Dani
Baliem Valley
EthnicityDani, Lani, Yali, etc
Geographic
distribution
Baliem Valley in the highlands of Papua Province
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Subdivisions
  • Wano
  • Dani proper
  • ?Ngalik
Glottologdani1287

The Dani or Baliem Valley languages are a family of clearly related Trans–New Guinea languages spoken by the Dani and related peoples in the Baliem Valley in the highlands of Papua Province, Indonesia. Foley (2003)[citation needed] considers their TNG status to be established. They may be most closely related to the languages of Paniai Lakes, but this is not yet clear. Capell (1962)[1] had posited that their closest relatives were the Kwerba languages, which Ross (2005) rejects.

Languages

Larson (1977)[2] divided the family into three branches based on lexicostatistics, and Nggem was later added as a fourth. The Ngalik languages are very poorly attested.

Phonemes

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant inventory as follows.[3] This is identical to the reconstruction of Bromley (1966-1967)[4] apart from adding the rare consonants *pw, *mbw and the possible additional vowel *ɐ.

*m *n
*p *pʷ *t *k *kʷ
*mb *mbʷ *nd *ŋg *ŋgʷ
*w *l *j
*i *u
*e [*ɐ] *o
*a

And the diphthongs *ei, *ou, *ai, *au.

Pronouns

Ross (1995)[citation needed] reconstructs the independent pronouns and possessive/object prefixes of Central Dani as:

singular plural
1 *an, *n[a] *ni-t, *nin[a]-
2 *ka-t, *k[a] *ki-t, *kin[a]-
3 *a-t, *∅/w- *i-t, *in[a]-

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from Bromley (1967)[4] and Voorhoeve (1975),[5] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[6]

gloss Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Hitigima dialect) Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Tangma dialect) Dani, Lower Grand Valley Dani, Mid Grand Valley Dani, Upper Grand Valley Dani, Western[7] Walak Silimo (South Ngalik dialect) Silimo Yali, Angguruk Yali, Pass Valley
head mʊkkʊl-oak mʊkkʊl-oak nukul-oaq nʊgʊl-oak nanupah aneb; anobak nalupak naŋgul nagʊl nʊgʊl hou
hair nesi nesi nesi nesi neeti eeɾuwak; neti niti nenasu nasu notuk hoŋ
ear nesakko nesakko nasuk natuk [nařuk] aɾuk natuk [nařuk] nesago nɪsago
eye neil-ekken neil-ekken neil-eken nel-egen neneken enegen; negen nil nələŋgen nɪlegen nɪl həŋ
nose nappisan namisaŋ nakouwak-oak nakapak ogobak nokopak nebijaŋ nabijaŋ
tooth naik naik naik naik nɪk neik naik neniak nɪak; neak najek si
tongue nameli namili na∂i namɪlɪ amela natði nemake nabilikagen
leg nesoq iyok; owak yan saŋ
louse napɪ napɪ navi napɪ napɪ abee napɪ nekepɪ; pɪ am
dog jekke jekke yake jege gewo gewo; nggewo gewo yeŋge mene mene kam
pig wam wam wam wam wa:n wam wam wam wam wam meya
bird sʊe sʊe sue tʊe tewe tewe; towe tewe tuwe sʊe suwe winaŋ
egg sʊe-kken sʊe-kken sue-ken tʊe-gen tewe-gen eko tewe-gen eŋgen sʊe-egen suwe-gen winaŋ won
blood mep mep mep mep mep amiya; muya mep mep gete; mep iniŋ
bone noak noak noaq noak nowakano owak nowak nʊak noak yok
skin noat nakap naxap noatðo nakatlo agabelo nakatðo nakap nakap pok
breast neilak neilak niðak nelak elak neðak nakamʊ nak
tree o e e o ejo eyo o bene e e
man ap ap ap ap ap ap ap ap nimnya
woman he; hɪmɪ he; hʊmɪ he kwe kwe kwamɪ keap
sky mbogut
sun mo mo mo mʊlɪgɪ mo oonegen; yawo mo; o-il mo mo hin
moon tuki tuki tʊt tʊt tut tʊt duki bikkalem
water i i i i ji mio; nio; niyo i; ies ik ik tin
fire hettouk ettu etu hɪdʊ [hɪtʊ] ɪdʊ [ɪndʊ] endo; kani idu enduk odʊk idok uk
stone helep helep helep helegit [helekit] jʊkum yugum; yukum git [ŋgit] kəlip kelep kelep kirik
road, path ke; kwe kwe holak-aðem tuwan tuwan epela pʊgalem
name ettake ettake eraxe edaka [etaga] edaka [endaga] endage; etaxe edaka onuk unuk nimnya
eat namen namen!; ne-; nengge nənəm- emen namɪn (ɪs ?) (kwaniŋ) etiŋ
one makke-at; pakke-at oppakke-at opake-at bagɪ-at abɪ ambe; ambit omagi-at ambui mesik mɪsɪk sendeik
two pete; pɪte p:ie pere bete [peře] bete [mbeře] bere; mbeɾe bete pere biten biten phenep

Evolution

Dani reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[8]

Grand Valley Dani language:

Western Dani language:

Ngalik language:

References

  1. ^ Capell, Arthur. 1962. Linguistic Survey of the South-Western Pacific (New and revised edition). (South Pacific Commission Technical Paper, 136.) Noumea: South Pacific Commission. 258pp.
  2. ^ Larson, Gordon F. 1977. Reclassification of Some Irian Jaya Highlands Language Families: A Lexicostatical Cross-Family Subclassification with Historical Implications. Irian VI: 3-40.
  3. ^ New Guinea World, Baliem Valley
  4. ^ a b Bromley, Myron H. 1966-1967. The Linguistic Relationships of Grand Valley Dani: A Lexico-statistical Classification. Oceania 37: 286-305.
  5. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. Languages of Irian Jaya: Checklist. Preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. B-31, iv + 133 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1975. doi:10.15144/PL-B31
  6. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  7. ^ Clouse, Duane A. (1997). "Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya". In Karl Franklin (ed.). Papers in Papuan linguistics no. 2 (PDF). Vol. A-85. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 133–236. ISBN 0858834421.
  8. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.