Native toPhilippines
Regionmost parts of Kalinga, northern parts of Mountain Province, eastern parts of Abra and southern parts of Apayao, Luzon
Native speakers
(110,000 cited 1998–2008)[1]
No estimate for Mabaka Valley
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
bjx – Banao Itneg
tis – Masadiit Itneg
ity – Moyadan Itneg
kyb – Butbut Kalinga
kmk – Limos Kalinga
kml – Tanudan Kalinga
knb – Lubuagan Kalinga
kkg – Mabaka Valley Kalinga
kmd – Madukayang Kalinga
ksc – Southern Kalinga (Bangad)
Area where the Kalinga dialect continuum is spoken according to Ethnologue

Kalinga (IPA: [kaliŋɡa]) is a dialect continuum of Kalinga Province in the Philippines, spoken by the Kalinga people, alongside Ilocano. The Banao Itneg variety is not one of the neighboring Itneg languages.


Ronald Himes (1997) divides Kalinga into three dialects: Masadiit (in Abra), Northern Kalinga, and South-Central Kalinga.[2]

Ethnologue reports the following locations for each of the eight Kalinga languages it identifies. Banao Itneg is classified by Ethnologue as Kalinga rather than Itneg.



Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative s
Lateral l
Approximant w j


Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid (ə) o
Open a

/a/ can also have an allophone of [ə].[11][12]

Writing system

Lubuagan Kalinga

Lubuagan Kalinga alphabet[citation needed]
a b by k ch e g h i l m n ng o p s t u ɏ w y


  1. ^ Banao Itneg at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Masadiit Itneg at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Moyadan Itneg at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Butbut Kalinga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Limos Kalinga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Tanudan Kalinga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box)
  2. ^ Himes, Ronald S. (1997). "Reconstructions in Kalinga-Itneg". Oceanic Linguistics. 36 (1): 102–134. doi:10.2307/3623072. JSTOR 3623072.
  3. ^ a b "Kalinga, Butbut". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-04-29.(subscription required)
  4. ^ "Ethnologue".(subscription required)
  5. ^ a b "Kalinga, Lubuagan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-04-29.(subscription required)
  6. ^ a b "Kalinga, Majukayang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-04-29.(subscription required)
  7. ^ A Topical Vocabulary in English, Pilipino, Ilocano, and Southern Kalinga. Greenhills, Metro Manila: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1980. pp. iv.
  8. ^ "Ethnologue".(subscription required)
  9. ^ "Kalinga, Tanudan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-04-29.(subscription required)
  10. ^ "Kalinga, Vanaw". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2022-04-29.(subscription required)
  11. ^ Gieser, C. Richard (1972). Kalinga sequential discourse. Philippine Journal of Linguistics 3. pp. 15–33.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Gieser, C. Richard (1958). The phonemes of Kalinga. In Studies in Philippine linguistics. pp. 10–23.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)

Further reading