Manide
Camarines Norte Agta
Native toPhilippines
RegionCamarines Norte, Luzon
Native speakers
3,800 (2010)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3abd
Glottologcama1250
ELPCamarines Norte Agta

Manide is a Philippine language spoken near the province of Camarines Norte in Bicol region of southern Luzon in the Philippines. Manide is spoken by nearly 4,000 Negrito people, most of whom reside in the towns of Labo, Jose Panganiban, and Paracale.[2]

History

Between 1903 and 1924, John M. Garvan (1963) visited Negrito Filipino communities in the region of Luzon and recorded the name Manide.[2][3]

Many of the Manide population children still grow up speaking Manide.

Classification

Manide is the most divergent out of the three other Negrito languages in Southern Luzon, namely Inagta Rinconada, Inagta Partido, and Alabat.[2] In a survey of 1000 lexical items, 285 appeared to be unique, including new coinages which are forms that experienced semantic and or phonological shifts over time. In comparison, other Negrito languages such as Batak, Inagta Rinconada/ Partido, Mamanwa, or Inati have a cognate rate of over 90% with neighboring non-Negrito languages.[2]

The language genetically closest to Manide is the Inagta Alabat language.[4] Katabangan may have also been related according to Zubiri.[5]

Distribution

Lobel (2010) shows the separation of towns with Manide populations.

Phonology

Phoneme inventory of Manide

Consonants[6]
Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d g
Fricative s h
Lateral l
Trill r
Glide w j
Vowels[6]
Front Back
Close i u
Mid e ([ɛ]) o
Open a

Historical reflexes

Reflexes are words, sounds, or writing systems which are derived from previous, older elements or systems.

Reflex of PMP *q

PMP *q is reflected in Manide as /ʔ/. The glottal stop may combine with other consonants in cluster, i.e. in the sequence /ʔC/ and /Cʔ/, e.g. bag-áng /bagʔáŋ/ 'mouth'.

Reflex of PMP *R

The reflex of PMP *R in Manide is /g/. The reflex most likely comes from borrowed items in Tagalog.[6] For example, Manide be-gí /beʔgí/ ‘new’ is a reflex of PPH *baqəRú with the same meaning.

Reflex of PMP *s

Normally, the reflex of PMP *s is /s/, but in some cases that has shifted to /h/ instead.[6]

Reflex of PMP *d, *j, and *z

The reflexes of Proto Malayo Polynesian *d, *j, and *z are all /d/, with some exceptions for *j and *z.[6]

An example for *j: Manide ngádun /ŋádun/ ‘name’ < PPH *ŋájan
An example for *d: Manide dakép /dakép/ 'catch, capture' < PPH *dakə́p
An example for *z: Manide tudî /tudíʔ/ 'teach' < PMP *tuzuq ‘point’

Reflexes of PMP *ə.

The reflexes of PMP *ə are /a e i u/. /e/ is the only inherited reflex of PMP *ə, with /a i u/ being borrow reflexes.

Verb morphology

Manide is a reduced-focus language because it primarily uses mag- for the actor focus, -an for the location focus, while -en takes place of the functions from Proto Malayo Polynesian *-ən and *i-, thus marking object focus.[2] There are two present forms, with the first being possessive. The second present form is used for habitual functions. In Southern Luzon, Manide is the only language that uses CVC reduplication.

Verb Conjunctions[6]
AF OF/OF2 LF
Infinitive mag- -en -an
Past nag- i-, pi- i-...-an, pi-...-an
Present Progressive CVC- ig-CVC- ig-CVC-...-an
Present Habitual,
Near Future
pa- ipa-CVC- CVC-...-an
Future nig- ig-, pig- ig-...-an
Imperative <um>,Ø -en -an
Negative Imperative mag-, ()g- (i)g-...-a (i)g-...-i
Past Subjective (i)g- -a, pa-...-a -i, pa-...-i
Past Negative pa- igpa- ?

Pronouns

Pronouns in Manide make the same contrasts as in other Philippine languages.

Pronouns[6]
TOP NOM GEN OBL
1SG há-ku =ek =ku (di) da-kú
2SG hiká =ka =mu (di) diká
3SG hiyú hiyú adiyú, =ye (di) diyú
1EX kamí =kamí =mì (di) dikamí
1IN kitá =kitá =tà (di) dikitá
1IN.PL (kitáhan)† (kitáhan) (=tahan) (di dikitáhan)
2PL kamú =kamú =yi (di) dikamú
3PL hidú†† hidú adidú (di) didú

Vowel shifts

Vowel shifts are systematic sound changes in the pronunciation of vowel sounds. In Manide, there are vowel shifts following voiced stops /b d g/ and glides /w y/.[2] Low vowel fronting, back vowel fronting, and low vowel backing are all present in Manide.

Fronting refers to a change in the articulation of a vowel with shifts to vowels further forward in the mouth. (i.e., the position of the highest point of the tongue during its pronunciation).[7]

Low vowel fronting

Low vowel fronting is the shift of *a to a front vowel such as /e/. Fronting may occur due to assimilation to nearby sounds, or it may form independently. It is part of a feature among many Negrito Filipino languages from northern Luzon to Manide.[2]

Back vowel fronting

Back vowel fronting is the change of the vowel *u to /i/. It is related to low vowel fronting as back vowel fronting happens after /b d g/, but there are few occurrences after *b.

Manide shows 16 different forms of back vowel fronting, which generally happens after *t and *l.[6]

Low vowel backing

In Manide, low vowel backing is the shift from *a to /u/. Low vowel backing is unique to Manide, as it is not known to occur in any other language of the Philippines. Ten occurrences of low vowel backing of the shift *a to /u/ have been recorded.[6]

Case markers

Case markers in Manide are similar to those of other Philippine languages. The case markers show the relationships of nouns and noun phrases to a verb. The most common situations are genitive, nominative, and oblique. Something very unusual is that Manide uses the same case markers for personal names just as used with common nouns. There are no 'Personal' case markers in Manide for in the plural form, only the singular form.

Case Markers in Manide[6]
Common Personal
(Singular)
NOM hu (~'h) hu
GEN nu (~'n) nu
OBL di (~'d) di

References

  1. ^ Manide at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Lobel, Jason William (2010). "Manide: An Undescribed Philippine Language". Oceanic Linguistics. 49 (2): 478–510. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.823.647. JSTOR 40983976.
  3. ^ Garvan, John M. (1963). Hochegger, Hermann (ed.). The Negritos of the Philippines. Wiener Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik Band XIV. Vienna: Ferdinand Berger Horn. (Published posthumously from field notes taken by Garvan between 1903 and 1924.)
  4. ^ Lobel, Jason William; Alpay, Amy Jugueta; Barreno, Rosie Susutin; Barreno, Emelinda Jugueta (2020). "Notes from the Field: Inagta Alabat: A Moribund Philippine Language, with Supporting Audio". Language Documentation & Conservation. 14: 1–57. hdl:10125/24912.
  5. ^ Comments Received for ISO 639-3 Change Request 2019-024 (PDF), SIL International ISO 639-3 Registration Authority.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lobel, Jason William (2013). Philippine and North Bornean Languages : Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
  7. ^ Thompson, Rupert, "Vowel Fronting", in Giannakis, Georgios K. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, doi:10.1163/2214-448x_eagll_sim_00000548.