Luilang
Ketagalan
Native toTaiwan
RegionBanqiao area, New Taipei City
EthnicityKetagalan
Extinctmid-20th century[1]
Austronesian
  • (unclassified)
    • Luilang
Language codes
ISO 639-3kae
Glottologketa1243
Formosan languages Sagart 2021.png
Luilang is the northernmost of the four red areas in the map.

Luilang, or ambiguously Ketagalan (Ketangalan, Tangalan; Chinese: 凱達格蘭語; pinyin: Kǎidágélányǔ), was a Formosan language spoken south of modern-day Taipei in northern Taiwan by one of several peoples that have been called Ketagalan. The language probably went extinct in the mid-20th century and it is very poorly attested.

Location

According to oral tradition, the Luilang people originally inhabited four villages near Taipei: Luili (雷里, Leili), Siulang (秀朗, Xiulang), Bulisiat (務裡薛, Wulixue) and Liau-a (了阿, Liao'a). These merged under the combined name Luilang (雷朗, Leilang), and later migrated to their current location in Outer Oat-a (外挖仔庄, Waiwazizhuang) in the 18th century.[2]

Name

The name 'Ketagalan' is used by Ethnologue and Glottolog for the Luilang language. However, that name is ambiguous, originally referring to all of plains tribes of northern Taiwan. There has been argument in the literature as to whether it is better applied to Luilang, to the south and west of Taipei, or to Basay, to the east. 'Luilang' is an ancestral village name, and so unambiguous for the language southwest of Taipei, whereas 'Basay' is the endonym of the language to the east, and also unambiguous.[2]

Numerals

The numerals of Luilang are rather divergent. For instance, the Basay language has numerals 5–10 that are cognate with Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, which Luilang does not. Forms recorded by Guérin (using French transcription), Ino (using Japanese transcription) and Ogawa are:[3][4]

Luilang numerals
source 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Xiulang? (Guérin 1868) saka tsusa toulou souvad laleup tsouloup patsouo-ana patouloun sateuna isit
Xiulang (Ino 1896) saka tsusa tooru sma naru tsuro yinai tonai satoronai
Xiulang (Ino 1897) saka tsusa tooru seva rārup tserup senai patoorunai satoorunai irip
Luilang (Ogawa 1944) sa(ka) tsusa tuḷu suva (na)lup (na)tsulup innai patulunai satulunai isit

Notes

  1. ^ Luilang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Tsuchida, Shigeru. 1985. Kulon: Yet another Austronesian language in Taiwan?. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica 60. 1-59.
  3. ^ Laurent Sagart (2004) The Higher Phylogeny of Austronesian and the Position of Tai-Kadai
  4. ^ Li, Jen-kuei and Masayuki Toyoshima (eds). 2006. comparative vocabulary of Formosan languages and dialects, by Naoyoshi Ogawa. Asian and African lexicon series 49. Institute for Languages and cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

References

  • Li, Paul Jen-kuei (1992). "Táiwān píngpǔzú de zhǒnglèi jíqí xiānghù guānxì 台灣平埔族的種類及其相互關係" [Classification of the Sinicized Tribes in Taiwan and Their Internal Relationships]. In Li, Paul Jen-kuei (ed.). Selected Papers on Formosan Languages (in Chinese). Vol. 2. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  • Inō, Kanori 伊能嘉矩 (2012). Píngpǔzú diàochá lǚxíng: Yīnéng jiājǔ "Táiwān tōngxìn" xuǎnjí 平埔族調查旅行: 伊能嘉矩<台灣通信>選集 [Research Trips Among the Plains Aborigines: Selections from Inō Kanori's Taiwan Diaries] (in Chinese). Translated by Yang, Nanjun 楊南郡. Taibei Shi: Yuanliu. ISBN 9789573268932.