This article needs attention from an expert in Vietnam. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Vietnam may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2023)
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (November 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Vietnamese people / Kinh people
người Việt / người Kinh
Total population
c. 89 million
Regions with significant populations
 Vietnam82,085,826 (2019)[1]
 United States2,183,000 (2019)[2]
 Japan520,154 (2023)[4]
 Australia334,781 (2021)[8]
 Canada275,530 (2021)[9]
 Taiwan246,973 (2023)[a]–470,000[18][19]
 South Korea209,373 (2022)[b]
 Germany207,000 (2022)[21]
 United Kingdom90,000[28]–100,000[29][30]
 Czech Republic60,000–80,000[32]
 Mainland China42,000[35][36]–303,000[37][c]/33,112 (2020)[38][d]
 Norway28,114 (2022)[39]
 Netherlands24,594 (2021)[40]
 Sweden21,528 (2021)[41]
 Macau20,000 (2018)[42]
 United Arab Emirates20,000[43]
 Saudi Arabia20,000[44][45][46]
 Denmark16,141 (2022)[49]
 Finland13,291 (2021)[52]
 New Zealand10,086 (2018)[55]
 Hungary7,304 (2016)[57]
Predominantly Vietnamese folk religion syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism. Minorities of Christians (mostly Roman Catholics) and other groups.[66]
Related ethnic groups
Other Vietic ethnic groups
(Gin, Muong, Chứt, Thổ peoples)

The Vietnamese people (Vietnamese: người Việt , lit.'Việt people' or 'Việt humans') or the Kinh people (Vietnamese: người Kinh , lit.'Metropolitan people'), also recognized as the Viet people[67] or the Viets, are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to modern-day Northern Vietnam and Southern China who speak Vietnamese, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language.

Vietnamese Kinh people account for just over 85.32% of the population of Vietnam in the 2019 census, and are officially designated and recognized as the Kinh people (người Kinh) to distinguish them from the other minority groups residing in the country such as the Hmong, Cham, or Mường. The Vietnamese are one of the four main groups of Vietic speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Mường, Thổ, and Chứt people. They are related to the Gin people, a minority ethnic group in China.


According to Churchman (2010), all endonyms and exonyms referring to the Vietnamese such as Viet (related to ancient Chinese geographical imagination), Kinh (related to medieval administrative designation), or Keeu and Kæw (derived from Jiāo 交, ancient Chinese toponym for Northern Vietnam, Old Chinese *kraw) by Kra-Dai speaking peoples, are related to political structures or have common origins in ancient Chinese geographical imagination. Most of the time, the Austroasiatic-speaking ancestors of the modern Kinh under one single ruler might have assumed for themselves a similar or identical social self-designation inherent in the modern Vietnamese first-person pronoun ta (us, we, I) to differentiate themselves with other groups. In the older colloquial usage, ta corresponded to "ours" as opposed to "theirs", and during colonial time they were "nước ta" (our country) and "tiếng ta" (our language) in contrast to "nước tây" (western countries) and "tiếng tây" (western languages).[68]


The term "Việt" (Yue) (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuè; Cantonese Yale: Yuht; Wade–Giles: Yüeh4; Vietnamese: Việt) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越".[69] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang.[70][71] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south.[70] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.[69][70] From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called Minyue, Ouyue (Vietnamese: Âu Việt), Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè; Cantonese Yale: Baak Yuet; Vietnamese: Bách Việt; "Hundred Yue/Viet"; ).[69][70] The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC.[72][73] By the 17th and 18th centuries AD, educated Vietnamese referred to themselves as người Việt 𠊛越 (Viet people) or người Nam 𠊛南 (southern people).[74]

Người Việt 𠊛越 (Vietnamese people) written here in the book, 大南國史演歌 Đại Nam quốc sử diễn ca

According to Ye Wenxian (1990), apud Wan (2013), the ethnonym of the Yuefang in northwestern China is not associated with that of the Baiyue in southeastern China.[75]


Beginning in the 10th and 11th centuries, a strand of Viet-Muong (northern Vietic language) with influence from a hypothetic Chinese dialect in northern Vietnam, dubbed as Annamese Middle Chinese, started to become what is now the Vietnamese language.[76][77][78] Its speakers called themselves the "Kinh" people, meaning people of the "metropolitan" centered around the Red River Delta with Hanoi as its capital. Historic and modern chữ Nôm scripture classically uses the Han character '京', pronounced "Jīng" in Mandarin, and "Kinh" with Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation. Other variants of Proto-Viet-Muong were driven from the lowlands by the Kinh and were called Trại (寨 Mandarin: Zhài), or "outpost" people," by the 13th century. These became the modern Mường people.[79] According to Victor Lieberman, người Kinh (Chữ Nôm: 𠊛京) may be a colonial-era term for Vietnamese speakers inserted anachronistically into translations of pre-colonial documents, but literature on 18th century ethnic formation is lacking.[74]


Origins and pre-history

The forerunners of the ethnic Vietnamese descended from a subset of Proto-Austroasiatic people who are believed to have originated around the modern borders of southern China, either around Yunnan, Lingnan, or the Yangtze River, as well as mainland Southeast Asia. These proto-Austroasiatics also diverged into Monic speakers, who settled further to the west, and the Khmeric speakers, who migrated further south. The Munda of northeastern India were another subset of proto-Austroasiatics who likely diverged earlier than the aforementioned groups, given the linguistic distance in basic vocabulary of the languages. Most archaeologists, linguists, and other specialists, such as Sinologists and crop experts, believe that they arrived no later than 2000 BC, bringing with them the practice of riverine agriculture and in particular, the cultivation of wet rice.[80][81][82][83][84] Some linguists (James Chamberlain, Joachim Schliesinger) have suggested that Vietic-speaking people migrated from the North Central Region of Vietnam to the Red River Delta, which had originally been inhabited by Tai speakers.[85][86][87][88] However, Michael Churchman found no records of population shifts in Jiaozhi (centered around the Red River Delta) in Chinese sources, indicating that a fairly stable population of Austroasiatic speakers, ancestral to modern Vietnamese, inhabited the delta during the Han-Tang periods.[89] Others[who?] have proposed that northern Vietnam and southern China were never homogeneous in terms of ethnicity and languages but were populated by people who shared similar customs. These ancient tribes did not have any kind of defined ethnic boundary and could not be described as "Vietnamese" (Kinh) in any satisfactory sense.[90] Attempts to identify ethnic groups in ancient Vietnam are problematic and often inaccurate.[91]

Another theory, based upon linguistic diversity, locates the most probable homeland of the Vietic languages in modern-day Bolikhamsai Province and Khammouane Province in Laos as well as in parts of Nghệ An Province and Quảng Bình Province in Vietnam. In the 1930s, clusters of Vietic-speaking communities discovered in the hills of eastern Laos were believed to be the earliest inhabitants of that region.[92] Archaeogenetics demonstrated that before the Dong Son period, the Red River Delta's inhabitants were predominantly Austroasiatic: genetic data from the Phùng Nguyên culture's Mán Bạc burial site (dated 1,800 BC) have close proximity to modern Austroasiatic speakers such as the Khmer and Mlabri.[93][94] Meanwhile, "mixed genetics" from the Đông Sơn culture's Núi Nấp site show affinity with "Dai people from China, Tai-Kadai speakers from Thailand, and Austroasiatic speakers from Vietnam, including the Kinh".[95]

According to the Vietnamese legend The Tale of the Hồng Bàng Clan (Hồng Bàng thị truyện), written in the 15th century, the first Vietnamese were descended from the dragon lord Lạc Long Quân and the fairy Âu Cơ. They married and had one hundred eggs, from which hatched one hundred children. Their eldest son ruled as the Hùng king.[96] The Hùng kings were claimed to be descended from the mythical figure Shen Nong.[97]

Early history and Chinese rule

The earliest reference of the proto-Vietnamese in Chinese annals was the Lạc (Chinese: Luo), Lạc Việt, or the Dongsonian,[98] an ancient tribal confederacy of perhaps polyglot Austroasiatic and Kra-Dai speakers occupied the Red River Delta.[99][100] The Lạc developed the metallurgical Đông Sơn culture and the Văn Lang chiefdom, ruled by the semi-mythical Hùng kings.[101] To the south of the Dongsonians was the Sa Huỳnh culture of the Austronesian Chamic people.[102] Around 400–200 BC, the Lạc came to contact with the Âu Việt (a splinter group of Tai people) and the Sinitic people from the north.[103] According to a late-third- or early-fourth-century AD Chinese chronicle, the leader of the Âu Việt, Thục Phán, conquered Văn Lang and deposed the last Hùng king.[104] Having submissions of Lạc lords, Thục Phán proclaimed himself King An Dương of Âu Lạc kingdom.[101]

In 179 BC, Zhao Tuo, a Chinese general who has established the Nanyue state in modern-day Southern China, annexed Âu Lạc, and began the Sino-Vietic interaction that lasted in a millennium.[105] In 111 BC, the Han Empire conquered Nanyue, brought the Northern Vietnam region under Han rule.[106]

By the 7th century to 9th century AD, as the Tang Empire ruled over the region, historians such as Henri Maspero proposed that Vietnamese-speaking people became separated from other Vietic groups such as the Mường and Chứt due to heavier Chinese influences on the Vietnamese.[107] Other argue that a Vietic migration from north central Vietnam to the Red River Delta in the seventh century replaced the original Tai-speaking inhabitants.[108] In the mid-9th century, local rebels aided by Nanzhao tore the Tang Chinese rule to nearly collapse.[109] The Tang reconquered the region in 866, causing half of the local rebels to flee into the mountains, which historians believe that was the separation between the Mường and the Vietnamese took at the end of Tang rule in Vietnam.[107][110] In 938, the Vietnamese leader Ngô Quyền who was a native of Thanh Hóa, led Viet forces defeated the Chinese Southern Han armada at Bạch Đằng River and proclaimed himself king, became the first Viet king of polity that now could be perceived as "Vietnamese".[111]

Medieval and early modern period

One of the traditional costumes of Vietnamese people

Ngô Quyền died in 944 and his kingdom collapsed into chaos and disturbances between twelve warlords and chiefs.[112] In 968, a leader named Đinh Bộ Lĩnh united them and established the Đại Việt (Great Việt) kingdom.[113] With assistance of powerful Buddhist monks, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh chose Hoa Lư in the southern edge of the Red River Delta as the capital instead of Tang-era Đại La, adopted Chinese-style imperial titles, coinage, and ceremonies and tried to preserve the Chinese administrative framework.[114] The independence of Đại Việt, according to Andrew Chittick, allows it "to develop its own distinctive political culture and ethnic consciousness."[115] In 979, Emperor Đinh Tiên Hoàng was assassinated, and Queen Dương Vân Nga married with Dinh's general Lê Hoàn, appointed him as Emperor. Disturbances in Đại Việt attracted attention from the neighbouring Chinese Song dynasty and Champa Kingdom, but they were defeated by Lê Hoàn.[116] A Khmer inscription dated 987 records the arrival of Vietnamese merchants (Yuon) in Angkor.[117] Chinese writers Song Hao, Fan Chengda and Zhou Qufei all reported that the inhabitants of Đại Việt "tattooed their foreheads, crossed feet, black teeth, bare feet and blacken clothing."[118] The early 11th-century Cham inscription of Chiên Đàn, My Son, erected by king of Champa Harivarman IV (r. 1074–1080), mentions that he had offered Khmer (Kmīra/Kmir) and Viet (Yvan) prisoners as slaves to various local gods and temples of the citadel of Tralauṅ Svon.[119]

Successive Vietnamese royal families from the Đinh, Early Lê, Lý dynasties and (Hoa)/Chinese ancestry Trần and Hồ dynasties ruled the kingdom peacefully from 968 to 1407. Emperor Lý Thái Tổ (r. 1009–1028) relocated the Vietnamese capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La, the center of the Red River Delta in 1010.[120] They practiced elitist marriage alliances between clans and nobles in the country. Mahayana Buddhism became state religion, Vietnamese music instruments, dancing and religious worshipping were influenced by both Cham, Indian and Chinese styles,[121] while Confucianism slowly gained attention and influence.[122] The earliest surviving corpus and text in the Vietnamese language dated early 12th century, and surviving chữ Nôm script inscriptions dated early 13th century, showcasing enormous influences of Chinese culture among the early Vietnamese elites.[123]

The Mongol Yuan dynasty unsuccessfully invaded Đại Việt in the 1250s and 1280s, though they sacked Hanoi.[124] The Ming dynasty of China conquered Đại Việt in 1406, brought the Vietnamese under Chinese rule for 20 years, before they were driven out by Vietnamese leader Lê Lợi.[125] The fourth grandson of Lê Lợi, Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (r. 1460–1497), is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Vietnamese history. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, education, and fiscal reforms he instituted, and a cultural revolution that replaced the old traditional aristocracy with a generation of literati scholars, adopted Confucianism, and transformed a Đại Việt from a Southeast Asian style polity to a bureaucratic state, and flourished. Thánh Tông's forces, armed with gunpowder weapons, overwhelmed the long-term rival Champa in 1471, then launched an unsuccessful invasion against the Laotian and Lan Na kingdoms in the 1480s.[126]

16th century – Modern period

Vietnamese soldiers in 1828
Vietnamese bureaucrat officials, 1883–1886
Vietnamese farmers in 1921

With the death of Thánh Tông in 1497, the Đại Việt kingdom swiftly declined. Climate extremes, failing crops, regionalism and factionism tore the Vietnamese apart.[127] From 1533 to 1790s, four powerful Vietnamese families – Mạc, Lê, Trịnh and Nguyễn – each ruled on their own domains. In northern Vietnam (Đàng Ngoài–outer realm), the Lê emperors barely sat on the throne while the Trịnh lords held power of the court. The Mạc controlled northeast Vietnam. The Nguyễn lords ruled the southern polity of Đàng Trong (inner realm).[128] Thousands of ethnic Vietnamese migrated south, settled on the old Cham lands.[129] European missionaries and traders from the sixteenth century brought new religion, ideas and crops to the Vietnamese (Annamese). By 1639, there were 82,500 Catholic converts throughout Vietnam. In 1651, Alexandre de Rhodes published a 300-pages catechism in Latin and romanized-Vietnamese (chữ Quốc Ngữ) or the Vietnamese alphabet.[130]

The Vietnamese Fragmentation period ended in 1802 as Emperor Gia Long, who was aided by French mercenaries defeated the Tay Son kingdoms and reunited Vietnam. Through assimilation and brutal subjugation in the 1830s by Minh Mang, a large chunk of indigenous Cham had been assimilated into Vietnamese. By 1847, the Vietnamese state under Emperor Thiệu Trị, people that identified them as "người Việt Nam" accounted for nearly 80 percent of the country's population.[131] This demographic model continues to persist through the French Indochina, Japanese occupation and modern day.

Between 1862 and 1867, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina.[132] By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated into the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887.[133][134] The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society.[135] A Western-style system of modern education introduced new humanist values into Vietnam.[136]

Vietnamese soldiers in 1972

Despite having a long recorded history of the Vietnamese language and people, the identification and distinction of 'ethnic Vietnamese' or ethnic Kinh, as well as other ethnic groups in Vietnam, were only begun by colonial administration in the late 19th and early 20th century. Following colonial government's efforts of ethnic classificating, nationalism, especially ethnonationalism and eugenic social Darwinism were encouraged among the new Vietnamese intelligentsia's discourse. Ethnic tensions sparked by Vietnamese ethnonationalism peaked during the late 1940s at the beginning phase of the First Indochina War (1946–1954), which resulted in violence between Khmer and Vietnamese in the Mekong Delta.

The mid-20th century marked a pivotal turning point with the Vietnam War, a conflict that not only left an indelible impact on the nation but also had far-reaching consequences for the Vietnamese people. The war, which lasted from 1955 to 1975, resulted in significant social, economic, and political upheavals, shaping the modern history of Vietnam and its people. Following the reunification of Vietnam in 1975, the post-war era brought economic hardships and strained social dynamics, prompting resilient efforts at reconstruction, reconciliation, and the implementation of economic reforms such as the Đổi Mới policies in the late 20th century. Later, North Vietnam's Soviet-style social integrational and ethnic classification tried to build an image of diversity under the harmony of socialism, promoting the idea of the Vietnamese nation as a 'great single family' comprised by many different ethnic groups, and Vietnamese ethnic chauvinism was officially discouraged.


Main article: Religion in Vietnam

Religion in Vietnam (2019)[1]

  Vietnamese folk religion or non religious (86.32%)
  Catholicism (6.1%)
  Buddhism (4.79%)
  Hoahaoism (1.02%)
  Protestantism (1%)
  Others (0.77%)

According to the 2019 census, the religious demographics of Vietnam are as follows:[1]

It is worth noting here that the data is highly skewered, as a large majority of Vietnamese may declare themselves atheist, yet practice forms of traditional folk religion or Mahayana Buddhism.[137]

Estimates for the year 2010 published by the Pew Research Center:[138]


Main article: Overseas Vietnamese

Map of the countries with a significant Vietnamese population
Vietnamese New Year parade, San Jose, California, United States

Originally from northern Vietnam and southern China, the Vietnamese have expanded south and conquered much of the land belonging to the former Champa Kingdom and Khmer Empire over the centuries. They are the dominant ethnic group in most provinces of Vietnam, and constitute a small percentage of the population in neighbouring Cambodia.

Beginning around the sixteenth century, groups of Vietnamese migrated to Cambodia and China for commerce and political purposes. Descendants of Vietnamese migrants in China form the Gin ethnic group in the country and primarily reside in and around Guangxi Province. Vietnamese form the largest ethnic minority group in Cambodia, at 5% of the population.[139] Under the Khmer Rouge, they were heavily persecuted and survivors of the regime largely fled to Vietnam.

During French colonialism, Vietnam was regarded as the most important colony in Asia by the French colonial powers, and the Vietnamese had a higher social standing than other ethnic groups in French Indochina.[140] As a result, educated Vietnamese were often trained to be placed in colonial government positions in the other Asian French colonies of Laos and Cambodia rather than locals of the respective colonies. There was also a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France during this period, primarily consisting of members of the elite class. A large number of Vietnamese also migrated to France as workers, especially during World War I and World War II, when France recruited soldiers and locals of its colonies to help with war efforts in metropolitan France. The wave of migrants to France during World War I formed the first major presence of the Vietnamese in France and the Western world.[141]

Congregation of the Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri

When Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government also migrated to France. During the partition of Vietnam into North and South, a number of South Vietnamese students also arrived to study in France, along with individuals involved in commerce for trade with France, which was a principal economic partner with South Vietnam.[141]

Ethnolinguistic groups of Mainland Southeast Asia

Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese population in Cambodia from between 250,000 and 300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984.[142]

The fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War prompted the start of the Vietnamese diaspora, which saw millions of Vietnamese fleeing the country from the new communist regime. Recognizing an international humanitarian crisis, many countries accepted Vietnamese refugees, primarily the United States, France, Australia and Canada.[143] Meanwhile, under the new communist regime, tens of thousands of Vietnamese were sent to work or study in Eastern Bloc countries of Central and Eastern Europe as development aid to the Vietnamese government and for migrants to acquire skills that were to be brought home to help with development.[144] However, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a vast majority of these overseas Vietnamese decided to remain in their host nations.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ The number of Vietnamese nationals currently in Taiwan with a valid residence permit was 246,973 as of 30 September 2023 (148,677 males, 98,296 females). The number of Vietnamese nationals with a valid residence permit in Taiwan (including those currently not in Taiwan) was 285,173 as of 30 September 2023 (169,278 males, 115,895 females).[10] The number of foreign spouses of Vietnamese origin in Taiwan was 111,529 as of April 2022 (2,383 males, 109,146 females).[11] According to the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior, between 1993 and 2021, 94,015 Vietnamese nationals became naturalized citizens in the Republic of China.[12] It was also estimated that 70% of Vietnamese brides in Taiwan had obtained Taiwanese nationality as of 2014,[13] with many renouncing Vietnamese citizenship in the process of naturalization, in accordance with Taiwanese law.[14]
    An estimated 200,000 children were born to Vietnamese mothers and Taiwanese fathers, according to a report by Voice of Vietnam in 2014.[15] According to Taiwanese Ministry of Education, in 2021, 105,237 children born to foreign spouses of Vietnamese origin were enrolled in educational institutions across Taiwan (4,601 in kindergartens, 23,719 in primary schools, 17,904 in secondary schools, 31,497 in high schools, and 27,516 in universities/colleges),[16] a decrease of nearly 3,000 students compared to the previous year, which recorded a total of 108,037 students (5,168 in kindergartens, 25,752 in primary schools, 22,462 in secondary schools, 33,430 in high schools, and 21,225 in universities/colleges).[17]
  2. ^ According to a report released by the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, as of 2022, there were 209,373 Vietnamese nationals in South Korea (those without Korean nationality), including 41,555 foreign workers; 36,362 marriage immigrants; 68,181 international students and 63,274 people classified as "Others". Additionally, the report revealed that 50,660 Vietnamese individuals had acquired Korean nationality, and there were also 103,295 children born to parents of Vietnamese origin in South Korea.[20]
  3. ^ This data only included Vietnamese Nationals in Mainland China, Excluding Gin people and data in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
  4. ^ this data only included Gin people in Mainland China.


  1. ^ a b c General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2019). Kết quả Toàn bộ Tổng điều tra dân số và nhà ở năm 2019 (Completed Results of the 2019 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census) (PDF). Statistical Publishing House (Vietnam). ISBN 978-604-75-1532-5. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021.
  2. ^ "Vietnamese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  3. ^ Mauk, Ben (28 March 2018). "A People in Limbo, Many Living Entirely on the Water". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  4. ^ "令和5年6月末現在における在留外国人数について" [Number of Foreign Residents as of June 2023]. Immigration Services Agency. 13 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  5. ^ Phạm, Hạnh (31 March 2018). "Người Việt trẻ ở Pháp níu giữ thế hệ thứ hai với nguồn cội". VnExpress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  6. ^ Thanh Binh Minh, Tran (2002). Étude de la Transmission Familiale et de la Practique du Parler Franco-Vietnamien dans les communautés Niçoise et Lyonnaise (PDF). International Symposium on Bilingualism (in French). University of Vigo. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  7. ^ "SPÉCIAL TÊT 2017 – Les célébrations du Têt en France par la communauté vietnamienne". Le Petit Journal (in French). 30 January 2017. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  8. ^ "2021 Census Community Profiles". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Archived from the original on 12 December 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  10. ^ 外僑居留人數統計表11209 [Statistical Table for the Number of Foreign Residents as of September 2023]. National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). 30 September 2023. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  11. ^ 統計資料 [Statistics]. National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2022. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  12. ^ "國籍之歸化取得人數". Ministry of the Interior (Taiwan). Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  13. ^ "Cô dâu Việt ở Đài Loan và muôn nẻo kiếm tìm hạnh phúc". Voice of Vietnam. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  14. ^ McKinsey, Kitty (14 February 2007). "Divorce leaves some Vietnamese women broken-hearted and stateless". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  15. ^ "Những cô dâu dạy tiếng Việt ở xứ Đài". Voice of Vietnam. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  16. ^ 110 學年度 各級學校新住民子女就學概況 (PDF) (Report). Department of Statistics – Ministry of Education, Taiwan. November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  17. ^ 109 學年度 各級學校新住民子女就學概況 (PDF) (Report). Department of Statistics – Ministry of Education, Taiwan. November 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  18. ^ Nguyen, Rosie (19 August 2022). "Vietnamese Culture Promoted in Taiwan". VietnamTimes. Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations. Archived from the original on 11 July 2023. Retrieved 11 July 2023.
  19. ^ Nguyễn, Lucy (20 February 2017). "Lao động Việt ở Đài Loan: Nhọc nhằn đổi giọt mồ hôi". Thanh Niên. Archived from the original on 24 August 2023. Retrieved 24 August 2023.
  20. ^ "(통계표) 2022 지방자치단체 외국인주민 현황 통계표" [2022 Local Government Foreign Residents Statistics]. Ministry of the Interior and Safety (South Korea). 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  21. ^ "Bevölkerung in Privathaushalten nach Migrationshintergrund im weiteren Sinn nach ausgewählten Geburtsstaaten". Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt). 20 April 2023. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  22. ^ "Национальный состав населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  23. ^ L. Anh Hoang; Cheryll Alipio (2019). Money and Moralities in Contemporary Asia. Amsterdam University Press. p. 64. ISBN 9789048543151. It is estimated that there are up to 150,000 Vietnamese migrants in Russia, but the vast majority of them are undocumented.
  24. ^ Đình Nam (22 May 2022). "Phó Thủ tướng Vũ Đức Đam gặp gỡ cộng đồng người Việt tại Thái Lan". Báo điện tử Chính phủ. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  25. ^ Hoàng Hoa; Ngọc Quang (25 August 2019). "Chủ tịch Quốc hội gặp gỡ cộng đồng người Việt Nam tại Thái Lan". Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper. Vietnam News Agency. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  26. ^ Xuân Nguyên (25 November 2015). "Người Việt bán hàng rong ở Thái Lan". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022.
  27. ^ "Chủ tịch nước thăm cộng đồng người Việt tại Lào". Voice of Vietnam. 10 August 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  28. ^ Barber, Tamsin (2020). "Differentiated embedding among the Vietnamese refugees in London and the UK: fragmentation, complexity, and 'in/visibility'". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 47 (21). Taylor & Francis: 4835–4852. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2020.1724414. S2CID 224863821.
  29. ^ "PM meets Vietnamese community in UK". VietnamPlus. Vietnam News Agency. 1 November 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Vietnam who after 30 years in the UK". Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Viet Nam, Malaysia's trade unions ink agreement to strengthen protection of migrant workers". International Labour Organization. 16 March 2015. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  32. ^ a b "Vietnamese migrants are thriving in Poland and the Czech Republic". The Economist. 27 April 2019. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  33. ^ Lý Hà (11 June 2019). "Lời cảnh tỉnh cho người xuất khẩu lao động". Báo Công an Nhân dân. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  34. ^ Quốc Anh; Trọng Hoàng (12 March 2016). "Phần lớn lao động Việt Nam tại Angola hiện nay là trái phép". Vietnam Television. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  35. ^ Hà Văn (25 June 2023). "Thủ tướng thăm Đại sứ quán và gặp gỡ cộng đồng người Việt Nam tại Trung Quốc". Báo điện tử Chính phủ. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  36. ^ Hẳng (26 June 2023). "Thủ tướng: 42.000 người Việt Nam ở Trung Quốc là cầu nối hữu nghị giữa hai nước". Vietnamnet. Archived from the original on 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  37. ^ Quỳnh Trang; Tạ Lư (7 February 2022). "Kiều hối về Việt Nam nhiều cỡ nào?". VnExpress.
  38. ^ "2–22. Population by ethnic groups and gender". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  39. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents". Statistisk sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway). 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  40. ^ "Population; sex, age, migration background and generation, 1 January". Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  41. ^ "Population by country of birth and year". Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  42. ^ "Việt Nam opens consulate office in China's Macau". VietNamNews. 6 January 2018. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  43. ^ "Embassy of the UAE in Hanoi » Vietnam – UAE Relations-Bilateral relations between UAE – Vietnam". Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  44. ^ "Cộng Đồng Người Việt Nam ở Ả-Rập Xê-Út Mừng Xuân Ất Mùi – 2015". Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  45. ^ "Người trong cuộc kể lại cuộc sống "như nô lệ" của lao động Việt ở Ả Rập Saudi". 3 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  46. ^ "Tình cảnh 'Ô-sin' Việt ở Saudi: bị bóc lột, bỏ đói". 25 September 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  47. ^ Dlhopolec, Peter (3 March 2022). "The Vietnamese campaign for their rights: "We belong here"". The Slovak Spectator. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022. The 2021 data published by the Foreigners' Police reveals that 7,235 people from Vietnam have permanent or temporary residence in the country.
  48. ^ Rédli, Erik (28 July 2015). "Slovakia's 'invisible minority' counters migration fears". The Slovak Spectator. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  49. ^ "FOLK1C: Population at the first day of the quarter by region, sex, age (5 years age groups), ancestry and country of origin". Statistics Denmark.
  50. ^ Lim, Vanessa; Min, Ang Hwee (21 July 2021). "Vice activities by some Vietnamese in Singapore not representative of residents here: Embassy official". CNA (TV network). Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  51. ^ Hoàng Hải (22 May 2019). "Người Việt ở Bỉ và Đảng cộng sản kiểu mới, trẻ và hiện đại". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  52. ^ "StatFin". Tilastokeskus (Statistics Finland). Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  53. ^ "Vietnamese in Cyprus, Laos celebrate traditional New Year". VietnamPlus. Vietnam News Agency. 4 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  54. ^ "Deputy FM meets Vietnamese nationals in Cyprus". Nhân Dân. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  55. ^ "2018 Census ethnic groups dataset | Stats NZ".
  56. ^ "Vietnamese community in Switzerland support fight against coronavirus". VietNamNews. 4 May 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  57. ^ Vukovich, Gabriella (2018). Mikrocenzus 2016 – 12. Nemzetiségi adatok [2016 microcensus – 12. Ethnic data] (PDF) (in Hungarian). Budapest. ISBN 978-963-235-542-9. Retrieved 9 January 2019. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  58. ^ "Hành trình trở về của người Việt tại Ukraine". Nhân Dân. 2022. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  59. ^ H. Chi (3 March 2022). "Nỗ lực tối đa bảo hộ công dân Việt Nam ở Ukraine". Báo Công an Nhân dân. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  60. ^ Khánh Lan (25 May 2022). "Thúc đẩy quan hệ hợp tác trên nhiều mặt giữa Việt Nam và Ailen". Báo điện tử Đảng Cộng sản. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  61. ^ Thu Trang; Cẩm Lai (27 March 2020). "Người Việt tại tâm dịch của Italia" (in Vietnamese). Voice of Vietnam. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  62. ^ "Truyền "ngọn lửa" văn hóa cho thế hệ trẻ người Việt tại Áo" (in Vietnamese). 23 February 2020.
  63. ^ Phương Linh; Hoàng Vũ (13 August 2018). "Cộng đồng người Việt tại Áo luôn hướng về Tổ quốc". Báo Quân đội Nhân dân. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  64. ^ "Condiții inumane pentru muncitorii vietnamezi din România". Digi24 (in Romanian). 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  65. ^ "Lấy quốc tịch Châu Âu thông qua con đường Bulgaria". Tuổi Trẻ. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  66. ^ Pew Research Center: The Global Religious Landscape 2010.
  67. ^ "Viet people – the majority ethnic group of Vietnam". VOVWorld. Voice of Vietnam. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  68. ^ Churchman 2010, p. 33.
  69. ^ a b c Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (1976). "The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence". Monumenta Serica. 32: 274–301. doi:10.1080/02549948.1976.11731121.
  70. ^ a b c d Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 15: 93–100. doi:10.7152/bippa.v15i0.11537 (inactive 18 February 2024). Archived from the original on 28 February 2014.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2024 (link)
  71. ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2018) "Shang Dynasty – Political History" in – An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. quote: "Enemies of the Shang state were called fang 方 "regions", like the Tufang 土方, which roamed the northern region of Shanxi, the Guifang 鬼方 and Gongfang 𢀛方 in the northwest, the Qiangfang 羌方, Suifang 繐方, Yuefang 戉方, Xuanfang 亘方 and Zhoufang 周方 in the west, as well as the Yifang 夷方 and Renfang 人方 in the southeast."
  72. ^ The Annals of Lü Buwei, translated by John Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel, Stanford University Press (2000), p. 510. ISBN 978-0-8047-3354-0. "For the most part, there are no rulers to the south of the Yang and Han Rivers, in the confederation of the Hundred Yue tribes."
  73. ^ Lüshi Chunqiu "Examination on Relying on Rulers" "Relying on Rulers" text: "揚、漢之南,百越之際,敝凱諸、夫風、餘靡之地,縛婁、陽禺、驩兜之國,多無君" translation: South of the Yang and Han rivers, among the Hundred Yuè, the lands of Bikaizhu, Fufeng, Yumi, the nations of Fulou, Yang'ou, Huandou, most had no rulers"
  74. ^ a b Lieberman 2003, p. 405.
  75. ^ Wan, Xiang (2013) "A Reevaluation of Early Chinese Script: The Case of Yuè 戉 and Its Cultural Connotations: Speech at The First Annual Conference of Society for the Study of Early China" Slide 36 of 70
  76. ^ Phan, John (2010). "Re-Imagining "Annam": A New Analysis of Sino–Viet–Muong Linguistic Contact" (PDF). Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  77. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 5.
  78. ^ Viet Nam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. 10 February 2017. ISBN 978-0-19-062730-0.
  79. ^ Taylor 2013, pp. 4–6.
  80. ^ Blench, Roger. 2018. Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic. In Papers from the Seventh International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics, 174–193. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society Special Publication No. 3. University of Hawaiʻi Press.
  81. ^ Blench, Roger. 2017. Waterworld: lexical evidence for aquatic subsistence strategies in Austroasiatic. Presented at ICAAL 7, Kiel, Germany.
  82. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2015b. Phylogeny, innovations, and correlations in the prehistory of Austroasiatic. Paper presented at the workshop Integrating inferences about our past: new findings and current issues in the peopling of the Pacific and South East Asia, 22–23 June 2015, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
  83. ^ Reconstructing Austroasiatic prehistory. In P. Sidwell & M. Jenny (Eds.), The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill. (Page 1: “Sagart (2011) and Bellwood (2013) favour the middle Yangzi”)
  84. ^ Peiros, Ilia (2011). "Some thoughts on the problem of the Austro-Asiatic homeland" (PDF). Journal of Language Relationship. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  85. ^ Chamberlain 2000, p. 40.
  86. ^ Schliesinger (2018a), pp. 21, 97.
  87. ^ Schliesinger (2018b), pp. 3–4, 22, 50, 54.
  88. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 46–47.
  89. ^ Churchman (2010), p. 36.
  90. ^ Churchman (2010), pp. 27–29, 31, 32, 33.
  91. ^ Churchman (2010), p. 25.
  92. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 52.
  93. ^ Lipson, Mark; Cheronet, Olivia; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Oxenham, Marc; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Pryce, Thomas Oliver; Willis, Anna; Matsumura, Hirofumi; Buckley, Hallie; Domett, Kate; Hai, Nguyen Giang; Hiep, Trinh Hoang; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Win, Tin Tin; Pradier, Baptiste; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Changmai, Piya; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Harney, Eadaoin; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Kutanan, Wibhu; Michel, Megan; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Zhang, Zhao; Flegontov, Pavel; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David (17 May 2018). "Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory". Science. 361 (6397). American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): 92–95. Bibcode:2018Sci...361...92L. bioRxiv 10.1101/278374. doi:10.1126/science.aat3188. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 6476732. PMID 29773666.
  94. ^ Corny, Julien, et al. 2017. "Dental phenotypic shape variation supports a multiple dispersal model for anatomically modern humans in Southeast Asia." Journal of Human Evolution 112 (2017):41–56. cited in Alves, Mark (10 May 2019). "Data from Multiple Disciplines Connecting Vietic with the Dong Son Culture". Conference: "Contact Zones and Colonialism in Southeast Asia and China's South (~221 BCE – 1700 CE)"At: Pennsylvania State University
  95. ^ McColl et al. 2018. "Ancient Genomics Reveals Four Prehistoric Migration Waves into Southeast Asia". Preprint. Published in Science. cited in Alves, Mark (10 May 2019). "Data from Multiple Disciplines Connecting Vietic with the Dong Son Culture". Conference: "Contact Zones and Colonialism in Southeast Asia and China's South (~221 BCE – 1700 CE)"At: Pennsylvania State University
  96. ^ Kelley 2016, pp. 165–167.
  97. ^ Kelley 2016, p. 175.
  98. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 41–42.
  99. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 42.
  100. ^ Kelley, Liam C.; Hong, Hai Dinh (2021), "Competing Imagined Ancestries: The Lạc Việt, the Vietnamese, and the Zhuang", in Gillen, Jamie; Kelley, Liam C.; Le, Ha Pahn (eds.), Vietnam at the Vanguard: New Perspectives Across Time, Space, and Community, Springer Singapore, pp. 88–107, ISBN 978-9-81165-055-0
  101. ^ a b Kiernan 2019, p. 53.
  102. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 56.
  103. ^ Schafer 1967, p. 14.
  104. ^ Kelley 2016, pp. 167–168.
  105. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 69.
  106. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 75.
  107. ^ a b Maspero 1912, p. 10.
  108. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 43.
  109. ^ Schafer 1967, p. 63.
  110. ^ Taylor 1983, p. 248.
  111. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 127, 131 [Quote (p.131): From the tenth century, Vietnamese history comes into its own. After millennia of undocumented prehistory and a thousand years of imperial rule documented only in Chinese, new indigenous historical sources throw increasing light on political, economic, and cultural developments in the territory that had comprised the Protectorate of Annam. How new were these developments? A tenth-century ruler revived for a second time the ancient name of the kingdom of Nán Yuè in its Vietnamese form, Nam Việt. But this new kingdom would then adopt a new name, Đại Việt (Great Việt), and unlike its classical Yuè predecessors and short-lived tenth-century counterparts in south China, it successfully resisted reintegration into the empire. The new autonomous Việt realm inherited both the Sino-Vietnamese hereditary aristocracy and the provincial geography of Tang Annam. From north to south, it was a diverse region of five provinces and border marches. Restive ethnic Tai and other upland groups, formerly allied to the defunct Nanzhao kingdom, straddled the mountainous northern frontier. Lowland Jiao province in the central plain of the Red and Bạch Đằng rivers was the most Sinicized region, home to most of the northern settlers and traders and an influential Sino-Vietnamese Buddhist community, as well as Vietic-speaking rice farmers. Here the Vietnamese language was emerging as settlers adopted the Proto-Việt-Mường tongue of their indigenous neighbors, infusing it with much of their Annamese Middle Chinese vocabulary].
  112. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 139.
  113. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 141.
  114. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 352.
  115. ^ Andrew Chittick (2020). The Jiankang Empire in Chinese and World History. Oxford University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-19093-754-6.
  116. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 144–145.
  117. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 157.
  118. ^ Marsh 2016, pp. 84–85.
  119. ^ Golzio, Karl-Heinz (2004), Inscriptions of Campā based on the editions and translations of Abel Bergaigne, Étienne Aymonier, Louis Finot, Édouard Huber and other French scholars and of the work of R. C. Majumdar. Newly presented, with minor corrections of texts and translations, together with calculations of given dates, Shaker Verlag, pp. 163–164, Original Old Cam text: ...(pa)kā ra vuḥ kmīra yvan· si mak· nan· di yām̃ hajai tralauṅ· svon· dadam̃n· sthāna tra ra vuḥ urām̃ dinan· pajem̃ karadā yam̃ di nagara campa.
  120. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 148.
  121. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 153–154.
  122. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 155.
  123. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 135, 138.
  124. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 169, 170.
  125. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 194–197.
  126. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 204–211.
  127. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 213–214.
  128. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 221–223.
  129. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 224–225.
  130. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 233–234.
  131. ^ Lieberman 2003, p. 433.
  132. ^ McLeod 1991, p. 61.
  133. ^ Ooi 2004, p. 520.
  134. ^ Cook 2001, p. 396.
  135. ^ Frankum 2011, p. 172.
  136. ^ Nhu Nguyen 2016, p. 37.
  137. ^ Hong Van, Vu (2020). "From Religious Heritage to Cultural Heritage: Study the Heritage of Buddhism in Vietnam". doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0092.v1. S2CID 216247654. Retrieved 4 March 2022. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  138. ^ Pew Research Center: [1] Archived 11 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine.
  139. ^ CIA – The World Factbook, Cambodia, retrieved 11 December 2012
  140. ^ Carine Hahn, Le Laos, Karthala, 1999, page 77
  141. ^ a b La Diaspora Vietnamienne en France un cas particulier Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  142. ^ "Cambodia – Population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  143. ^ "Online Exhibitions – Exhibitions – Canadian Museum of History".
  144. ^ Hillmann 2005, p. 87



Journal articles and theses

Web sources

Further reading