northern Sulawesi
Linguistic classificationAustronesian

The Sangiric languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken in North Sulawesi, Indonesia and several small islands to the north which belong to the Philippines. They are classified as a branch of the Philippine subgroup.[1]


The following classification scheme is from James Sneddon (1984:57).[2]

The North Sangiric languages are spoken in the Sangir and Talaud archipelagos of Indonesia just north of Sulawesi, as well as the Sarangani Islands of the Philippines just south of Mindanao. The South Sangiric languages are spoken in scattered locations on the northern tip of Sulawesi. Bantik is spoken in the Manado region, while Ratahan is spoken just south of Lake Tondano.


Reconstruction ofSangiric languages

Proto-Sangiric (PSan) has been reconstructed by Sneddon (1984).[2]


Front Central Back
Close *i *u
Mid *e *o
Open *a
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless *p *t *k
voiced *b *d *g
Fricative *s
Nasal *m *n
Lateral *l
Approximant *w *y *R

The exact phonetic nature of *R is unclear. Its reflexes are Sangil [r], Sangir, Ratahan [h], Talaud [ʒ ~ k:], Bantik zero. Sneddon speculates that it may have been a coarticulated apical trill with velar friction, which is the usual realization of Sangil [r].


The comparison table (a small selection from Sneddon 1984:61–114) illustrates the correspondences between the Sangiric languages, including inherited vocabulary as well as Sangiric innovations.

Comparison table
Words inherited from Proto-Austronesian (PAn)
Talaud Sangir Sangil Bantik Ratahan PSan PAn Meaning
biβikka biβihəʔ biβirəʔ bíbihiʔ βiβi *bibiR *bibiR 'lip'
tallu təlu taw tulu tulú *təlu *təlu 'three'
anumma ənuŋ nuŋ nuŋ num *ənum *ənəm 'six'
manuʔa manuʔ manuʔ manuʔ manuk *manuk *manuk 'fowl'
duʒi duhi duri duhi rui *duRi *duRi 'bone'
paɭ̆adda paɭ̆edəʔ paɭ̆edəʔ páledeʔ paler *paled *palaj 'palm, sole'
daɭ̆anna daɭ̆eŋ daɭ̆eŋ daleŋ ralen *dalen *zalan 'road'
Sangiric innovations
Talaud Sangir Sangil Bantik Ratahan PSan PAn Meaning
inassa kinaʔ kinaʔ kínasaʔ kinas *kinas (*Sikan) 'fish'
deno denoʔ denoʔ deno reno *deno (*diRus) 'bathe'
ʒodo horo roro hodow ʰorow *Rodaw (*Cazəm) 'sharp'

See also


  1. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander & Himmelmann, Nikolaus (2005). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge.
  2. ^ a b Sneddon, James N. (1984). Proto-Sangiric and the Sangiric languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. doi:10.15144/PL-B91