Geographic distribution of major Bikol languages and dialects across Bicol region; classification based on Lobel (2013); Masbatenyo, Central Sorsogon, and Southern Sorsogon are Bisayan languages but heavily influenced by Bikol. A speaker of Bicolano, recorded in the United States
Bikol languages or Bicolano languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias in Masbate.
A poem written in a Bikol dialect. groups the languages of Bikol as follows:
Curtis McFarland gives the following classification for the Bikol languages.
Clockwise from top-left: A signage barring people from hanging around the area; A signage barring vendors inside the churchyard; A signage reminding people of proper waste disposal; and a signage barring swimmers in
. All are written in the Coastal Bikol language (Naga–Legazpi variant).
While McFarland (1974) splits Bikol into 11 dialects, Lobel (2000) splits Bikol into 12 different dialects (including Partido Bikol, which McFarland does not differentiate) and 4 main branches.
– spoken primarily in Central Standard Naga City, Cam. Sur, Tabaco & Legazpi, Albay and Sorsogon City, Sorsogon. Also recognized (and sometimes understood) in Daet, Camarines Norte and many other areas of Camarines Sur, San Pascual, Masbate on Burias Island, first and second districts of Albay, southwestern coast of Catanduanes, and northeastern Sorsogon.
Daet area variant
Naga City area variant
Tabaco–Legazpi–Sorsogon area variant
Southwestern and northern town of San Andres and Caramoran, Catanduanes.
– spoken in the Camarines Sur municipalities of Partido Ocampo, Goa, Tigaon, Lagonoy, Sagñay, and San Jose. This dialect has a mellow intonation and is heavily influenced by Rinconada Bikol. – spoken in the southern half of Catanduanes.
Virac area variant
Bato area variant
Baras area variant San Miguel variant (transitional to North Catanduanes)
– spoken primarily in Rinconada Bikol Iriga City, Baao, Bula, Balatan, Baao and Nabua, Camarines Sur. Also in some parts of Ocampo, Buhi and Pili in Camarines Sur and in parts of Polangui, Albay.
Lakeside Rinconada dialect (lacks /
ə/ vowel) Highland Rinconada dialect (with / ə/ vowel)
Buhinon – spoken in Buhi, Camarines Sur. Contains features from both the Bikol of Polangui, Albay and the Iriga variant of Rinconada Bikol.
Libon – spoken in Libon, Albay.
West Miraya – spoken in Ligao City, Polangui, Oas, and Pio Duran, Albay. East Miraya – spoken in Guinobatan, Camalig, Daraga & Jovellar, Albay and Donsol & Pilar, Sorsogon.
Guinobatan) Far East (
Camalig, Daraga) Southeast ( Jovellar, Albay, Donsol, Pilar) – spoken by about 80,000 people or the northern half of Catanduanes.
Bagamanoc area variant
Caramoran area variant (transitional to South Catanduanes)
Gigmoto area variant (transitional to South Catanduanes)
Pandan area variant
Panganiban area variant Viga area variant
– spoken in Northern Sorsogon Sorsogon City, Castilla, Casiguran and Juban.
Castilla area variant (mixed with Bikol-Legazpi) Casiguran– Juban area variant
(also known as Gubat language) – spoken in Southern Sorsogon Gubat; Barcelona, Bulusan, Santa Magdalena, Matnog, Irosin, and Bulan. – spoken in Masbateño Masbate City, Mobo, Uson, Dimasalang, Palanas, Masbate, Aroroy on the island of Masbate, all of Ticao Island, and Claveria on the southern half of Burias Island.
Ticao Island variant
Some dialects of Southern Bikol have the
close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *ə. However, Proto-Austronesian *ə is realized as / in o/ Libon. Two Bikol dialects have unique additional consonants, namely Southern Catanduanes, which has an interdental lateral consonant /l̟/ (also transcribed as l̪͆),  and Buhi-non, which has the  voiced velar fricative /ɣ/.