Negeri Sembilan Malay
Bahasa Melayu Negeri Sembilan
بهاس ملايو نݢري سمبيلن
Baso Nogoghi
Pronunciation[basɔ nɔgɔɣi]
Native toMalaysia
RegionNegeri Sembilan, northern Malacca (Alor Gajah)
Native speakers
508,000 (ethnic population) (2004)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3zmi
Glottolognege1240

Negeri Sembilan Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Negeri Sembilan; also known as Baso Nogoghi) is an Austronesian language spoken mainly in the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan and in northern Malacca in Alor Gajah. The language is spoken by the descendants of Minangkabau settlers from Sumatra, who have migrated to Negeri Sembilan since as early as the 14th century.[2] It is often considered a variant or dialect of the Minangkabau language; lexical and phonological studies, however, indicate that it is more closely related to Standard Malay than it is to Minangkabau.[3][4]

History

The Minangkabau people began migrating from the Sumatra highlands to the Malay Peninsula in the 14th century.[3] Migration skyrocketed from the 15th century to the 16th century.[5] At that time, trade activity through the Strait of Malacca increased and many migrants were granted protection by the Malacca Sultanate. From the ports of Malacca, groups and groups of Minangkabau settlers started venturing inland. This was the first migration wave of Minangkabau people to Malacca. Most of the Minangkabau migrants were from Luhak Tanah Datar and Luhak Limapuluh Kota.[6] This first wave of migration resulted in the opening of a new mukim.

The number of inhabitants inland started increasing due to the rise of migrants and those migrants developed into their own groups of communities. These groups resulted in the creation of 12 clans as a whole. Different from in Sumatra, the naming of the clans were done based on the origin of the migrants. Migrants from Limapuluh Kota formed the clans:

Meanwhile, the migrants from Tanah Datar formed the Tanah Datar clan. These migrants also formed three other clans which resulted from intermarriages with communities already settled where the aforementioned Tanah Datar migrants migrated to.[6] These clans were:

The Biduanda clan were seen as the leader of the clans that were present because they formed as a result of the intermingling between the Minangkabau people and the Orang Asli, the native people of the Malay Peninsula.

The opening of new mukims inland resulted in the formation of nine nagaris that composed of luaks that were governed by Undangs. The nagaris were:

These nine nagaris later formed a federation that was called the Board of Negeri Sembilan (Malay: Lembaga Negeri Sembilan). This federation was under the protection of the Johor Sultanate.

In the 18th century, the Johor Sultanate received several attacks and were in an unpeaceful state. During this period, Negeri Sembilan was under the Bugis, insofar as the Datuks of Negeri Sembilan cooperated to make a request to the Sultan of Johor (Abdul Jalil Shah IV) to invite a king from Pagaruyung to make him the leader, a request which was accepted.[5] The invitation of the king (Raja Melewar) brought along the second migration wave of Minangkabau people[7] and resulted in the formation of the state of Negeri Sembilan with the Yamtuan Besar as its leader and Adat Perpatih as its law.[8]

The two migration waves of Minangkabau people and the assimilation of the Minangkabau language to the languages of the natives are what resulted in the language of Negeri Sembilan Malay. Negeri Sembilan Malay has been influenced by several languages such as Malaysian Malay, the standard Malaysian variety of Malay, English and Arabic, different from the Minangkabau language in Sumatra which has been influenced more by Indonesian, the Indonesian standardised form of Malay and Dutch.[9] The Minangkabau people of Negeri Sembilan have been separated from the Minangkabau people of Sumatra for 500-600 years.[10] This resulted in Negeri Sembilan Malay developing its own unique features.[3]

Phonology

Comparison with Standard Malay

Vowels

Correspondence Rule

(SM ≙ NSM)

Standard Malay

(SM)

Negeri Sembilan Malay

(NSM)

English Translation
Final /a/ Half-low back /ɔ/ apa /apa/ [apɔ] 'what'
Initial /o/ orang /oraŋ/ [ɔɣaŋ] 'person'
Initial open syllable /ə/ beras /bəras/ [bɔɣɛh] 'raw rice'
/u/ in final /uh/ bunuh /bunuh/ [bunɔh] 'kill'
Close ended final /a/ Half-low front /ɛ/ cepat /t͡ʃəpat/ [cɔpɛɁ] 'quick'
/i/ in final /ih/ benih /bənih/ [bɔnɛh] 'seed'
/u/ in final /ut/ Half-high back /o/ rambut /rambut/ [ɣambot] 'hair'
/u/ in final /uŋ/ kampung /kampuŋ/ [kampoŋ] 'village'
/i/ in final /ir/ Half-high front /e/ bibir /bibir/ [bibe] 'lips'
/i/ in final /it/ bukit /bukit/ [buket] 'hill'
/i/ in final /iŋ/ anjing /aɲd͡ʒiŋ/ [aɲd͡ʒeŋ] 'dog'

Consonants

Correspondence Rule

(SM ≙ NSM)

Standard Malay

(SM)

Negeri Sembilan Malay

(NSM)

English Translation
Initial /r/ Voiced palatal fricative /ɣ/ ramai /ramai/ [ɣamaj] 'many'
/r/ at the end of words Omitted air /air/ [ae] 'water'
Initial /h/ hidung /hiduŋ/ [idoŋ] 'nose'
/t/ in final /at/ Glottal plosive /ʔ/ bulat /bulat/ [bulɛɁ] 'circle'
/s/ in final /as/ Sibilant fricative /h/ lekas /ləkas/ [lɔkɛh] 'quick'
/s/ in final /is/ nipis /nipis/ [nipih] 'thin'
/s/ in final /us/ Consonant cluster /ʲh/ rebus /rəbus/ [ɣɔbuʲh] 'cook'

Vocabulary

According to Reniwati (2012), Negeri Sembilan Malay has a lexical similarity of 94.74% with Standard Malay and a lexical similarity of 83.16% with Minangkabau.[3]

Vocabulary Comparison
Standard Malay Minangkabau (Standard) Negeri Sembilan Malay (with English meaning)
1 Semua Sado Somuwo/Sumo (all)
2 Abu Abu Abu (ash)
3 Kulit Kayu Kulik Kayu Kulet Pokok (tree bark)
4 Perut Paruik Poghut (stomach)
5 Besar Gadang/Basa Godang/Bosa (big)
6 Burung Buruang Bughong (bird)
7 Gigit Gigik Giget (bite)
8 Hitam Itam Itam (black)
9 Darah Darah Daghah (blood)
10 Tulang Tulang Tulang (bone)
11 Tetek/Susu Susu Susu (milk)
12 Bakar Baka Baka (burn)
13 Kuku Kuku Kuku
14 Awan Awan Awan (cloud)
15 Sejuk/Dingin Sajuak/Dingin Sojuk (cold)
16 Datang Datang/Tibo Datang (arrive)
17 Mati Mati Mati (die)
18 Anjing Anjiang Anjeng (dog)
19 Minum Minum Minam (drink)
20 Kering Kariang Koghing (dry)
21 Telinga Talingo Tolingo (ear)
22 Tanah Tanah Tanah (ground)
23 Makan Makan Makan (eat)
24 Telur Talua Tolo (egg)
25 Mata Mato Mato (eye)
26 Lemak Gomok Gomuk (fat)
27 Bulu Bulu Bulu (feather)
28 Api Api Api (fire)
29 Ikan Lauak/Ikan Ikan (fish)
30 Terbang Tabang Toghobang (to fly)
31 Penuh Panuah Ponuh (full)
32 Kaki Kaki Kaki (foot)
33 Beri Agiah/Bari Boghi (bring)
34 Baik Elok/Baiak Elok/Baek (good)
35 Hijau Ijau Ijau (green)
36 Rambut Rambuik Ghambut (hair)
37 Tangan Tangan Tangan (hand)
38 Kepala Kapalo Kopalo/Palo (head)
39 Dengar Danga Donga (listen, hear)
40 Jantung Jantuang Jantong (heart)
41 Tanduk Tanduak Tandok
42 Aku/Saya Aden/Ambo/Awak Ese/Ayo/Eden (I)
43 Bunuh Bunuah Bunoh (kill)
44 Lutut Lutuik Lutut
45 Tahu Tau Tau (know)
46 Daun Daun Daun (leaf)
47 Baring Golek Bagheng
48 Hati Ati Ati (heart)
49 Panjang Panjang Panjang (long)
50 Kutu Kutu Kutu (flea)
51 Lelaki Laki-laki Lolaki (boy)
52 Banyak Banyak Banyak (many)
53 Daging Dagiang Dageng (meat)
54 Bulan Bulan Bulan (moon)
55 Gunung Gunuang Gunong (mountain)
56 Mulut Muncuang Mulut (mouth)
57 Nama Namo Namo (name)
58 Leher Lihia Lehe (neck)
59 Baru/Baharu Baru Baghu (new)
60 Malam Malam Malam (night)
61 Hidung Iduang Idung (nose)
62 Tidak Indak/ndak Tidak/tak (no)
63 Satu Ciek Satu (one)
64 Orang Urang Ughang (person)
65 Hujan Ujan Ujan (rain)
66 Merah Sirah Meghah (red)
67 Jalan Jalan Jalan (road)
68 Akar Urek Ughek
69 Bulat Bulek Bulek (round, circle)
70 Pasir Pasia/Kasiak Pase (sand)
71 Sebut Sabuik Sobut
72 Lihat Liek Liat (,ook)
73 Biji Incek Biji (seed)
74 Duduk Duduak Dudok (sit)
75 Kulit Kulik/Jangek Kulet (skin)
76 Tidur Lalok Tido (sleep)
77 Asap Asok Asap (smoke)
78 Diri Tagak Togak (stand)
79 Bintang Bintang Bintang (star)
80 Kecil Ketek/Kaciak Kocik (small)
81 Batu Batu Batu (stone)
82 Matahari Matoari Matoaghi (sun)
83 Ekor Ikua Eko (tail)
84 {be-}renang {ba-}ranang {bo-}ghonang (to swim)
85 Itu Itu Itu (it)
86 Ini Iko Ini (this)
87 Kamu/Awak/Engkau/Kau Awak/Sanak/Kau(perempuan)/Ang(laki-laki) Awak/Ekau (you)
88 Lidah Lidah Lidah (tongue)
89 Gigi Gigi Gigi (tooth)
90 Pohon/Pokok Batang Pohon Pokok (tree)
91 Dua Duo Duo (two)
92 {ber-}jalan {ba-}jalan {bo-}jalan (to go)
93 hangat/panas Angek Paneh (hot)
94 Air Aia Ae (water)
95 Kami Awak/Kami Kami (we)
96 Apa A/Apo Apo (what)
97 Putih Putiah Puteh (white)
98 Siapa Sia/Siapo Siapo/Sapo (who)
99 Perempuan Padusi Poghompuan (girl)
100 Kuning Kuniang Kuning (yellow)
101 Saudara Dunsanak Waghih (brother, fellow)
102 Hari Ari Aghi (day)
103 Jatuh Balambin Bodobin (fall)
104 Bagaimana Bak Apo/Ba'a/Bak Mano Camno (how)
105 Pemalas Panyagan Penyogan (lazy person)
106 Mari Mari Maghih (come)

References

  1. ^ Negeri Sembilan Malay at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ Rahilah Omar & Nelmawarni (2008). "Negeri Sembilan: Rantau Minangkabau di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu". Historia: Journal of Historical Studies (in Malay). 9 (2): 2–30.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ a b c d Reniwati (2012). "Bahasa Minangkabau dan dialek Negeri Sembilan: Satu tinjauan perbandingan linguistik historis komparatif". Wacana Etnik: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora (in Indonesian). 3 (1): 71–86.
  4. ^ a b Idris Aman, Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar & Norsimah Mat Awal (2019). "Language and identity: A reappraisal of Negeri Sembilan Malay language" (PDF). Kajian Malaysia. 37 (1): 27–49. doi:10.21315/km2019.37.1.2.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b "SEJARAH AWAL PEMERINTAHAN NEGERI SEMBILAN". Portal Rasmi Kerajaan Negeri Sembilan. 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  6. ^ a b Zed, Mestika Hubungan Minangkabau Dengan Negeri Sembilan. Working Paper. FIS Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang.
  7. ^ Aslinda, A., Noviatri, N., & Reniwati, R. (2015). The Trace of Minangkabau-Wise in Malaysian Language. Scientific Journal of PPI-UKM, 2(7), 291-295.
  8. ^ Aidafidah (2009-01-04). "Let Us Read: Kesinambungan Raja-raja Melayu". Let Us Read. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  9. ^ Reniwati, Reniwati; Midawati, Midawati; Noviatri, Noviatri (29 August 2017). "Lexical variations of Minangkabau Language within West Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia: A dialectological study". Geografia - Malaysian Journal of Society and Space. 13 (3): 1–10. doi:10.17576/geo-2017-1303-01. ISSN 2180-2491.
  10. ^ Idris Aman, Norsimah Mat Awal, & Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar (2016). Imperialisme Linguistik, Bahasa Negeri Sembilan dan Jati Diri: Apa, Mengapa, Bagaimana. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation (Iman), 4(3): 3 - 11.

Further reading

  • Hendon, Rufus S. (1966). The phonology and morphology of Ulu Muar Malay: (Kuala Pilah District, Negri Sembilan, Malaya). Yale University publications in anthropology, 70. New Haven: Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University.