Sumatra, Indonesia
Native speakers
3,318,360 (2010 census)[3]
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
  • Northern Batak
  • Southern Batak
ISO 639-2 / 5btk
Glottologtoba1265  (Batakic)
The distribution of Batak languages in northern Sumatra

The Batak languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken by the Batak people in the Indonesian province of North Sumatra and surrounding areas.

Internal classification

The Batak languages can be divided into two main branches, Northern Batak and Southern Batak. Simalungun was long considered an intermediary, but in current classifications it is recognized as part of the Southern branch.[4][5] Within Northern Batak, a study noted 76% cognate words between Karo and Alas, 81% with Pakpak, 80% with Simalungun, and 30% with Malay (Indonesian).[6] Karo and Toba Batak are mutually unintelligible.

Batak languages

Mandailing, Toba and Angkola are related to each other and mutually intelligible. Karo languages are mutually intelligible with other Northern Batak languages named Alas – Kluet language's in the southern part of Aceh, and are also partially mutually intelligible with Pakpak and Singkil. Some Pakpak (Dairi) dialect also partially mutually intelligible with Toba languages. Simalungun languages are sometimes partially mutually intelligible with both Northern and Southern Batak, but more comprehensible with other Southern Batak languages (Toba-Angkola-Mandailing). The geographical influences on the Batak languages can be seen in the map in the infobox; Lake Toba separates the Karo (Northern Batak) from direct contact with the Toba (Southern Batak).


Reconstruction ofBatak languages

The Batak languages can be shown to descend from a hypothetical common ancestor, Proto-Batak (which in turn originates from Proto-Austronesian). The sound system of Proto-Batak was reconstructed by Adelaar (1981).[5]

Proto-Batak consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless *p *t *c *k
voiced *b *d *j
Fricative *s *h
Nasal *m *n
Semivowel *w *y
Lateral *l
Trill *r
Proto-Batak Vowels
Front Central Back
High *i *u
Low *a

Final diphthongs: *-uy, *-ey, *-ow.

The Proto-Batak sounds underwent the following changes in the individual daughter languages:[5]

Proto-Batak *kalak > Toba, Simalungun halak; Karo kalak 'person'
Proto-Batak *dukut > Toba, Simalungun duhut; Karo dukut 'grass'
Proto-Batak *pərəh > Toba poro, Simalungun poroh, Karo pereh /pərəh/ 'wring out'
Proto-Batak *dələg > Simalungun dolog, Toba dolok, Karo deleng /dələŋ/ 'mountain'.
Proto-Batak *ənəm > Karo enem (/ənəm/), Toba onom 'six'
Proto-Batak *apuy > Simalungun apuy; all other languages api 'fire'
Proto-Batak *matey > Simalungun matei; all other languages mate 'dead'
Proto-Batak *pulow > Simalungun pulou; all other languages pulo 'island'

Writing system

Main article: Batak script

Historically, the Batak languages were written using the Batak script, but the Latin script is now used for most writing.


  1. ^ Wälchli, Bernhard (2023-04-20). "The interplay of contrast markers ('but'), selectives ("topic markers") and word order in the fuzzy oppositive contrast domain". Linguistic Typology. doi:10.1515/lingty-2022-0019. ISSN 1613-415X.
  2. ^ Adelaar, Alexander K. (2010). "Language documentation in the west Austronesian world and Vanuatu: An overview". In Florey, Margaret (ed.). Endangered languages of Austronesia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-954454-7.
  3. ^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia – Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 9789790644175.
  4. ^ Comparative Austronesian dictionary Vol. 1. by Darrell T. Tryon, Shigeru Tsuchida et al. p421 et seq
  5. ^ a b c Adelaar, K. A. (1981). "Reconstruction of Proto-Batak Phonology". In Robert A. Blust (ed.), Historical Linguistics in Indonesia: Part I, 1–20. Jakarta: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.
  6. ^ The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. K. Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus Himmelmann, p. 535