Dom
Dom [ndom˩˥]
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionGumine District and Sinasina District of the Simbu Province
Native speakers
(12,000 cited 1994)
16,000 (2006)
Dialects
  • Era
  • Non Ku
  • Ilai Ku
Language codes
ISO 639-3doa
Glottologdomm1246

Dom is a Trans–New Guinea language of the Eastern Group of the Chimbu family, spoken in the Gumine and Sinasina Districts of Chimbu Province and in some other isolated settlements in the western highlands of Papua New Guinea.[1]

Sociolinguistic Background

[2]

The Dom people live in an agricultural society, which has a tribal, patrilocal and patrilineal organization. There is only small dialectal differentiation among the clans. The predominant religion is Christianity.

Language Contact Situation

[3]

There are three different languages spoken by Dom speakers alongside Dom: Tok Pisin, Kuman and English. Tok Pisin serves as the Papuan lingua franca. Kuman, which is a closely related eastern Chimbu language of high social and cultural prestige, functions as the prestige language used in ceremonies and official situations. School lessons are mostly hold in English.

Grammar

[4]

Phonology

Vowels

[5]

i u

e o
a a:

Minimal pairs

e~i ˦de 'faeces'~˦di 'axe'
o~u ˦kol 'part~˦kul 'grass'
e~o~a ˥˩pel 'to dig'~˥˩pol 'to pull out'~˥˩pal 'to skin'
a~a: ˥˩bna 'brother'~˥˩bna: 'frame over the fireplace'

Allophones

Vowel lengthening in a contour pitched syllable has allophonic character.

Vowels default realisation contour pitched syllable word final special context
e [e]~[ɛ] [e:] [ə],Ø [o] in [+labial](C)_#

[i]|#C_#

i [i] [i:] [i] [i]
o [o]~[ɔ] [o:]~[oɔ] [o] [o]
u [u] [u:] [u] [u]
a [a] [a:] [a] [a]

Vowel Sequences

iu,io,ia uo

eu,ei,ea o
au,ai,ae a:

Consonants

The Dom consonant system consists of 13 indigenous and 3 loan consonants.

bilabial alveolar alveopalatal velar
[-voice][+stop] p t k
[+prenas][+voice][+stop] b d g
[+nas] m n
[-voice][+affr] (c)
[+prenas][+voice][+affr] (j)
[+fric] s
[+lat] l (ʟ)
[+flap] r
[+approx] w y

The phonemes /c/[ts], /j/[ndʒ]and /ʟ/[ʟ] are loan phonemes and unstable in use.

Minimal pairs

˩˥su 'two' ~ ˩˥tu 'thick'

~ ˩˥du 'squeeze'
~ ˩˥nu 'aim at'
~ ˩˥ku 'hold in the mouth'
~ ˩˥gu 'shave'
~ ˩˥pu 'blow'
~ ˩˥mu 'his/her back'
~ ˩˥yu 'harvest taro'

Allophones

/p/ /t/ /k/ /b/ /<d/ /g/ /m/ /n/ (/c/) (/j/) /s/ /l/ /(ʟ)/ /r/ /w/ /y/
default realization [p] [t] [k] [nb] [nd] [ŋg] [m] [n] ([tʃ]) ([ndʒ]) [s] [l] ([ʟ]) [ɾ] [w] [j]
free alternation ([d(i)]) [ts],[tʃ] ([k][ʟ̥][k͡ʟ̥]) [r],[n],[l]
#_ [pp] [t],[tt] [kk] [b],[bb] [d],[dd] [g],[gg] [m] [n] [tʃ] [j],[jj] [s],[ʃ] Ø Ø ([ɾ]) Ø Ø
V_V [β] ([t]) [ɣ] [ŋ],[ŋg] [s],[ʃ] ([l])
other contexts [ɖ] [ɳ] [ʃ] [ʟ] [t^]/[d^] Ø

Variants can be determined by the factors of dialect or age. Certain exceptions show archaic variants, for example the existence of intervocal [b] in the word ˥˩iba 'but' or the otherwise non-existent sequence [lk], which is used only by elderly people or in official situations. Brackets "()" show, that the allophone is used only in loanwords.

Tones

Dom is a tonal language. Each word carries one of three tones as shown in the examples below:

Minimal pairs

wam˥˩ (personal name) ~ wam˩ 'to hitch.3SG' ~ wam˥ 'son3SG.POSS'

Non-phonemic Elements

˥˩komna 'vegetable' kom˥ na˩ or kom˥ ɨ na˩

Morphology

Dom is a suffixing language. Morpheme boundaries between person-number and mood morphemes can be combined.

Syntax

Phrase Structure

Noun Phrase

attributive noun phrases

possessor marker

relative clause

noun classifier

head noun numerals

adjektives

appositions

demonstratives
  • attributive NP

yal

man

i

DEM

kal

thing

yal i kal

man DEM thing

'the thing of the man'

  • possessive marker

na

you

bola-n

pig-2SG.POSS

na bola-n

you pig-2SG.POSS

'your pig'

  • relative clause

o

hand.3SG.POSS

pal

by

bin-gwa

produce-3SG.SRD

kal

thing

o pal bin-gwa kal

hand.3SG.POSS by produce-3SG.SRD thing

'thing produced by hand' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

  • noun classifier

bola

pig

sipsip

sheep

bola sipsip

pig sheep

'sheep'

  • numerals

yal

man

su

two

yal su

man two

'two men'

  • adjectives

gal

child

bl

big

gal bl

child big

'big child'

  • appositions

ge

girl

apal

woman

gal

child

ge apal gal

girl woman child

'girl, female child'

  • demonstratives

yal

man

i

DEM

yal i

man DEM

'this man'

If a noun phrase includes a demonstrative element, it has always the last position of the phrase:

yal

man

su

two

i

DEM

yal su i

man two DEM

'the two men'

Adjective Phrase

head adjective intensifier

er

tree

wai

good

won

truly

ta

a

er wai won ta

tree good truly a

'a very good tree'

Postpositional Phrase

noun head postposition

m-na

mother-1SG.POSS

bol

with

m-na bol

mother-1SG.POSS with

'with my mother'

Verbal Phrase

subject

(object)

object

(subject)

adverbials

conditional adverbial clauses

final adverbial clauses

head verb AUX

mutual knowledge marker

enclitics

demonstratives
  • subject:

yal

man

su

two

al-ipke

stand up-2/3DL.IND

yal su al-ipke

man two {stand up-2/3DL.IND}

'two men stand up' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

  • subject-object:

na

1.EXCL

keepa

sweet.potato

ne-ke

eat-1SG.IND

na keepa ne-ke

1.EXCL sweet.potato eat-1SG.IND

'I eat a sweet potato'

  • adverbial

orpl-d

quickly

u-o

come-2SG.IMP

orpl-d u-o

quickly come-2SG.IMP

'come quickly'

  • final clause

er

to

ila

inside

na-l

go-1SG.FUT

d

Q

u-ke

come-1SG.IND

er ila na-l d u-ke

to inside go-1SG.FUT Q come-1SG.IND

'I came to go inside'

  • auxiliars:

bl-n

head-2SG.POSS

de

burn.INF

bla

burst

d-na-wdae

(say)-FUT-3SG.MUT

bl-n de bla d-na-wdae

head-2SG.POSS burn.INF burst (say)-FUT-3SG.MUT

'Your head will be burnt and explode (as a matter of course)' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

  • mutual knowledge marker

mol-me

stay-1SG.IND

=krae

=MUT

mol-me =krae

stay-1SG.IND =MUT

'he/she stay as we know' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

  • demonstratives

yo-gwa

be-3SG.IND

ime

down.there

yo-gwa ime

be-3SG.IND down.there

'There it is down over there'

There are no zero-place predicates in Dom. As a subject ˩˥kamn 'world' is used:

˩˥kamn

rain

˥˩su-gwe

hit-3Sg.IND

˩˥kamn ˥˩su-gwe

rain hit-3Sg.IND

'It rains'

Constituent Order

The predominant constituent order is ‘’’S-O-V’’’. Only the predicate has to be expressed overtly. An exception are absolute-topic type clauses, which consist only of one noun phrase.[10]

Characteristics of the constituent order

In the case of a three place predicate the recipient noun always follows the gift noun:

˥Ella

tribe.name

Noun

˩˥Naur

tribe.name

adjunct

˥˩moni

money

Gift

˥na

1.EXCL

Recipient

˥˩te-na-m=˥˩ua

give-FUT-3SG=ENC.WA

V

˥Ella ˩˥Naur ˥˩moni ˥na ˥˩te-na-m=˥˩ua

tribe.name tribe.name money 1.EXCL give-FUT-3SG=ENC.WA

Noun adjunct Gift Recipient V

'The Naur subtribe of the Ella tribe shall give me money.' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

The only position which can be optionally filled is the sentence topic. Possible constituents can be the subject of an equational sentence (default), an extrasentential or a topicalized constituent:

subject object verb

˩˥apal

woman

˩˥su

two

˥˩i

DEM

˥na

1.EXCL

˥˩ep-na

wife

˩˥apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥˩ep-na

woman two DEM 1.EXCL wife

'These two women are my wives'

extrasentential subject verb

˩˥apal

woman

˩˥su

two

˥˩i

DEM

˥na

1.EXCL

˥˩ep-na

wife-1SG.POSS

˩˥mo-ip-ke

stay-2/3DL-IND

˩˥apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥˩ep-na ˩˥mo-ip-ke

woman two DEM 1.EXCL wife-1SG.POSS stay-2/3DL-IND

'As for these two women, they are my wives' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

object (topicalzied) subject verb

˩˥apal

woman

˩˥su

two

˥˩i

DEM

˥na

1.EXCL

˥i

take.INF

˩˥war-ke

move.around-1SG.IND

˩˥apal ˩˥su ˥˩i ˥na ˥i ˩˥war-ke

woman two DEM 1.EXCL take.INF move.around-1SG.IND

'As for these two women, I have them as spouses'

Marking of Syntactical Relations

Person and Number

Dom has three different person-number-systems: for pronouns, possessive suffixes on nouns and cross reference markers on verbs.

person-number system for pronouns:
1 2
general (exc) ˥na ˥en
non-singular (exc) ˥no
non-singular(inc) ˩˥none
non-singular ˥ne
person-number system for possessive suffixes:
1 2 3
singular -na -n -m
non-singular -ne
cross reference markers:
1 2 3
singular -i~-Ø -n -m
dual -pl -ipl
plural(three or more) -pn -im

The marking of dual and plural is not obligatory in all cases but depends on the sem ±human ±animate:

+human -human
+animate almost obligatory optional/uncommon
-animate Ø scarcely used

Tense

Dom has an unmarked non-future tense and a marked future tense.

Non-Future

Non-future tense is used, if

˥ere

to

˥˩e-ke

go-1Sg.IND

˥ere ˥˩e-ke

to go-1Sg.IND

'I go/I went'

Future tense

Future tense is marked by the suffix -na (-na~-ra~-a)[14] and is used, if

˥ere

to

˥˩na-ke

go.FUT-1SG.IND

˥ere ˥˩na-ke

to go.FUT-1SG.IND

'I will go'


'I think I will go'
'I might go’


'I am the kind of person, who goes'

Negation

[15]

A predicate is negated by the suffix -kl. The preceding negation particle ˥ta is optional.

˥na

1.EXCL

˥˩kurl

fear

˥ta

NEG

˥go

die

+˩˥k

NEG

-pge

1PL.IND

˥na ˥˩kurl ˥ta ˥go +˩˥k -pge

1.EXCL fear NEG die NEG 1PL.IND

'We (exc.) did not fear'

Lexic

Noun Classifiers

Noun classifiers are lexical items preceding a noun with a more specified meaning. Phonetically and syntactically they form one unit with the following noun and thus differ from an apposition, which consists of two or more phonetic constituents. Noun classifiers can have the following functions:

˥˩nl

water

˥nul

river

˥˩nl ˥nul

water river

'river'

˥ere

tree

˥˩aml

peanut/pandanus

˥ere ˥˩aml

tree peanut/pandanus

'pandanus which bears the nut-like fruit'

˥kul

grass

˥˩aml

peanut/pandanus

˥kul ˥˩aml

grass peanut/pandanus

'peanut'

˥˩nl

water

˥˩bia

alcohol

˥˩nl ˥˩bia

water alcohol

'Alkohol'

˥˩bola

pig

˥˩sipsip

sheep

˥˩bola ˥˩sipsip

pig sheep

'sheep'

Repetition

A noun can be repeated to express the following relations:[17]

˥˩birua

enemy

˥˩birua

enemy

˩˥me-ipka

stay-2/3.SRD

˥˩birua ˥˩birua ˩˥me-ipka

enemy enemy stay-2/3.SRD

'The two are enemies for each other' Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

˥˩kal

thing

˥˩kal

thing

˥˩kal ˥˩kal

thing thing

'several things'

Loanwords

Tok Pisin is the main source for lexical borrowing, borrowings from English are often made indirectly via Tok Pisin. Borrowed lexemes mostly refer to new cultural objects and concepts as well as proper names and high numbers.,[18] which did not exist in the Dom language before:

But recently some already existing Dom words have begun to be replaced by Tok Pisin lexical items:

The Demonstrative System

The demonstrative system: spatial alignment and visibility
The demonstrative system: spatial alignment and visibility

Dom has a spatial referencing demonstrative system, i.e. there are certain demonstrative lexemes bearing information about the spatial relation of the referred object to the speaker alongside neutral demonstratives. A Dom speaker also uses different lexemes for visible and invisible objects. In the case of visible objects, the speaker locates it on a horizontal and vertical axis as to whether it is proximal, medium or distal from the speaker and on the same level, uphill or downhill.

Demonstratives with spatial alignment:[20]

proximal medium distal
without vertical alignment ˥ya ˥˩sipi
level ˥yale ˥˩ile ˩˥ile
uphill ˥yape ˥˩ipe ˩˥ipe
downhill ˥yame ˥˩ime ˩˥ime

For invisible objects one must be aware of the cause for its invisibility. If it is invisible because the object is behind the speaker, a proximal demonstrative is used. Objects obscured behind an obstacle are referred to with distal demonstratives and invisible objects by their nature with downhill demonstratives. Invisible objects, that are very far away, are referred to with the downhill distal demonstrative ˩˥ime.

References

  1. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 1; 6; 8
  2. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 1f; 3
  3. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 2
  4. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 1
  5. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 9
  6. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 13
  7. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 24-42
  8. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 111-164
  9. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 111-114
  10. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 131
  11. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 111
  12. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 124f
  13. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 128f
  14. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 84
  15. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 160f
  16. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 115 f
  17. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 117
  18. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 2
  19. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 225
  20. ^ Tida Syuntarô (2006): A Grammar of the Dom Language. A Papuan Language of Papua New Guinea. Page 125