whatever it wants". MinnPost. Archived from the original on February 3, 2022. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  461. ^ The Princeton Review 2014, pp. 49, 490, 538.
  462. ^ "About Minneapolis College". Minneapolis Community and Technical College. November 9, 2021. Archived from the original on March 3, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  463. ^ "About Us". Dunwoody College of Technology. Archived from the original on March 3, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  464. ^ The Princeton Review 2014, p. 655.
  465. ^ Navratil, Liz (June 6, 2024). "Red Lake Nation College opens in Minneapolis, offering higher education and cultural connection". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 6, 2024. Retrieved June 7, 2024.
  466. ^ "We're here to help you". Capella University. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  467. ^ "Contact Us". Walden University. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  468. ^ "Minneapolis". Metropolitan State University. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  469. ^ "Our Campuses". University of St. Thomas. Archived from the original on March 2, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  470. ^ "Licensed Career Schools". Minnesota Office of Higher Education. Archived from the original on March 3, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2023.
  471. ^ "Minnesota Newspaper Directory" (PDF). Minnesota Newspaper Association. March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  472. ^ Scheck, Tom (October 16, 2006). "Hutchinson gets an endorsement and some scheduled criticism". MPR News. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  473. ^ "Listening and Learning through Crises" (PDF). Metro Transit. Summer 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  474. ^ Weber, Laura (July 1, 2014). "After four failures, Rabbi Samuel Deinard found success with 'American Jewish World'". MinnPost. Retrieved March 22, 2024.
  475. ^ Cornell 2016, p. 298.
  476. ^ Reilly, Mark (June 22, 2023). "Minneapolis neighborhood news site Southwest Voices adding outlet covering downtown". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on July 13, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  477. ^ Steele, Matt (September 15, 2016). "Is this new high school really an upgrade?". Strong Towns. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  478. ^ Lambert, Brian (August 7, 2015). "Why the Pohlads bought BringMeTheNews — and what they're going to do with it". MinnPost. Archived from the original on December 2, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  479. ^ McLaughlin, Shaymus (August 2, 2021). "Racket, a new alternative news site from former City Pages editors, launches this month". Bring Me The News. Archived from the original on November 19, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  480. ^ "MinnPost". C-SPAN. Archived from the original on March 21, 2024. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  481. ^ Boller, Jay (October 19, 2022). "After 120+ Years, the Minnesota Daily Quietly Killed Its Print Edition". Racket. Archived from the original on June 6, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  482. ^ Keller & O'Meara 2007, p. 86.
  483. ^ "Magazine". American Craft Council. Archived from the original on April 29, 2023. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  484. ^ "Minnesota manufacturing: Growth year projected". Brainerd Dispatch. June 19, 2017. Archived from the original on March 31, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  485. ^ "Twin Cities Business". City and Regional Magazine Association. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  486. ^ "Rain Taxi". Community of Literary Magazines and Presses. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  487. ^ "Great River Review". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  488. ^ "University of Minnesota Law School Overview". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on December 15, 2023. Retrieved March 22, 2024.
  489. ^ "Minnesota law review [electronic resource]". University of Colorado. Archived from the original on March 22, 2024. Retrieved March 22, 2024.
  490. ^ "Archictecture Minnesota: Weisman Art Museum by Frank Gehry". MinnPost. Archived from the original on December 5, 2022. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  491. ^ "Bench & bar of Minnesota". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on March 22, 2024. Retrieved March 22, 2024.
  492. ^ "Research shows raising the tobacco sale age would keep Minnesota kids from starting". Minnesota Department of Health. Archived from the original on October 2, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  493. ^ "Comparisons of 2021–2022 and 2022–2023 Market Ranks" (Excel). National Association of Broadcasters. Archived from the original on February 24, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  494. ^ "Minneapolis MN". Radio Locator. Theodric Technologies. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  495. ^ "Minneapolis-St. Paul DMA Map In 2023". Media Market Map. May 25, 2021. Archived from the original on February 21, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  496. ^ "Minneapolis, MN – TV Schedule". TV Guide. Fandom. Archived from the original on February 22, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  497. ^ a b "Commuting characteristics by sex". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  498. ^ "About Metro Transit". Metro Transit. Archived from the original on April 18, 2023. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  499. ^ "Schedules & Maps". Metro Transit. Archived from the original on March 17, 2023. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  500. ^ "Metro Transit". Moovit. Intel. December 3, 2022. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  501. ^ Hazzard, Andrew (November 15, 2021). "The Metro Blue Line Extension is finally moving forward. But some fear it will drive up rents and force them to leave". Sahan Journal. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  502. ^ Moore, Janet (March 7, 2020). "Transit ridership in Twin Cities metro area declined slightly last year". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  503. ^ Moore, Janet (December 19, 2020). "Bottineau Blue Line light-rail reboot takes shape". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  504. ^ Moore, Janet (December 21, 2022). "Met Council approves additional $111 million for Southwest light-rail line, but more is needed". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on December 22, 2022. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  505. ^ a b Brey, Jared (December 9, 2022). "Minneapolis Wants to Be the 'Bus Rapid Transit Capital of North America'". Governing. e.Republic. Archived from the original on December 9, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  506. ^ Moore, Janet (March 14, 2023). "Met Council study finds no easy answers to ridership woes on Northstar commuter rail". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 18, 2023. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  507. ^ Moore, Janet (August 19, 2019). "'Transit is not a shelter': Green Line curtails all-night service". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  508. ^ a b Moore, Janet (February 5, 2024). "Crime jumped 32% on Metro Transit trains, buses in 2023". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 6, 2024. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  509. ^ Schaper, David (August 1, 2017). "10 Years After Bridge Collapse, America Is Still Crumbling". NPR. Archived from the original on August 23, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  510. ^ Impact Report (PDF) (Report). HOURCAR. 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 2, 2023. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  511. ^ Star Tribune staff (April 11, 2023). "Minneapolis bikes, scooters for rent again starting this week". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  512. ^ "Minneapolis bicycling facts". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on December 12, 2022. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  513. ^ "Trails & Parkways". Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  514. ^ "Your Guide to the Minneapolis Skyway System". Meet Minneapolis. Archived from the original on August 1, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  515. ^ "Flights & Airlines". Metropolitan Airports Commission. Archived from the original on April 22, 2023. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  516. ^ Thomas, Dylan (December 12, 2019). "Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport on track for third annual passenger record in a row". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  517. ^ "Delta Air Lines". Meet Minneapolis. Archived from the original on April 22, 2023. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  518. ^ Painter, Kristen Leigh (June 19, 2021). "Delta's new station chief works to build back MSP hub after pandemic". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on April 22, 2023. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  519. ^ a b "About the Partnership". Minneapolis Clean Energy Partnership. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  520. ^ Water Resources Management Plan (PDF) (Report). City of Minneapolis. December 14, 2021. pp. 3–11, 3–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  521. ^ "Fire station locations". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on July 20, 2023. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  522. ^ "311". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023 – via OpenGov.
  523. ^ "Contact 311". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
  524. ^ "What we do". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on August 20, 2023. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  525. ^ "Minneapolis Central City Tunnel: Project overview" (Press release). City of Minneapolis. August 7, 2023. Archived from the original on August 20, 2023. Retrieved August 20, 2023 – via Granicus.
  526. ^ Vue, Katelyn (August 6, 2022). "Underground army tunnels under downtown to expand Minneapolis stormwater system". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 20, 2023. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  527. ^ St. Anthony, Neal (May 2, 2020). "'Ambassadors' ready downtown for gradual return of workers with long list of projects". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  528. ^ Forgrave, Reid (September 15, 2023). "Inside Minnesota's busiest ER, the trauma of dealing with trauma never stops". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on September 17, 2023. Retrieved September 15, 2023.
  529. ^ "Individual Hospital Statistics for Minnesota". American Hospital Directory, Inc. September 26, 2022. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  530. ^ Jeffrey 2001, p. 59.
  531. ^ Jeffrey 2001, p. 61.
  532. ^ Jeffrey 2001, p. 65.
  533. ^ "Hennepin Healthcare". Minnesota Project Search. State of Minnesota. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  534. ^ "The History of Emergency Medicine at Hennepin". Hennepin County Medical Center. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  535. ^ "Opioids". City of Minneapolis: Minneapolis Health Department. Archived from the original on October 6, 2023. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  536. ^ "Drug Overdose Dashboard". Minnesota Department of Health. Archived from the original on October 1, 2023. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  537. ^ Edwards, Kiya (October 5, 2023). "Minneapolis to invest in culturally specific recovery programming". KARE-TV. Archived from the original on March 20, 2024. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  538. ^ Jackson, Zoë (September 21, 2023). "Minneapolis announces plans to transfer land to Red Lake Nation". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on October 6, 2023. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  539. ^ "Marked Agenda: Minneapolis City Council Agenda, Regular Meeting". City of Minneapolis. October 5, 2023. Archived from the original on October 6, 2023. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  540. ^ Huggins, Katherine; Mueller, Julia (May 24, 2022). "Tribal Pharmacy Dispenses Free Meds and Fills Gaps for Native Americans in the City". KFF Health News. KFF. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  541. ^ "Sister Cities". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2020.

Works cited

Books

  • Baldwin, Rufus J. (1893). "Early Settlement". History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 29–48.
  • Taylor, David Vassar (1981). "The Blacks". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 73–91.
  • Vecoli, Rudolph J. (1981). "The Italians". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 449–471.
  • Saloutos, Theodore (1981). "The Greeks". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 472–488.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Chinese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 531–545.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Filipinos". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 546–557.
  • Albert, Michael (1981). "The Japanese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 558–571.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Koreans". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 572–579.
  • Mason, Sarah R. (1981). "The Indochinese". They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. pp. 580–592.

Journal articles

  • Bly, Mark; Schechter, Joel (November 1, 1979). "The Guthrie: An Interview with Alvin Epstein and Michael Feingold". Theater. 10 (3). Duke University Press: 33–39. doi:10.1215/00440167-10-3-33. ISSN 1527-196X.
  • Clemmons, L.M. (2005). ""We Will Talk of Nothing Else": Dakota Interpretations of the Treaty of 1837". Great Plains Quarterly. 25 (3): 173