|Native to||Cambodia and Vietnam|
|Region||Mainland Southeast Asia|
|320,000 (2002 – 2008 census)|
|Cham, Arabic, Latin, Khmer|
Cham (Cham: ꨌꩌ) is a Malayo-Polynesian language of the Austronesian family, spoken by the Chams of Southeast Asia. It is spoken primarily in the territory of the former Kingdom of Champa, which spanned modern Eastern Cambodia and Southern Vietnam. The Western variety is spoken by 220,000 people in Cambodia and 25,000 people in Vietnam. As for the Eastern variety, there are about 73,000 speakers in Vietnam, for a total of approximately 320,000 speakers.
Cham is the principal and most spoken language among the Chamic languages, which are spoken in parts of mainland Southeast Asia, North Sumatra and on the island of Hainan. Cham is notable for being the oldest-attested Austronesian language, with the Đông Yên Châu inscription being verifiably dated to the late 4th century AD.
The Cham language dialects each have 21 consonants and 9 vowels.
ia, iɯ (occurs only before -ʔ), ea, ua, oa, au (occurs only before -ʔ),
iə, ɛə, ɔə, uə.
There are several prefixes and infixes which can be used for word derivation.
Reduplication is often used:
Cham generally uses SVO word order, without any case marking to distinguish subject from object:
Dummy pronominal subjects are sometimes used, echoing the subject:
|Inœû hudiêp dahlak||nhu||atong||adẽi puthang nhu.|
|my wife's mother||she||beat||her husband's younger sister|
|"My wife's mother beats her husband's younger sister."|
Composite verbs will behave as one inseparable verb, having the object come after it:
|Bloḥ||nhu||ḍiḥ dii apvẽi||anẽk lakẽi.|
|then||she||lie at fire (i.e.: give birth)||son|
|"Then she gave birth to a son."|
Sometimes, however, the verb is placed in front of the subject:
Auxiliary verbs are placed after any objects:
|"He brings his wife."|
If a sentence contains more than one main verb, one of the two will have an adverbial meaning:
|"He evaded death by hiding."|
Adjectives come after the nouns they modify:
|"a big house"|
If the order is reversed, the whole will behave like a compound:
|"a noisy person"|
Composite sentences can be formed with the particle krung:
It is also possible to leave out this particle, without change in meaning:
|Dahlak brẽi athêh nan||kaa va dahlak||∅||dok dii palẽi Ram.|
|I give this horse||to my uncle||who||live in the village of Ram|
|"I have given this horse to my uncle, who lives in the village of Ram."|
Questions are formed with the sentence-final particle rẽi:
|"Can you write, child?"|
Other question words are in situ:
|"Where are you going?"|
Like many languages in Eastern Asia, Cham uses numeral classifiers to express amounts. The classifier will always come after the numeral, with the noun coming invariably before or after the classifier-numeral pair.
The above examples show the classifier boḥ, which literally means "egg" and is the most frequently used — particularly for round and voluminous objects. Other classifiers are ôrang (person) for people and deities, ḅêk for long objects, blaḥ (leaf) for flat objects, and many others.
The days of the month are counted with a similar system, with two classifiers: one (bangun) used to count days before the full moon, and the other one (ranaṃ) for days after the full moon.
Personal pronouns behave like ordinary nouns and do not show any case distinctions. There are different forms depending on the level of politeness. The first person singular, for example, is kău in formal or distant context, while it is dahlak (in Vietnam) or hulun (in Cambodia) in an ordinarily polite context. As is the case with many other languages of the region, kinship terms are often used as personal pronouns.
Comparative and superlative are expressed with the locative preposition di/dii:
|"bigger than his brother"|
There are some particles that can be used to indicate tense/aspect. The future is indicated with shi or thi in Vietnam, with hi or si in Cambodia. The perfect is expressed with jœû. The first one comes in front of the verb:
|"I will go now."|
The second one is sentence-final:
|"I'll be gone in a moment."|
Certain verbs can function as auxiliaries to express other tenses or aspects. The verb dok ("to stay") is used for the continuous, vœk ("to return") for the repetitive aspect, and kiœng ("to want") for the future tense.
The negation is formed with ôh/ô at either or both sides of the verb, or with di/dii in front.
The imperative is formed with the sentence-final particle bêk, and the negative imperative with the preverbal jvai/jvẽi (in Vietnam and Cambodia respectively).
Brunelle observed two phenomena of language use among speakers of Eastern Cham: They are both diglossic and bilingual (in Cham and Vietnamese). Diglossia is the situation where two varieties of a language are used in a single language community, and oftentimes one is used on formal occasions (labelled H) and the other is more colloquial (labelled L).
Cham is divided into two primary dialects. Western Cham is spoken by the Cham in Cambodia as well as in the adjacent Vietnamese provinces of An Giang and Tây Ninh. Eastern Cham is spoken by the coastal Cham populations in the Vietnamese provinces of Bình Thuận, Ninh Thuận, and Đồng Nai. The two regions where Cham is spoken are separated both geographically and culturally. The more numerous Western Cham are predominantly Muslims (although some in Cambodia now practice Theravāda Buddhism), while the Eastern Cham practice both Islam and Hinduism. Ethnologue states that the Eastern and Western dialects are no longer mutually intelligible. The table below gives some examples of words where the two dialects differed as of the 19th century.
|save from drowning||srong||throng|
Lê et al. (2014:175) lists a few Cham subgroups.
Cham script is a Brahmic script. The script has two varieties: Akhar Thrah (Eastern Cham) and Akhar Srak (Western Cham). The Western Cham language is written with the Arabic script or the aforementioned Akhar Srak.
The Ming dynasty Chinese Bureau of Translators produced a Chinese-Cham dictionary.
John Crawfurd's 1822 work "Malay of Champa" contains a dictionary of the Cham language.
|Eastern Cham language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Western Cham language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|