|Waray-Waray, Samar-Leyte Visayan|
|Winaray, Samareño, Lineyte-Samarnon, Binisayâ nga Winaray, Binisayâ nga Samar-Leyte|
|Region||Eastern Visayas, some parts of Masbate, southern part of Sorsogon, and Gibusong Island of Mindanao|
|3.6 million (2015 census)|
|Dialects||Standard Waray (Tacloban dialect), Northern Samar dialect, Calbayog dialect, Culaba-Biliran dialect, Abuyog dialect and other 20 identified dialects and subdialects|
Official language in
|Regional language in the Philippines|
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Historically regulated by the Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte
Areas where Waray-Waray is spoken
Waray (also known as Waray-Waray or Bisaya/Binisaya nga Winaray/Waray) is an Austronesian language and the fifth-most-spoken native regional language of the Philippines, native to Eastern Visayas. It is the native language of the Waray people and second language of the Abaknon people of Capul, Northern Samar, and some Cebuano-speaking peoples of western and southern parts of Leyte island. It is the third most spoken language among the Bisayan languages, only behind Cebuano and Hiligaynon.
The term Waray comes from the word often heard by non-speakers meaning 'none' or 'nothing' in the language; similarly, Cebuanos are known in Leyte as mga Kana[what language is this?] and their language as Kana (after the oft-heard word kana, meaning 'that' in the Cebuano language).[not verified in body] The Cebuano pronunciation of Waray is walay with the same meaning, whereas the Waray pronunciation of Kana is kan-o meaning 'that, when' with both languages sharing many words or vocabulary in common.
During the Spanish period, texts refer to the language as simply being a dialect of "Visayan". In contrast, most contemporary linguists consider many of these "Visayan dialects" (e.g., Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Karay-a, etc.) to be distinct languages, and the term Visayan is usually taken to refer to what is called Cebuano in contemporary linguistic literature. Domingo Ezguerra's 1663 (reprinted 1747) Arte de la lengua bisaya de la provincia de Leyte refers to the "Visayan tongue of the province of Leyte", Figueroa's Arte del idioma Visaya de Samar y Leyte refers to the "Visaya language of Samar and Leyte". Antonio Sanchez's 1914 Diccionario español-bisaya (Spanish-Visayan Dictionary) refers to the speech of "Sámar and Leyte".
Linguist Jason Lobel (2009) considers there are 25 dialects and subdialects of Waray-Waray.
Many Waray dialects feature a sound change in which Proto-Bisayan *s becomes /h/ in a small number of common grammatical morphemes. This sound change occurs in all areas of Samar south of the municipalities of Santa Margarita, Matuginao, Las Navas, and Gamay (roughly corresponding to the provinces of Samar and Eastern Samar, but not Northern Samar), as well as in all of the Waray-speaking areas of Leyte, except the towns of Javier and Abuyog. However, this sound change is an areal feature rather than a strictly genetic one (Lobel 2009).
Most Waray dialects in northeastern and Eastern Samar have the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *e.
Waray is one of the many regional languages found in the Philippines and used in local government. It is widely used in media particularly in television and radio broadcasts, however, not in print media because most regional newspapers are published in English.
The language is used in education from kindergarten to primary level as part of the Philippine government's K–12 program since 2012 in which pupils from kindergarten to third grade are taught in their respective indigenous languages.
Waray is also used in the Mass in the Roman Catholic Church and in the worship services of different Christian sects in the region. Bibles in Waray are also available. In 2019, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was released in Waray-Waray. However, there is a growing population of Muslims in the region with the first mosque, Tacloban Mosque and Islamic Center, through a charity built by a Turkish Islamic religious authority in Tacloban at 2017 which teaches the scriptures and offers Friday sermons in both Waray and Cebuano in general.
Most Waray dialects have three vowel phonemes: /a/ [a], /i/ [ɛ~i] and /u/ [ɔ~u]. Some dialects have an additional vowel /ə/ [ə]; words with /ə/ in these dialects have /u/ in the majority dialects.
Waray has a total of 16 consonant phonemes: /p, t, k, b, d, ɡ, m, n, ŋ, s, h, l, ɾ~r, w, j, ʔ/. Two extra postalveolar sounds [tʃ, dʒ] are heard when /i/ occurs after /t, d/, further proceeding another vowel sound.
|Stop||p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
Waray, like all Philippine languages today, is written using the Latin script. There is no officially-approved orthography for the language and different writers may use differing orthographic styles. In general, it has become common to write the language following the current orthographic conventions of Filipino.
Waray uses many different words to specify a particular thing. These words might not be the same in spelling and in construction but they share the same meaning, making it a very diverse language.
Here are some examples of demonstratives and adverbs together with their equivalent definition in Waray-Waray:
|what||ano, anyá, náno|
|where||diin, ngain, háin|
|when||sán-o, kakán-o, kasán-o|
|how||páno, gin-áano, gin-áanya|
|here||didi, dinhi, ngadi, nganhi, áanhi, áadi|
|there||ngada, dida, ngadto, didto, aadto, aada|
|that||iito, iton, ito, it|
|those||adto, adton, aadto|
|these||aadin, adin, inin|
|why||kay, kay ano, kay ngano, ngano|
|this||ini, inin, adin, adi|
|to run||dalágan||to fix something||aydi/a|
|to walk||lakát||to explain||ig-eksplikar|
|to climb||saká, sak-a/i||to invite||ig-imbitar, kumbidahi|
|to swim||langoy||to attend||atender, atendera/i|
|to talk/speak||igyakán, igsumát, igsiring||to send something||ipadara, padad-a/i|
|to jump||ambaka/i, lukso||to create||paghimo, pagbuhat|
|to sit||lingkod||to build||pagtindog|
|to stand||tindog||to fly||lupad|
|to shout/scream||guliat||to sleep||katurog|
|to make friends||makig-sangkay||to write||ig-surat|
|to cry||tuok, haya||to lay down||higda|
|to buy||palit, palita/i||to love||higugma-a|
|to travel||biyahe||to care||asikasuha/i|
|to sing||kanta||to discuss||pag-istorya, pagsabot, himangraw|
|to dance||sayaw||to drive||pagmaneho, pagdrayb|
|to fetch water||pag-alog||to ride||sakay, sakya/i|
|to drink||inom, imna/i||to carry||pas-ana/i, dad-a, bitbita|
|to eat||kaon||to sell something||ig-baligya, ig-tinda|
Native numbers are used for numbers one through ten. From eleven onwards, Spanish numbers are exclusively used in Waray today, their native counterparts being almost unheard of by the majority of native speakers (except for gatos for hundred and yukot for thousand). Some, especially the old ones, are spoken alongside the Spanish counterparts.
|English||Native Waray||Derived from Spanish||Spanish|
|one||usá||uno||un/uno (m) una (f)|
|twenty one||karuhaàn kag-usà||baynte uno||veintiuno|
|twenty two||karuhaàn kagduhà||baynte dos||veintidós|
|one hundred||usa ka gatòs||syen||cien|
|one thousand||usa ka yukòt||mil||mil|
|one million||usa ka ribo||milyon||un millón|
Waray has borrowed vocabulary extensively from other languages, especially from Spanish. These words are being adopted to fill lexical gaps of the recipient language. Spanish colonialization introduced new systems to the Philippine society.