Kuman
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionChimbu Province, from Kundiawa to beyond Kerowagi in the west and Gembogl in the north, at the foot of Mount Wilhelm
Native speakers
120,000 (2000 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kue
Glottologkuma1280

Kuman (also Chimbu or Simbu) is a language of Chimbu Province, Papua New Guinea. In 1994, it was estimated that 80,000 people spoke Kuman, 10,000 of them monolinguals;[2] in the 2000 census, 115,000 were reported, with few monolinguals.[1]

Phonology

Like other Chimbu languages, Kuman has rather unusual lateral consonants. Besides the typical /l/, it has a "laterally released velar affricate" which is voiced medially and voiceless finally (and does not occur initially).[3] Based on related languages, this is presumably /k͡ʟ̝̊/, allophonically [ɡ͡ʟ̝] (see voiceless velar lateral fricative).

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive voiceless p t k
prenasal/vd. ᵐb ~ b ⁿd ~ d ᵑɡ ~ g
Nasal m n
Fricative s
Tap ɾ
Lateral l ʟ
Semivowel w j

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Grammar

Kuman is an SOV language.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

Vocabulary

The following basic vocabulary words are from Salisbury (1956)[6] and Trefry (1969),[7] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[8]

gloss Kuman
head bit-na; bɩtiɩno
hair iŋguno; yungo
ear kina-na; kunano
eye gumutino; ongomit-na
nose guma-ne; gumano
tooth siŋguno
tongue dirambino
leg kati; kat-na
louse numan
dog aʝg; agi; akɬ ̥
pig bogla; bugɬa
bird kua
egg mugɬo; muɬo
blood borɔmai; bořumai; maiam
bone yambiřo; yombura
skin gaŋgino
breast amu-na; amuno
tree endi
man yagl; yakɬ ̥
woman ambu
sun ande; andesuŋgua
moon ba
water nigl; nikɬ ̥
fire baugl; doŋga
stone kombuglo; kombugɬo
road, path konbo; konumbo
name kaŋgin; kangi-ne
eat neuŋgua
one suařa
two suo

References

  1. ^ a b Kuman at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Kuman language (New Guinea) at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  3. ^ Foley, 1986:63, The Papuan languages of New Guinea
  4. ^ Pfantz, Daryl & Mary (2004). Kuman Language [Simbu Province]. Organized Phonological Data: SIL.
  5. ^ Piau, Julie A. (1985). Verbal Syntax of Kuman. Australian National University: Canberra.
  6. ^ Salisbury, R.F. 1956. The Siane Language of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Anthropos 51:447-480.
  7. ^ Trefry, D. 1969. A comparative study of Kuman and Pawaian. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  8. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.

Further reading