Native toPhilippines
RegionMountain Province
Native speakers
41,000 (2007 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3bnc – inclusive code
Individual codes:
lbk – Central Bontok
ebk – Eastern Bontok
rbk – Northern Bontok
obk – Southern Bontok
vbk – Southwestern Bontok
Area where Bontoc is spoken according to Ethnologue

Bontoc (Bontok) /bɒnˈtɒk/[2] (also called Finallig) is the native language of the indigenous Bontoc people of the Mountain Province, in the northern part of the Philippines.


Ethnologue reports the following locations for each of the five Bontok languages. Speaker populations from the 2007 census, as quoted in Ethnologue.


Consonant phonemes[7]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s
Rhotic ɻ~ɺ
Approximant j
Vowel phonemes[7]
Front Back
High i
Mid e o
Close a

/e/ becomes a slightly centralized [] when in a syllable whose coda is /k/.[7] When in the nucleus, /a/ and /o/ are slightly raised and /i/ is lowered. [7]

There are two degrees of stress in Bontoc: primary and secondary. Primary stress is phonemic and secondary stress is predictable. Both types are right-oriented and occur on one of the last three syllables. Stress's effects include higher pitch, louder volume, and lengthening of the syllable nucleus, though these are all subject to certain rules pertaining to word prosody. [7]

Example text

The Lord's Prayer


  1. ^ Bontoc at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Central Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Eastern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Northern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Southern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Southwestern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Bauer, Laurie (2007). The Linguistics Student's Handbook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  3. ^ Ethnologue, Central Bontok (subscription required)
  4. ^ Ethnologue, Eastern Bontok (subscription required)
  5. ^ Ethnologue, Southern Bontok (subscription required)
  6. ^ Ethnologue, Southwestern Bontok (subscription required)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Reid, Lawrence A. (1963). "The Phonology of Central Bontoc". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 72 (1): 21–26.

Further reading