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Sepik Hill
Geographic
distribution
Sepik Hills, south-central East Sepik Province, in the Sepik River basin of Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationSepik
  • Sepik Hill
Glottologsepi1258
The Sepik languages as classified by Foley (2018). The Sepik Hill languages are in green.

The Sepik Hill languages form the largest and most ramified branch of the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea. They are spoken along the southern margin of the Sepik floodplain in the foothills of Central Range of south-central East Sepik Province.

Languages

The languages according to Usher (2020) are,[1]

Sepik Hills

The languages according to Foley (2018) are:[2]

Sepik Hill

Other than disagreement at to what is a language or a dialect (Glottolog, for example, concludes that the 'Bikaru' language is probably spurious, and doesn't list Umairof at all), the only difference from Usher is in combining Sanio with the Southwest Sepik Hills languages as a Western branch.

Pronouns

Pronouns in Sepik Hill languages:[2]

pronoun Sare Alamblak Saniyo-Hiyewe
1sg an na ane
2sg ni ne
3sg.m rər rei
3sg.f rət
1du nond noto-(si)
2du fin nifɨn fene-si
3du rəf rowe-si
1pl nom nəm nomo
2pl nikə(m) fene
3pl rom rəm rowe

Vocabulary comparison

The following basic vocabulary words are from Davies & Comrie (1985),[3] Dye et al. (1968),[4] Foley (2005),[5] Macdonald (1973),[6] and various SIL field notes, as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[7]

Language Alamblak Bahinemo Berinomo Bisis Kapriman Bikaru Saniyo-Hiyewe
head mʌbogath; mɛ̈ƀɨǥatʰ thu tu tɛpi tuʔus toɣo ʔambu; yowidi 'hɔřise tu; worɛ siyaʔi
hair tʰɨ'maʀ̌č; tʌmarts; tʰɨ'maʀ̌š thunʌba to towa; tu sowa tuam tuwam nɨmbɨ; yowididise mato towe; tutowe
ear yimbɣindang; yɩmbɨǥin'daŋgɨtʰ; yɩmbʌlindangʌm bʌsiya pɛnɛhax wanbatal womblaja haři; waʔaʌ apahɛ; apaniyɛ
eye ɲinga; 'ɲiŋgaʀ̥̥̌; ningaw niya niya nika nikha mɨn 'taʔamɨ; tařa nihe; nihɛ
nose 'hʰušɨ ɨtʰ; khusɩmʌth; 'kʰučɨmɨtʰ; kusm sɛkʌnɩ ɛrɛm sikʌľap̶ar singova taʔama; towi ɛrɛme; ɛrɛmɛ
tooth bɩ'čɛ̈tʰ; biʃə; bɩ'šɛ̈tʰ; bɩsʌm pi pi binikam bim ne; nɨmbi pi
tongue tor; torkh; 'tʰoʀ̥̌tʰ thɔlu tor toguʌl thʌdɩs ketasi; tɨgalɨ sořowɛ; soruwɛ
leg wʌlat; 'wɷ'řatʰ; wura lowa rowa hɛna wɛlis wola lowe; rowɛ
louse nəm; 'nɛ̈mɨtʰ; nʌmo nʌmu tu nɛm ninis nʌmɩs aƀʌkʰ; lema nɛmɛ
dog yauʀ̥̌ʸ; yawi; yawu yo yao yau yom waʔšɨ; waʔšʌ; wina yo; you
pig 'ᵽɛ̈gɨʀ̥̌; fagʌr; fəɣ fa p̶oʔol fʌɣr fe
bird nongwar; 'nugwaʀ̥̌ wabo uro nuŋgař yerɛpm heka; namʷio; waʔaƀi iřowɛ; iruwɛ
egg fɣa; fokam; ᵽo'ǥat wabo mu uro wɛka nuŋgwawobom yuɣwar heře akia; mbandung hotɛ
blood khukhupam; kɨ'kʰupʰam mahələ marɛ hax kukwem kokwem gugubase fisa'i; fisaʔi
bone thʌphim; tɨ'pɩʀ̥̌; tɨpi hʌbi sɛtsɛpi sɩbɩkʰam sibevam hɔři paʔaře; pa'arɛ
skin tʰɨ'ǥatʰ; thʌkhath thʌbi tepi tibi thʌgas ha'baisi; nbangɨ tahɛ
breast mingam; miŋatʰ; niŋgam mosu mok minika mʌnikha ařu'se:; muña mo'u; moʔu
tree mᵼč; mim; mᵼš; mɨy mi mom mi; sia me; mɛ
man yima; 'yi'maʀ̥̌ 'ɩma muwɛ pɛhɛnɛ nimař wiyak ntu; wɔbi mɛni; mitaru
woman 'metɨtʰ7; metum swani mesan toʔanʌs toɣwan taʔagwa; wita taunɛ; tawnɛ
sun mar; 'mařɨʀ̥̌ tɩniya teniya maľɛľɛl yɛneza ñʌ; yaki poɔyuɛ; poweyɛ
moon yam; 'yamɨtʰ; yamʌth yamal nop yaguso yagos babume; mpaʔopmu yamɛ; yamɛ'
water bukbam; 'bupʰam; bu-pam hagi saʔ sagim sagim eipa; ngu sa'i; saʔi
fire kaɣ; kʰaǥɨtʰ; khaxth ya itai yoʔoy moyos ʔiya; sea yɛhɛ
stone š; taxim ba pa obak obar hana; tumbu tapiyɛ
road, path yɨ'ǥotʸoǥatʰ yo ʔatʰoř yaʔambu; yəřo; yəto
name 'yuƀatʰ; yufa; yufat wufa wiyapa ovas yapɛ
eat fa; ka; 'kʰaɛ̈ʀ̥̌; weyanum; ye diyaw bʌľia̠s asoliya ʔagʌnʌ aiyei; asiyʌ
one rɛphar; rpa; řɨpʰatʰ dʌbatha tɛpa tabak dɩbar kɨtʌkʰ; yoko habia hɛta'i; taʔi
two hutsif; xočiᵽ; 'xošɩᵽ husi howis wɩtɩp kothi ƀɩtik; yoko labo hɛsi

References

  1. ^ Sepik Hills, NewGuineaWorld
  2. ^ a b Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  3. ^ Davies, J. and Comrie, B. "A linguistic survey of the Upper Yuat". In Adams, K., Lauck, L., Miedema, J., Welling, F., Stokhof, W., Flassy, D., Oguri, H., Collier, K., Gregerson, K., Phinnemore, T., Scorza, D., Davies, J., Comrie, B. and Abbott, S. editors, Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No. 22. A-63:275-312. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1985. doi:10.15144/PL-A63.275
  4. ^ Dye W., Townsend, P., & Townsend, W. 1968. The Sepik Hill Languages: A preliminary report. Oceania 39: 146-156.
  5. ^ Foley, W.A. "Linguistic prehistory in the Sepik-Ramu basin". In Pawley, A., Attenborough, R., Golson, J. and Hide, R. editors, Papuan Pasts: Cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. PL-572:109-144. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 2005.
  6. ^ Macdonald, G.E. "The Teberan Language Family". In Franklin, K. editor, The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea. C-26:111-148. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1973. doi:10.15144/PL-C26.111
  7. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.