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Anim
Fly River
Geographic
distribution
Fly River, central southern New Guinea
Linguistic classificationAnim
  • Anim
Proto-languageProto-Anim
Subdivisions
Glottologanim1240
Anim languages.svg
Map: The Anim languages of New Guinea
  The Anim families
  Other Trans–New Guinea families
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Anim or Fly River languages are a language family in south-central New Guinea established by Usher & Suter (2015).[1] The names of the family derive from the Fly River and from the Proto-Anim word *anim 'people'.[1]

Languages

The 17 Anim languages belong to the following four subfamilies:[2]

The moribund Abom language, previously considered a member of the Tirio family, is of uncertain classification, possibly Trans–New Guinea, but does not appear to be Anim. The extinct Karami language, attested only in a short word list and previously assigned to the Inland Gulf family, defies classification (Usher and Suter 2015).

Anim languages and respective demographic information listed by Evans (2018) are provided below.[3]

List of Anim languages
Language Subgroup Location Population Alternate names
Marind Nuclear Marind central Merauke Regency and southeast corner (Indonesia) 7,000
Bian Nuclear Marind northeast Merauke Regency (Indonesia) 2,900
Yaqay Yaqay eastern Mappi Regency (Indonesia) 10,000
Warkay-Bipim Yaqay south Asmat Regency (Indonesia) 300
Kuni-Boazi Lake Murray (Boazi) west Lake Murray (PNG) 4,500
Zimakani Lake Murray (Boazi) southwest Lake Murray across border (PNG) 1,500
Tirio Tirio (Lower Fly) south bank of lower Fly River (PNG) 1900 Makayam
Bitur Tirio (Lower Fly) south bank of lower Fly River (PNG) 860 Mutum, Paswam, Bituri
Adulu Tirio (Lower Fly) south Gogodala Rural LLG (PNG) 220 Aturu
Lewada-Dewara Tirio (Lower Fly) Gogodala Rural LLG (PNG) 700 Were
Baramu Tirio (Lower Fly) south bank of lower Fly River (PNG) 850
Ipiko Ipiko (Inland Gulf) West Kikori Rural LLG (PNG)

Reconstruction

Phonemes

Proto-Anim
Reconstruction ofAnim languages

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant inventory as follows:[2]

*m *n
*p *t *k
*mb *nd *ŋg
*s
*w *r *j

Vowels are *a *e *i *o *u.

Pronouns

Proto-Anim pronouns (Usher and Suter 2015):[1]

sg pl
1 *na- *ni-
2 *ŋga- *ja
3 *(u)a- *ja

By 2020, comparison with the neighboring TNG branch Awyu–Ok had led so some revision of the reconstructions. Here are the nominative and possessive/object forms:[2]

sg pl
1 *no, *na- *ni, *na-/*ni-
2 *ŋgo, **ŋga- *[i/e]o, *[i/e]a-
3m *e, *e- *i, *i-
3f *u, *u-

The demonstrative third-person forms *e-, *u-, *i- are an innovation shared with proto-Awyu–Ok, which has the same vowel ablaut in the second person as well. They reflect a gender ablaut of msg *e, fsg *u, nsg *[a/o], and pl *i, as in *anem 'man', *anum 'woman', *anim 'people', or *we 'father', *wu 'mother', *wi 'parents'.[2]

Lexicon

Proto-Anim lexical reconstructions by Usher & Suter (2015) are:[1]

gloss Proto-Anim
‘house’ *aɸ(a,o)
‘younger sibling’ *am(o)=e/*am=u
‘laugh’ *awend(V)
‘thigh’ *mboɸo
‘breast’ *mbumb(V)
‘tree’ *nde
‘navel’ *ndekum(u)
‘sago’ *ndou
‘build a nest’ *ewes
‘bone’ *ɸia(u)
‘rain’ *ŋg(a,o)e
‘night’ *ŋgap(o)
‘eat, drink’ *ŋg(e,a)i
‘root’ *itit(i)
‘lip’ *itup(u)
‘cry’ *iwo
‘tooth’ *kam(V)
‘egg, seed’ *kan(a,e)
‘paddle’ *kawea
‘mouth, teeth’ *maŋg(a,o)t(o)
‘come’ *mano
‘speech, voice’ *mean(V)
‘two’ *measi
‘fruit, seed’ *moko(m)
‘heart’ *muki(k)
‘mosquito’ *naŋg(a,i)t(i)
‘banana’ *napet(o)
‘sleep’ *nu
‘forearm’ *piŋgi
‘stand’ *ratinV
‘hand’ *seŋga
‘tongue’ *sas(a)
‘meat, fish’ *sawa(i)
‘tail feathers’ *sum(V)
‘fire, tree’ *tae
‘wing’ *taɸ(u)
‘nape’ *temuk(u)
‘lie down’ *tenV

Below are selected reconstructions for Proto-Fly River (Proto-Anim) and branches by Usher (2020).[2]

gloss Proto-
Fly River
Proto-
Inland Gulf
Proto-
Lower Fly River
Proto-
Lake Murray
Proto-
Marind-Yaqay
Proto-
Marind
Proto-
Yakhai-Warkay
Proto-
Yakhai
head *gia *pa *muku
hair *duɾumə; *duɾum
ear *tu; *jeja *towap *kambet *kembet, *kambet *k[e]mbet
eye *kindV[C] *kuɸino *baɾid *kind *kind *kind
nose *dasi *miw *aŋgi₂p *s[e/a]maŋg
tooth *kam *ta; *bese *suwə; *kam; *su *kam *maŋg[e/a]t *maŋgat *maŋg[e/a]t
tongue *sas *koda; *sasa *jimə; *jim *naseam; *sas *inVm *inum *in[e/a]m
leg *idini *tegu
louse *n[u]m[u]ŋg *uani *oɾ[eae]n *[num]uŋg *nambun *nahun; *mba[m/mb] *nambun
dog *gaso *s[eae]; *diɾean *gaɣo *ŋgat
pig *mbasik *maɸa *m[i/e]nawə *basik *basik *basik *basik
bird *ewesa *dawod *ujub *pet[e/a]ɣau
egg *kanV *ɸutu; *usu *sVɣaɾə *mogaw; *kan[a] *magaw *mo[k/ɣ]a
blood *nauɾə *kouk *do
bone *mbai[a]ŋg; *ɸia[u] *ɸia *naɾak(ə); *baig *bajag *hia[u] *haiau, *hiau *hia *ia
skin *nikopi; *ko[j]ipo *ŋgusum *ugu
breast *jono *bub *toto *bub *abut
tree *nde *de *naukə *tae *de *de *de
man *anem *aneme *anem(ə) *anem *anem *anem
woman *anum *anumu *anum(ə) *anum *anum *anum *sau
sun *nowumu; *siwio *manom *kaia *katane
moon *bubei *manom *mandou *kam[e/o]
water *ogo *mau[g/k]ə *neia, *naia *adika *adeka *adika *maⁱ
fire *tae *maɸi; *ta[j]e *j[i]au *tae *tekaw *tekaw *teka
stone *didigə *seŋgV *ketaɾ; *seŋga *seŋgV *seŋgi
path *jigei *ewean *isas
name *jiga *gag *ij *[i/e]g[i/e]j *igij *[e][k/ɣ][e]
eat *tamu *ɣawi[ɣ] *bae
one *ija (?) *jaigio *ɣoɾ[e]a[u][k] *koapo *ija[kod] *ijako[d]; *ijakod
two *meas[i] *measi *mis *inah *[k/ɣ]aiaɣamat

References

  1. ^ a b c d Timothy Usher and Edgar Suter (2015) "The Anim Languages of Southern New Guinea". Oceanic Linguistics 54:110–142
  2. ^ a b c d e Timothy Usher & Edgar Suter. Proto–Fly River. New Guinea World.
  3. ^ Evans, Nicholas (2018). "The languages of Southern New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 641–774. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.