RegionNew Britain
Extinct7 cited 1988;[1] apparently extinct by 2003[2]
  • Makolkol
Language codes
ISO 639-3zmh
Lang Status 01-EX.png
Makolkol is an extinct language according to the classification system of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

Makolkol is a possible Papuan language formerly spoken on the Gazelle Peninsula of East New Britain Province on the island of New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Stebbins (2010) reports it is unattested.[3] Palmer (2018) treats it as unclassified.[4]

It is not known if it was related to the neighboring Baining languages.

Rosensteel (1988) contains a 174-word list of Makolkol.[5]

Sociolinguistic situation

Makolkol was spoken only in the village of Gunapeo. Speakers were shifting to Tok Pisin and Meramera.[6] Rosensteel (1988) reported that out of a total population of about 35 ethnic people, there were 7 elderly fluent speakers.[5]


  1. ^ Makolkol language at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  2. ^ Makolkol at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  3. ^ Dunn, Michael. 2012. Systematic typological comparison as a tool for investigating language history.
  4. ^ Palmer, Bill (2018). "Language families of the New Guinea Area". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  5. ^ a b Rosensteel, Gary L. 1988. A sociolinguistic survey report on five Baining languages: Kairak, Makolkol, Mali, Simbali and Uramët. Unpublished manuscript. Ukarumpa: SIL.
  6. ^ Makolkol. Languages of Papua New Guinea. SIL International. (PDF).