Native toIndonesia
RegionNortheast Sulawesi
Native speakers
(92,000 cited 1981)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tdn

Tondano (also known as Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, and Toulour) is an Austronesian language spoken in the Tondano area of northeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is most similar to Tombulu and to Tonsea.[1]


There are three main dialects of the Tondano language: Tondano proper, Kakas or Ka'kas, and Remboken.[2]

See also


  1. ^ a b Tondano at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Sneddon 1975, p. 1

Further reading

  • Brickell, Timothy C., and Stefan Schnell (2017). "Do grammatical relations reflect information status? Reassessing preferred argument structure theory against discourse data from Tondano". In: Linguistic Typology 21: 177–208. DOI: 10.1515/lingty-2017-0005
  • Brickell, Timothy C. (2018). "Reduplication in Tondano and Tonsawang". In: NUSA: Linguistic studies of languages in and around Indonesia 65: 81–107.
  • Warouw, Maya Pinkan. "Leksikon Bahasa Daerah Tondano" In: Jurnal Duta Bahasa Vol 1, No 1 (2022): 1-8.
  • WATUSEKE, F.S. (1972) "Kolano' in the Tondano Language". In: Papers in Borneo and Western Austronesian Linguistics, no. 2. Pacific Linguistics A-33: 123-129.
  • WATUSEKE, F.S. “TONDANO AND NOT TOULOUR”. In: Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde 143, no. 4 (1987): 552–54.