Kayagar
Cook River
Geographic
distribution
Cook River, New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
  • Kayagar–Kolopom
    • Kayagar
Glottologkaya1327
Kayagar languages.svg
Map: The Kayagar languages of New Guinea
  The Kayagar languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kayagar languages are a small family of four closely related Trans–New Guinea languages spoken around the Cook River of Indonesian New Guinea:[1]

Proto-language

Pronouns

Usher (2020) reconstructs the pronouns as:[1][2]

Gondu River Atohwaim
sg pl sg pl
1 *nax *nep naxa nipi, neβi
2 *ax *akan axa aʔani
3 *ek *wep

Basic vocabulary

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[1]

gloss Proto-Gondu River
head *toxom
hair *upm
ear *itipaːm
eye *sakam
nose *jup
tooth *o[x/ɣ]om
tongue *maetap
foot/leg *apit
blood *jes
bone *nomop
skin/bark *pip
breast *etum
louse *num
dog *epe
pig *wakum
bird *suopam
egg *map-jaxam
tree/wood *wom
man/person *jo[k]
woman *enop
sun *taːm
moon *xa[x/ɣ]atam
water *o[x/ɣ]om
fire *atu
stone *maitn
path *kamein
name *na[k]
eat *xapti
one *pa[x/ɣ]amo[x/k]
two *tousiki

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from McElhanon & Voorhoeve (1970)[3] and Voorhoeve (1971, 1975),[4][5] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[6]

gloss Atohwaim Kayagar Tamagario
head tikem toxom tokom
hair upm owpm upm
ear icoxop iripam ipiram
eye saam saxam sakam
nose opom jup jup
tooth ukoxom oxom ukom
tongue menaxaram marap marap
leg apir apir apir
louse numu soːm
dog upoc epere; epe(re) epe
pig wakum wakum wakum
bird wakem səpam towpam
egg mapiam mapiaxam mapiakam
blood wis jes; yes jet; yet
bone nömöp namop; nəmop nomop
skin piep pip pip
breast ötöm erem
tree wim wom wom
man mapirie jo; yo jo; yo
woman enepe onop onop
sun teme taam taam
moon kaʔaram xaxaram kakaram
water oxom oxom okom
fire acu aru aru
stone iki kakup maitu
road, path sepmop xami kame
eat owp xapri kapri
one papriaxap paxamu pakamok
two coopm tosigi totigi

References

  1. ^ a b c New Guinea World, Gondu River
  2. ^ New Guinea World, Atohwaim
  3. ^ McElhanon, K.A. and Voorhoeve, C.L. The Trans-New Guinea Phylum: Explorations in deep-level genetic relationships. B-16, vi + 112 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1970. doi:10.15144/PL-B16
  4. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea". In Dutton, T., Voorhoeve, C. and Wurm, S.A. editors, Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No. 14. A-28:47-114. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1971. doi:10.15144/PL-A28.47
  5. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. Languages of Irian Jaya: Checklist. Preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. B-31, iv + 133 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1975. doi:10.15144/PL-B31
  6. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.