Native toPhilippines
RegionMountain Province
Native speakers
41,000 (2007 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3bnc – inclusive code
Individual codes:
lbk – Central Bontok
ebk – Eastern Bontok
rbk – Northern Bontok
obk – Southern Bontok
vbk – Southwestern Bontok
Bontok language map.png
Area where Bontoc is spoken according to Ethnologue

Bontoc (Bontok) /bɒnˈtɒk/[2] (also called Finallig) is the native language of the indigenous Bontoc people of the Mountain Province, in the northern part of the Philippines.


Ethnologue reports the following locations for each of the 5 Bontok languages. Speaker populations from the 2007 census, as quoted in Ethnologue.


Consonant phonemes[7]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s
Rhotic ɻ~ɺ
Approximant j
Vowel phonemes[7]
Front Back
High i
Mid e o
Close a

/e/ becomes a slightly centralized [] when in a syllable whose coda is /k/.[7] When in the nucleus, /a/ and /o/ are slightly raised and /i/ is lowered. [7]

There are two degrees of stress in Bontoc: primary and secondary. Primary stress is phonemic and secondary stress is predictable. Both types are right-oriented and occur on one of the last three syllables. Stress's effects include higher pitch, louder volume, and lengthening of the syllable nucleus, though these are all subject to certain rules pertaining to word prosody. [7]

Example text

The Lord's Prayer
English Bontoc[8]
Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth, as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
Ama id chaya machad-ayaw nan ngachanmo.
Omali nan en-ap-apowam.
Maangnen nan nemnemmo isnan lofong ay kag id chaya.
Ichowam nan kanenmi isnan kawakawakas.
Pakawanem nan fasolmi,
tay pinakawanmi akhes nan finmasol ken chakami.
Ad-im ogkhayen chakami isnan maawisanmi ay enfasol,
mod-i ket isas alakam chakami isnan ngaag.

Nafa kan kambet


  1. ^ Bontoc at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Central Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Eastern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Northern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Southern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Southwestern Bontok at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Bauer, Laurie (2007). The Linguistics Student's Handbook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  3. ^ Ethnologue, Central Bontok (subscription required)
  4. ^ Ethnologue, Eastern Bontok (subscription required)
  5. ^ Ethnologue, Southern Bontok (subscription required)
  6. ^ Ethnologue, Southwestern Bontok (subscription required)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Reid, Lawrence A. (1963). "The Phonology of Central Bontoc". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 72 (1): 21–26.
  8. ^ Nan Kalin Apo Dios (in bnc). International Bible Society. 1992.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Further reading