Greater Pittsburgh
Metro Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Downtown Pittsburgh, November 2011
Downtown Pittsburgh, November 2011
Pittsburgh–New Castle–Weirton, PA-WV-OH CSA
Greater Pittsburgh is located in the United States
Greater Pittsburgh
Greater Pittsburgh
Location of Greater Pittsburgh within the United States
Coordinates: 40°27′N 79°59′W / 40.45°N 79.98°W / 40.45; -79.98
CountryUnited States
State(s)Pennsylvania
Largest cityPittsburgh
Population
 • Total2,370,930[1]
 • Rank27th in the U.S.
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern Standard Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (Eastern Daylight Time)

Greater Pittsburgh is a populous region centered around its largest city and economic hub, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The region encompasses Pittsburgh's urban core county, Allegheny, and six adjacent Pennsylvania counties (Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland) in Western Pennsylvania which constitute the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.

As of the 2020 census, the Greater Pittsburgh region had a population of over 2.37 million people. Roughly one-fifth of the entire population of Pennsylvania resides within the region.[citation needed] The core city, Pittsburgh, has a population of 302,971, making it the second-largest city in the state. Over half of the region's population resides within Allegheny County, which has a population of 1.24 million and is the second-largest county in the state.[2]

Definitions

Historical population
Census Pop.
185013,829
1860178,8311,193.2%
1870262,20446.6%
1880355,86935.7%
1890664,77886.8%
19001,083,84663.0%
19101,471,80035.8%
19201,759,98919.6%
19302,023,26915.0%
19402,062,5561.9%
19502,213,2367.3%
19602,768,93825.1%
19702,759,443−0.3%
19802,648,991−4.0%
19902,468,289−6.8%
20002,431,087−1.5%
20102,356,285−3.1%
20202,370,9300.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[3]
1790–1960[4] 1900–1990[5]
1990–2000[6][1]

Garrett Nelson and Alasdair Rae's 2016 analysis of American commuter flows, "An Economic Geography of the United States: From Commutes to Megaregions", identified the Pittsburgh megaregion as a region encompassing the entirety or significant portions of 54 counties in Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, Northern West Virginia, and Western Maryland.[7] By this definition, the informal regional boundaries are similar to historical interpretations where the region is defined as the central portion of the Allegheny Plateau to the west and north of the Allegheny Front and south of Lake Erie and Pennsylvania's Northern Tier.[8] The hills and river valleys along the Upper Ohio River and its many eastern tributaries, including the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers have historically been the major centers of population of the region.[8]

According to this research the US can be divided into 'mega regions' based on the most extreme commuting patterns within a geographical area (commutes within 100 miles from the core city). By this liberal definition, the Pittsburgh mega region consists of twenty-eight Pennsylvania counties (Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Bedford, Blair, Butler, Cambria, Cameron, Centre, Clarion, Clearfield, Crawford, Elk, Erie, Fayette, Forest, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Lawrence, Mercer, Mifflin, Somerset, Venango, Warren, Washington, and Westmoreland), nineteen West Virginia counties (Barbour, Brooke, Doddridge, Grant, Hancock, Harrison, Lewis, Marion, Marshall, Mineral, Monongalia, Ohio, Preston, Randolph, Taylor, Tucker, Tyler, Upshur, and Wetzel), five Ohio counties (Belmont, Columbiana, Harrison, Jefferson, and Monroe), and two Maryland counties (Allegany and Garrett), and portions of Chautauqua, New York in and around Ripley. .[7] The combined population of the megaregion was over 4.9 million in 2016.[9]

Border of Pittsburgh Megaregion showing included counties[10]
Border of Pittsburgh Megaregion showing included counties[10]

There are also several formal definitions of Greater Pittsburgh which are often used in media mentions of the region. These include the Office of Management and Budget's Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area (CSA).[11] The Nielsen Corporation's Pittsburgh Designated Market Area (DMA) is another commonly used formal definition of the region.[12] There are nineteen counties included in at least one of these definitions and their combined population was over 2.9 million in 2016.[9]

Greater Pittsburgh Counties
by Formal Definitions
County State Formal Definition Population

(2016)[9]

MSA CSA DMA
Allegheny PA Yes Yes Yes 1,225,365
Armstrong PA Yes Yes Yes 66,486
Beaver PA Yes Yes Yes 167,429
Brooke WV No Yes No 22,977
Butler PA Yes Yes Yes 186,847
Clarion PA No No Yes 38,513
Fayette PA Yes Yes Yes 132,733
Forest PA No No Yes 7,321
Garrett MD No No Yes 29,425
Greene PA No No Yes 37,197
Hancock WV No Yes No 29,590
Indiana PA No Yes Yes 86,364
Jefferson OH No Yes No 66,704
Lawrence PA No Yes Yes 87,294
Monongalia WV No No Yes 104,622
Preston WV No No Yes 33,758
Venango PA No No Yes 52,582
Washington PA Yes Yes Yes 207,981
Westmoreland PA Yes Yes Yes 355,458
Total Population 2,938,646

Economy

Historically, Pittsburgh has been grouped in the "rust belt";[13] however, reflective of the rebound of the region within the last generation, the metro area has been included as a part of the "Great Lakes Basin" gaining representation in the Great Lakes Metro Chamber Coalition.[14][15]

Pittsburgh's association with the Great Lakes region is due in part to its economic, demographic and commuter connections to Great Lakes cities like Cleveland, Erie, Toledo and even Detroit.[16] Christopher Briem, an economist at the University of Pittsburgh's University Center for Social and Urban Research, has argued that southwestern Pennsylvania is "far more interconnected" with northeastern Ohio than it is with the eastern half of Pennsylvania, and that the industries of Pittsburgh are primarily linked to Ohioan cities such as Youngstown, Akron, and Cleveland, not to Pennsylvanian cities such as Allentown, Scranton, or Philadelphia.[17] He notes that, conversely, the population centers of northeastern Ohio are primarily connected with Pittsburgh and only secondarily connected to the state capital of Columbus. Briem argues that "In so many ways the state boundaries we think of as important are no more than lines on a map."[17] In recognizing their economic interdependence, Briem coined the term "Cleveburgh" to refer collectively to the cities of Cleveland and Pittsburgh, along with the smaller towns dotting the corridor of I-76 between the cities.[17][18][19] Robert Lang and Arthur Nelson of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech also identify the region between Cleveland and Pittsburgh as being an interconnected "megapolitan area" and refer to it as the "Steel Corridor".[20]

Education

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University of Pittsburgh campus in the Oakland neighborhood.
University of Pittsburgh campus in the Oakland neighborhood.

The largest school district in the area is the Pittsburgh Public Schools, with the school districts of Allegheny County also boasting large student bodies. Many private schools also serve the core county of Allegheny. More public districts are found throughout Beaver, Westmoreland, and Washington counties, as well as private schools in each county.

Several area colleges and universities serve the region. Pittsburgh itself is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which are Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Duquesne University. Also in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, the Community College of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science. Within the greater metropolitan area, universities include Clarion University of Pennsylvania, La Roche University, Slippery Rock University, Westminster College and Grove City College north of the city, Robert Morris University and Geneva College west of the city, Washington & Jefferson College, Pennsylvania Western University and Waynesburg University to the south, and Seton Hill University, Saint Vincent College and Indiana University of Pennsylvania to the east.

Transportation

Airports

Pittsburgh International Airport's Landside Terminal
Pittsburgh International Airport's Landside Terminal

Pittsburgh International Airport (IATA: PIT) is located 17 miles (27 km) to the west of downtown Pittsburgh in Findlay.[21] The smaller but less crowded Arnold Palmer Regional Airport (IATA: LBE) to the east of downtown in Latrobe provide commercial service to the metro area.

Pittsburgh International was the fortress hub of US Airways from 1952 to 2005 with over 500 daily departures to more than 110 destinations in 2000. By 2007, fewer than 70 departures to 21 destinations remained.[22] In 2007, US Airways did select the airport for its new $25 million, 27,000 sq ft (2,500 m2), 600-employees-strong Global Flight Operations Center. Since being de-hubbed the airport has seen expanded service from JetBlue, Southwest Airlines and Delta Air Lines' direct trans-Atlantic service to Paris.

Arnold Palmer Regional Airport offers commercial service via Spirit Airlines to the Carolinas, Florida and Texas. Palmer has had commercially scheduled air service since the 1980s.

Allegheny County Airport (IATA: AGC) in suburban West Mifflin, Pennsylvania, is the area's largest general aviation airport. The historic landmark, art deco terminal was the main passenger airport for the area until 1952. Allegheny opened in 1931 as the nation's third-largest and first with "hard surface" runways.

Smaller suburban airports serve as private plane and corporate jet bases include:

Interstates

The Pittsburgh area is served by four main-line Interstates including the Pennsylvania Turnpike (which is co-signed with I-76 and in the extreme eastern part of the region also co-signed with I-70):

It's also served by several Interstate spur routes:

Other expressways

Port

The Port of Pittsburgh ranks as the 21st-largest port in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked 9th-largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade.[23]

Mass transit

Port Authority light rail train, Washington Junction Station, March 2005.
Port Authority light rail train, Washington Junction Station, March 2005.

The Pittsburgh Regional Transit agency (PRT) is the largest mass transit service in the metro area and includes a 26-mile subway/light rail system, all serving the central core. This system is complemented by the Butler Transit Authority and Town & Country Transit to north destinations, Beaver County Transit Authority and New Castle Area Transit Authority to northwest destinations, Westmoreland County Transit Authority and IndiGo to eastern destinations, and Washington City Transit, Mid Mon Valley Transit Authority and Fayette Area Coordinated Transportation serving southern destinations. The University of Pittsburgh Transportation System also provides services in the eastern core of the metropolitan area while Mountain Line Transit serves the city, western suburbs and an express route south to Morgantown, West Virginia.

A metro map of all fixed route transit routes for Pennsylvania counties can be found here.[24]

Rail

Amtrak serves the region with stops at Penn Station in Downtown Pittsburgh, Connellsville to the southeast and both Greensburg and Latrobe to the east.

Freight rail is a major industry for the area with the Pittsburgh Line and the Conway Yard among other infrastructure serving the region.

Interstate bus

Both the Greyhound Lines and Megabus serve the area.

Recreation & rail trails

Culture

Pittsburgh and its surrounding area has a distinct regional identity and has historically been regarded as a transitional region within the Northeastern United States. The region's counties also fall within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission.[25] The City of Pittsburgh has been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia"[26]: which makes it an anomaly compared to much of Appalachia which has traditionally been characterized as southern, rural, and economically distressed.[26]

Joseph Scarpaci, professor emeritus of geography at Virginia Tech,[27] has described Pittsburgh as having "one foot in the East...and the other in the Midwest".[26] Barbara Johnstone, professor of rhetoric and linguistics at Carnegie Mellon University, ascribes this isolation and idiosyncratic cultural identity of the region to the difficulty of moving through the Allegheny Mountains and the Allegheny Plateau.

The Pittsburgh area was sort of isolated. It was very hard to get back and forth across the mountains. There's always been a sense that Pittsburgh was kind of a place unto itself—not really southern, not really Midwestern, not really part of Pennsylvania. People just didn't move very much.[28]

In his 2009 book, The Paris of Appalachia, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette writer Brian O'Neill meditates on this aspect of Pittsburgh's regional and cultural ambiguity. The title of the book is intentionally provocative:

"The Paris of Appalachia" some have called Pittsburgh derisively, because it's still the largest city along this gorgeous mountain chain that needs a better press agent. I've long felt we should embrace that title, though few are with me. Several tried to talk me out of slapping it on the cover, but were we called "The Paris of the Rockies," we wouldn't run from it. Sometimes we're so afraid of what others think, we're afraid to say who we are. This city is not Midwestern. It's not East Coast. It's just Pittsburgh, and there's no place like it. That's both its blessing and its curse.[29]

Arts

Visual arts

Greater Pittsburgh is home to several museums, galleries, and organizations which promote appreciation for the visual arts. The largest art museum in the region is the Carnegie Museum of Art, founded in 1895 by industrialist Andrew Carnegie and located in Pittsburgh's Oakland neighborhood. It is renowned for its collections of 19th and 20th century decorative art, Japanese prints, and old master prints.[30] Contemporary art museums include the Mattress Factory and the Andy Warhol Museum, both located on Pittsburgh's North Side.[31][32]

Other regional visual arts museums include:[33][34]

Sports and recreation

Main article: Sports in Pittsburgh

PNC Park in the North Shore neighborhood, home of the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team since 2001.
PNC Park in the North Shore neighborhood, home of the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team since 2001.

The Pittsburgh area served as a launchpad for the professionalization of both American football and ice hockey in the 1890s and 1900s. The first professional player (William Heffelfinger) played for a Pittsburgh football team in 1892, which was followed by the first open professional (John Brallier), the first all-professional team (the Latrobe Athletic Association), and a participant in the first all-professional league (the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League). In the case of ice hockey, the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League was the first hockey league to pay its players in 1901, eventually merging into the first fully pro league, the International Professional Hockey League, in 1904. Professional hockey in Pennsylvania predated the professionalization of the game in Canada (where it eventually came to dominate in the early 20th century) by four years.

Today, the region is home to three major league franchises in baseball, football, and hockey; several minor league teams in soccer, baseball, and hockey; and three major NCAA universities.

Pittsburgh area teams
Club Sport League (Conf) Venue Location
Pittsburgh Pirates Baseball MLB PNC Park Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh Steelers American football NFL Heinz Field Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh Penguins Ice hockey NHL PPG Paints Arena Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh Riverhounds Soccer USL Highmark Stadium Pittsburgh
Washington Wildthings Baseball Frontier League Consol Energy Park Washington
Wheeling Nailers Ice hockey ECHL WesBanco Arena Wheeling
University of Pittsburgh Panthers various NCAA (ACC) various Pittsburgh
Duquesne University Dukes various NCAA (A-10, NEC) various Pittsburgh
Robert Morris University Colonials various NCAA (Horizon) various Moon
Indiana University of Pennsylvania Crimson Hawks various NCAA (PSAC) various Indiana
California University of Pennsylvania Vulcans various NCAA (PSAC) various California
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania The Rock various NCAA (PSAC) various Slippery Rock
Franciscan University of Steubenville Barons various NCAA (AMCC) various Steubenville
West Liberty University Hilltoppers various NCAA (MEC) various West Liberty
Seton Hill University Griffins various NCAA (PSAC) various Greensburg
Carnegie Mellon University Tartans various NCAA (PAC) various Pittsburgh
Saint Vincent College Bearcats various NCAA (PAC, ECAC) various Latrobe
Geneva College Golden Tornadoes various NCAA (PAC) various Beaver Falls
Chatham University Cougars various NCAA (PAC) various Pittsburgh
Washington & Jefferson College Presidents various NCAA (PAC) various Washington
Westminster College Titans various NCAA (PAC) various New Wilmington
Bethany College Bison various NCAA (PAC) various Bethany

Golf

Golf in the metro area boasts such courses as Oakmont Country Club, which has hosted the U.S. Open a record nine times, and Foxburg Country Club the oldest continuous club in the U.S. Such tournaments as the 84 Lumber Classic, Pittsburgh Senior Open and the current Mylan Classic call the region home. Area courses have also hosted multiple PGA Championships, LPGA Championships, U.S. Women's Opens and Ryder Cup matches.

Annual sports events

Annual sporting events include the Head of the Ohio crew race, Three Rivers Regatta, Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix, and the Pittsburgh Marathon.

The regions rivers have hosted the Bassmaster Classic and Forrest Wood Cup and the city has enjoyed having one of only two teams to host the Major League Baseball All Star Game a record eight times. The area has also hosted the NHL All Star Game, NHL Winter Classic, Senior Olympics, NHL Entry Draft, AHL All Star Game, NCAA Tournament and Frozen Four.

Winter in the region sees sport continue at such rinks at PPG Place and North Park as well as area ski resorts like Boyce Park, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Hidden Valley, Laurel Mountain and Wisp.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  2. ^ Bureau, US Census. "2020 Population and Housing State Data". Census.gov. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  3. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  4. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  5. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  6. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Nelson, Garrett Dash; Rae, Alasdair (2016-11-30). "An Economic Geography of the United States: From Commutes to Megaregions". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166083. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166083D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166083. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5130203. PMID 27902707.
  8. ^ a b Buck, Solon (1967). "The Planting of civilization in western Pennsylvania | Digital Pitt". digital.library.pitt.edu. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
  9. ^ a b c Bureau, US Census. "County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2016". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  10. ^ Alasdair, Rae; G.D., Nelson, Garrett (2017-01-31). "United States Commutes and Megaregions data for GIS". Figshare. doi:10.15131/shef.data.4110156.v5.
  11. ^ Donovan, Shaun (2015-07-15). "OMB BULLETIN NO. 15-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). Obama White House Archives. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  12. ^ "NIELSEN DMA—DESIGNATED MARKET AREA REGIONS 2015–2016" (PDF). Video Advertising Bureau (VBA). Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  13. ^ Mostrous, Alexi (September 24, 2009). "Pittsburgh, Site of G-20 Summit, Is Shaking Off Its Smoky Image". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  14. ^ "GREAT LAKES METRO CHAMBERS COALITION". Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  15. ^ "Great Lakes Chambers of Commerce: Congressional leaders need to support transit funding". The Hill. 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  16. ^ "Great Lakes Monitor Tracking Economic Recession and Recovery in the 21 Largest Metropolitan Areas of the Great Lakes Region" (PDF). Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  17. ^ a b c Briem, Christopher (January 2, 2011). "Welcome to Cleveburgh! Pittsburghers need to rethink their place in the world". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
  18. ^ Briem, Christopher (January 22, 2011). "Residents of Cleveland and Pittsburgh need to rethink their place in the world". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  19. ^ "Cleveburgh". Crain's Cleveland Business. April 23, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  20. ^ Lang, Robert E.; Arthur C. Nelson (January 2007). "The Rise of the Megapolitans" (PDF). Planning: 7–12.
  21. ^ Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Convention and Visitors Bureau. visitpittsburgh.com
  22. ^ David Grossman, "Dismantling Pittsburgh: Death of an airline hub," USA Today October 15, 2007
  23. ^ http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/PDFs/2011%20U%20S%20%20PORT%20RANKINGS%20BY%20CARGO%20TONNAGE.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  24. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2012-10-04.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "Counties in Appalachia - Appalachian Regional Commission". www.arc.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  26. ^ a b c Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Patrick, Kevin Joseph (June 28, 2006). Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: cultural and natural resources in a postindustrial age. University of Pittsburgh Pre. ISBN 978-0-8229-4282-5. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  27. ^ "Joseph L. Scarpaci". Virginia Tech, Department of Geography. Archived from the original on 2017-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  28. ^ Malady, Matthew J.X. "Where Yinz At: Why Pennsylvania is the most linguistically rich state in the country". Slate. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  29. ^ O'Neill, Brian (2009). The Paris of Appalachia: Pittsburgh in the Twenty-first Century. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 978-0-88748-509-1.
  30. ^ "Carnegie Museum of Art". Pittsburgh Art Places. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  31. ^ "History | Mattress Factory". www.mattress.org. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  32. ^ "Museum - The Andy Warhol Museum". The Andy Warhol Museum. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  33. ^ "Pittsburgh Art Places". www.pittsburghartplaces.org. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  34. ^ "Home - PA Federation of Museums and Historical Places". PA Federation of Museums and Historical Places. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  35. ^ "Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art | Welcome!". www.sama-art.org. Retrieved 2018-03-07.

Coordinates: 40°25′16″N 79°59′02″W / 40.421°N 79.984°W / 40.421; -79.984