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Philippine Hokkien
咱人話 / 咱儂話
Lán-nâng-uē / Lán-lâng-uē / Nán-nâng-uē (Tâi-lô)
Lán-nâng-ōe / Lán-lâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe (POJ)
Ongpin St., Binondo, Manila (1949)
Native toPhilippines
RegionMetro Manila, Metro Cebu, Metro Davao, Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro, Metro Bacolod, Iloilo, Jolo, Tacloban, Angeles City, Vigan, Naga, Ilagan, Baguio, Bohol, Laoag, Laguna, Rizal, Lucena, Cotabato, and many other parts of the Philippines
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3nan for Southern Min / Min Nan (hbl for Hokkien Bân-lâm is proposed[4]) which encompasses a variety of Hokkien dialects including "Lannang" / "Lán-lâng-ōe" / "咱人話" / "Philippine Hokkien".[5]
GlottologNone
Linguasphere79-AAA-jek

Philippine Hokkien[f] is a dialect of the Hokkien language of the Southern Min branch of the Sinitic family, primarily spoken vernacularly by Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines, where it serves as the local Chinese lingua franca,[9] primarily spoken as an oral language, within the overseas Chinese community in the Philippines and acts as the heritage language of a majority of Chinese Filipinos.[10] The use of Hokkien in the Philippines is influenced by Philippine Spanish,[11][12] Filipino (Tagalog) and Philippine English.[6] As a lingua franca of the overseas Chinese community in the Philippines, the minority of Cantonese-/Taishanese-descended Chinese Filipinos also uses Philippine Hokkien for business purposes due to its status as "the Chinoy business language" [sic].[13]

Philippine Hokkien
Traditional Chinese咱人話 / 咱儂話
Hokkien POJLán-nâng-ōe / Lán-lâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe
Literal meaningOur People's Speech
Alternative Name (Philippine Hokkien)
Traditional Chinese菲律賓福建話
Hokkien POJHui-li̍p-pin Hok-kiàn-ōe
Literal meaningPhilippine Hokkien Speech
Alternative Name (Philippine Min Nan)
Traditional Chinese菲律賓閩南話
Hokkien POJHui-li̍p-pin Bân-lâm-ōe
Literal meaningPhilippine Southern Min Speech

Terminology

The term Philippine Hokkien is used when differentiating the variety of Hokkien spoken in the Philippines from those spoken in China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and other Southeast Asian countries.[14][7]

Historically, it was also known in Philippine English, Filipino (Tagalog), and other Philippine languages as Fookien[6] or Fukien[8] across the country, derived from the Chinese postal romanization of the Nanjing court dialect Mandarin reading of Fujian province in China, such as in the old newspaper, The Fookien Times.

The endonym used by speakers of the dialect itself or the Hokkien language in general though is typically, Chinese: 咱人話 / 咱儂話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lán-nâng-ōe / Lán-lâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe; Tâi-lô: Lán-nâng-uē / Lán-lâng-uē / Nán-nâng-uē.[6]

Sociolinguistics

Only 12.2% of all ethnic Chinese in the Philippines have a variety of Chinese as their mother tongue. Nevertheless, the vast majority (77%) still retain the ability to understand and speak Hokkien as a second or third language.[15]

History

Front page of Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua china (1593) by Spanish Dominican Friar Juan Cobo, written in Classical Chinese mostly in dialogue form based on Hokkien used in Spanish Colonial Philippines.

From the late 16th century to the early 17th century, Spanish friars in the Philippines, such as the Dominican Order and Jesuits specifically in Manila, produced materials documenting the Hokkien varieties spoken by the Chinese trading community who had settled there in the late 16th century:[16][11]

These texts appear to record a dialect descended primarily from the Chiangchiu (Zhangzhou) dialect of Hokkien, from the old port of Yuegang (modern-day Haicheng, an old initially illegal smuggling port that was later legalized in 1567 and is now part of Longhai),[24] but with some attested features of the dialects of Chuanchiu (Quanzhou) and Teo-Swa as well, hence Klöter (2011) considers it to be a contact variety, known as Early Manila Hokkien (EMH).[11] Yuegang (月港; Goe̍h-káng), part of Zhangzhou Prefecture under the late Ming China and Qing China used to be the Chinese terminus to and from Spanish Manila, under the Spanish Empire, which was part of the main artery that linked the trans-Pacific trade carried by the Manila galleon over the Pacific to Acapulco in New Spain (modern-day Mexico) of the Spanish Americas, that was also linked to the trans-Atlantic trade from the port of Veracruz to Seville in Spain, spreading trade goods from Asia across the Americas and later across Iberia and Europe. Later, the old port of Yuegang (月港; Goe̍h-káng) would be overshadowed and supplanted by the Port of Xiamen (廈門港; Ē-mn̂g Káng) closer to the sea by around the mid-1600s at the Ming-Qing transition due to conflict between the Ming/Southern Ming loyalist, Koxinga (國姓爺; Kok-sèng-iâ), and the Qing forces.

As a result as well of a 1603 Sangley Rebellion and a 1639 2nd Sangley Rebellion which both caused massacres of ethnic Sangley Chinese in Manila or Southern Luzon in general, the loss of Spanish Formosa to the Dutch in 1642, and the victory of Koxinga (國姓爺; Kok-sèng-iâ) in 1662 against the Dutch at the Siege of Fort Zeelandia in Taiwan, which caused the founding of the Kingdom of Tungning, Koxinga would send an ultimatum to Spanish Manila demanding to pay tribute to him or else he would send a fleet to conquer them and expel the Spaniards as well. The Spanish took the threat very seriously and withdrew their forces from the Moluccas, Sulu, and Mindanao to strengthen Manila in preparation for an attack. There would be several raids across Northern Luzon by Koxinga's forces. In the same year of 1662, Koxinga would suddenly die of malaria, only a few months after defeating the Dutch, in a fit of madness and delirium after discovering that his son and heir, Zheng Jing, had an affair with his wet nurse and conceived a child with her. A 1662 Sangley Massacre would ensue due to these mounting events and many Sangley Chinese fled by ship or to the mountains.

The Sangley Chinese community in the Philippines would survive through the 1700s but intermix locally to create Chinese Mestizos (Mestizos de Sangley) and be replenished by migrants from Amoy/Xiamen and Chinchew/Quanzhou. Some of whom even aided the British during the British occupation of Manila in 1762-1764. The Chinese Mestizo (Mestizos de Sangley) descendants throughout the centuries with each succeeding generation would gradually stop speaking Hokkien though in favor of assimilating to the local mainstream languages of their time, especially Tagalog and Spanish, such as in the mestizo family of Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal. The Hokkien spoken across the Philippines throughout the past centuries introduced certain amounts of Hokkien loanwords to Philippine Spanish and the major lowland Austronesian languages of the Philippines, such as Tagalog, Kapampangan, Cebuano Bisaya, Hiligaynon, Central Bicolano, Pangasinense, Ilocano, Waray-waray, Chavacano, etc. as a result of the generations of intermarriage and assimilation. Those who chose to marry endogamously and retained speaking the language and as a result of gradual replenishment of migrants from Amoy/Xiamen and Chinchew/Quanzhou, especially relatives from Fujian, China of those already in the Philippines, throughout the centuries would later continue the Sangley Chinese community in the Philippines that spoke Hokkien.

扶西德孫墓 (Hokkien POJ: Hû-se Tek-sun Bō͘, lit. "Jose Tecson's Grave"; 仙礁 (POJ: Sian-ta) 高律 (POJ: Ko-lu̍t), lit. "Santa Cruz" d. 1728 AD), located in San Andres Apostol Church of Candaba, Pampanga (as of 2010)

Later in the early 1800s, the Spanish Empire would also have its issues with conflicts and wars that would seriously destabilize it, starting with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, and the numerous conflicts and wars of independence across the Spanish Americas, which eliminated the Spanish Americas as the center of the Spanish Empire.

Around 1815, the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade would finally cease when the Mexican War of Independence broke out, which the First Mexican Empire would gain independence from the Spanish Empire by 1821. From then on 1821 to 1898, Spanish Philippines would be under direct royal governance under Madrid in Spain.

By 1832, Rev. Walter Henry Medhurst still noted in his Hokkien dictionary, originally as an account given by Conrad Malte-Brun (1775-1826) on the province of Hok-këèn (Fujian), that[25]

Tchang-chew-fou (Chëang-chew-hoó) [Zhangzhou Prefecture] is near the port of Emouy (Āy-moôiⁿᵍ)[Port of Xiamen/Amoy], a great emporium of trāde, frequented by the Spaniards from Manilla [Manila].

— Conrad Malte-Brun, as quoted by Walter Henry Medhurst, A Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms: Containing About 12,000 Characters, A Short Historical and Statistical Account of the Province of Hok-këèn. (Compiled from European and Chinese Authors.)

The Spanish trade with Amoy to and from Manila later grew nominal as a result of the above destabilizing conflicts cutting the empire in half. The Hokkien Chinese merchants from Amoy and Chinchew to and from Manila would later outcompete the Spaniards by the mid-1800s, as noted by the British, such as James Matheson, co-founder of Jardine Matheson:[26]

Amoy, a much more substantial port giving access to the tea-growing province of Fukien, was open to Spanish trade only. But the right was merely nominal because Chinese junks could transport goods to and from the Philippines much more cheaply than could the Spaniards. The latter had practically given up the trade; only one Spanish ship put in at Amoy between 1810 and 1830. ...Another witness said the Spaniards had given up the Amoy trade since 1800.

— Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842, Chapter III: The Canton Commercial System, p.47

The Suez Canal which would later link Spanish Philippines directly to Spain in Iberia without rounding the cape would only start construction by 1859 and be completed at 1869.

By 1873, Rev. Carstairs Douglas writes in his Hokkien dictionary that[27]

Singapore and the various Straits Settlements [such as Penang and Malacca], Batavia [Jakarta] and other parts of the Dutch possessions [Indonesia], are crowded with emigrants, especially from the Chang-chew [Zhangzhou] prefecture; Manila and other parts of the Philippines have great numbers from Chin-chew [Quanzhou], and emigrants are largely scattered in like manner in Siam [Thailand], Burmah [Myanmar], the Malay Peninsula [Peninsular Malaysia], Cochin China [Southern Vietnam], Saigon [Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam], &c. In many of these places there is also a great mixture of emigrants from Swatow [Shantou].

— Carstairs Douglas, Chinese–English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, Extent of the Amoy Vernacular, and its Sub-division into Dialects: Colonization And Emigration

By 1883, Rev. John Macgowan also records 3 entries explicitly defining Hokkien Chinese: 呂宋; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lū-sòng; lit. 'Luzon' in his Hokkien dictionary:

Luzon, 呂宋 Lū-sòng,—belongs to Spain, 呂宋是大°呂宋之°屬國 Lū-sòng sī Tōa lū-sòng ê siók kok

— John Macgowan, English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect, L[28]

Manilla [sic], 呂宋 Lū-sòng, very many Chinese go to—, 唐°人°去°呂宋盡多° tn̂g lâng khì Lū-sòng tsīn tsōe.

— John Macgowan, English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect, M[29]

Philippines, 呂宋 Lū-sòng.

— John Macgowan, English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect, P[30]

The Chinese community of the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era used to also speak a sort of Spanish pidgin variety known as "Caló Chino Español" or "La Lengua del Parian"[31] in Spanish or "Kastilang tindahan" in Tagalog, especially because the Chinese community before obligates Chinese cabecillas (community leaders) to teach rudimentary Spanish to new Chinese immigrants which was taught in Chinese-owned schools. They could speak these Spanish pidgin varieties after one month which many, especially old timers later became very fluent, albeit some still with accented Spanish. Spanish was prevalent enough among the educated in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era, that Joseph Earle Stevens, an American that stayed in Manila from 1893-1894 had this to say in his book, "Yesterdays in the Philippines":[32]

Spanish, of course, is the court and commercial language and, except among uneducated natives who have a lingo of their own or among the few members of the Anglo-Saxon colony, it has a monopoly everywhere. No one can really get on without it, and even the Chinese come in with their peculiar pidgin variety

— Joseph Earle Stevens, Yesterdays in the Philippines

By 1941, Vicente Lim publishes a dictionary in Manila, titled "Chinese-English-Tagalog-Spanish Business conversation and social contact with Amoy pronunciation" giving equivalent words in the stated 4 languages,[33] where "Chinese" and "Amoy" referred to a formalized literary form of the local Chuanchiu-based Hokkien as used by the author and the Chinese Filipino community in the Philippines at that time. As per Lim's dictionary, American English took precedence as consistent with the American colonial era, when English along with Spanish began to be taught as the official language of the Philippine Islands under the Insular Government, which later, Tagalog was chosen as the basis of Filipino, the national language of the Philippines under the 1935 constitution of the Philippine Commonwealth.

By 1987, under the current 1987 constitution of the Philippines, Spanish began to only be "promoted on a voluntary and optional basis", leading to most schools in the Philippines to no longer teach Spanish as a required class subject, which would most if not completely dissipate from mainstream use in later decades in the Philippines. The Spanish used decades before have been retained as a few Spanish loanwords in Philippine Hokkien, such as those found below.

In the 21st century, the Philippines now only has 2 official languages, Filipino (Tagalog) and English, with currently 19 recognized regional languages, including Cebuano Bisaya, Hiligaynon, etc., which Philippine Hokkien speakers currently frequently codeswitch with, which the form using Filipino (Tagalog) and English together with Hokkien is known as Hokaglish, akin to Taglish.

Education

During the late 20th century, despite Standard Chinese (Mandarin) taking the place as the usual Chinese class subject taught in Chinese Filipino schools as the topic of study, some schools had Chinese teachers that used Amoy Hokkien as medium of instruction in order to teach Mandarin Chinese to native-Hokkien-speaking Chinese Filipino students, but decades later around the Marcos Era, regulations became stricter and the medium of instruction for teaching Standard Chinese (Mandarin) in Chinese classes shifted from Amoy Hokkien Chinese to purely Mandarin Chinese (or in some schools to English). Also, due to the increased rural to urban migration of Chinese Filipinos, Chinese Filipino schools in urban areas increased but those in the provinces gradually declined, some closing down or some turning into ordinary Philippine schools, where some tried to preserve their "Chinese" characteristic by instead teaching Hokkien as their Chinese class subject, deeming it as more practical in the Philippine-Chinese setting.[34]

As of 2019, the Ateneo de Manila University, under their Chinese Studies Programme, offers Hokkien 1 (Chn 8) and Hokkien 2 (Chn 9) as electives.[35] Chiang Kai Shek College offers Hokkien classes in their CKS Language Center.[36]

Linguistic features

The contractions, (sam/sap) and (lia̍p), used on a grave tablet in the Manila Chinese Cemetery.

21st century Philippine Hokkien (咱人話; Lán-nâng-ōe) is largely derived from the Coastal Quanzhou (泉州; Choân-chiu) Hokkien dialects of Jinjiang (晉江; Chìn-kang), Coastal Nan'an (海南安 / 下南安; Hái Lâm-oaⁿ / Ě Lâm-oaⁿ), Shishi (石狮; Chio̍h-sai), Quanzhou City Proper (泉州市; Choân-chiu), Hui’an (惠安; Hūi-oaⁿ), but has possibly also absorbed influences from the adjacent Amoy dialect of Xiamen (廈門; Ē-mn̂g), Coastal Tong’an dialect (同安; Tâng-oaⁿ), Highland Nan'an (頂南安 / 山南安; Téng Lâm-oaⁿ / Soaⁿ Lâm-oaⁿ), Inland Yongchun (永春; Éng-chhun), and Inland Anxi (安溪; An-khoe) dialects of Xiamen and Highland Quanzhou respectively.[37][38][39]

Meanwhile, the older late 16th to 17th century Early Manila Hokkien once spoken around the Manila Bay area was largely derived from Coastal Zhangzhou (漳州; Chiang-chiu) Hokkien dialects of Longxi (龍溪; Liông-khe) and Haicheng (海澄; Hái-têng), both now merged by 1960 within modern-day Longhai (龍海; Liông-hái) of Coastal Zhangzhou (漳州; Chiang-chiu) on the mouth of the Jiulong River (九龍江; Kiú-liông-kang) from where the old smuggling port of Yuegang (月港; Goe̍h-káng) used to operate from, before being overshadowed by the Port of Xiamen (廈門港; Ē-mn̂g Káng) closer to the sea by around the mid-1600s at the Ming-Qing transition due to conflict between the Ming loyalist, Koxinga (國姓爺; Kok-sèng-iâ), and the Qing forces.

Although Philippine Hokkien is generally mutually comprehensible especially with other Quanzhou Hokkien variants, including Singaporean Hokkien and Quanzhou-based Taiwanese Hokkien variants, the local vocabulary, tones, and Filipino or Philippine Spanish and English loanwords as well as the extensive use of contractions and colloquialisms (even those which are now unused or considered archaic or dated in China) can result in confusion among Hokkien speakers from outside of the Philippines.[citation needed]

Contractions

Some terms have contracted into one syllable. Examples include:[33]

Vocabulary

Philippine Hokkien, like other Southeast Asian variants of Hokkien (e.g. Singaporean Hokkien, Penang Hokkien, Johor Hokkien and Medan Hokkien), has borrowed words from other languages spoken locally, specifically Spanish, Tagalog and English. Examples include:[6][33]

Philippine Hokkien has also calqued a few expressions from Philippine English since the American colonial era, such as

Philippine Hokkien also has some vocabulary that is unique to it compared to other varieties of Hokkien:[6][33]

Hokaglish

Main article: Hokaglish

Hokaglish is code-switching involving Philippine Hokkien, Tagalog and English. Hokaglish shows similarities to Taglish (mixed Tagalog and English), the everyday mesolect register of spoken Filipino language within Metro Manila and its environs.[14]

Both ways of speaking are very common among Chinese Filipinos, who tend to code-switch these languages in everyday conversation, where it can be observed that older generations typically use the Hokkien Chinese sentence structure base while injecting English and Tagalog words while the younger ones use the Filipino/Tagalog sentence structure as the base while injecting the few Hokkien terms they know in the sentence. The latter therefore, in a similar sense with Taglish using Tagalog grammar and syntax, tends to code-mix via conjugating the Hokkien terms the way they do for Filipino/Tagalog words.[40]

In other provinces/regions of the Philippines, a similar code-switching medium is also done with Philippine Hokkien and English, but instead of or along with Tagalog, other regional languages are used as well, such as Cebuano Bisaya (akin to Bislish), Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Ilocano, Bikolano, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, etc., so in Metro Cebu, Chinese Filipino families speak a code-swtiching mix of Philippine Hokkien, Cebuano Bisaya, and Philippine English, while in Metro Davao and Cagayan de Oro (CDO), a mix of Philippine Hokkien, Cebuano Bisaya, Tagalog, Philippine English is used, while in Iloilo and Bacolod, a mix of Philippine Hokkien, Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), and Philippine English is used, while in Vigan and Baguio, a mix of Philippine Hokkien, Ilocano, and Philippine English is used, while in Naga, a mix of Philippine Hokkien, Central Bikolano, and Philippine English is used, while in Zamboanga City, a mix of Philippine Hokkien, Chavacano, Philippine English, and sometimes Cebuano and/or Tagalog are used.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Min is believed to have split from Old Chinese, rather than Middle Chinese like other varieties of Chinese.[1][2][3]
  2. ^ Co-official language of the Philippines
  3. ^ National and co-official language of the Philippines
  4. ^ Philippine Mandarin as taught in Chinese Filipino schools
  5. ^ Historical official language of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial era, currently "promoted on a voluntary and optional basis" per the 1987 Constitution
  6. ^ also known as Lannang-Oe (Chinese: 咱人話 / 咱儂話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lán-nâng-ōe / Lán-lâng-ōe / Nán-nâng-ōe; lit. 'Our People's Speech'),[6][7] Fukien,[8] and Fookien[6]
  7. ^ pronounced before in Early Modern Spanish as IPA: /ʃaˈbon/ during the early centuries of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines

References

  1. ^ Mei, Tsu-lin (1970), "Tones and prosody in Middle Chinese and the origin of the rising tone", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 30: 86–110, doi:10.2307/2718766, JSTOR 2718766
  2. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1984), Middle Chinese: A study in Historical Phonology, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-7748-0192-8
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (July 10, 2023). "Glottolog 4.8 - Min". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. doi:10.5281/zenodo.7398962. Archived from the original on October 13, 2023. Retrieved October 13, 2023.
  4. ^ "Change Request Documentation: 2021-045". August 31, 2021. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  5. ^ "Reclassifying ISO 639-3 [nan]" (PDF). GitHub. August 31, 2021. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Tsai, Hui-Ming 蔡惠名 (2017). Fēilǜbīn zán rén huà (Lán-lâng-uē) yánjiū 菲律賓咱人話(Lán-lâng-uē)研究 [A Study of Philippine Hokkien Language] (PhD thesis) (in Chinese). National Taiwan Normal University.
  7. ^ a b Lin, Philip T. (2015). Taiwanese Grammar: A Concise Reference. Greenhorn Media. ISBN 978-0-9963982-1-3.
  8. ^ a b Chan Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese Borrowings in Tagalog. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 9780858832251.
  9. ^ Go, Josiah (April 17, 2017). "Chinese education redefined". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  10. ^ Palanca, Ellen H. (2002). "A Comparative Study of Chinese Education in the Philippines and Malaysia*" (PDF). Asian Studies. 38 (2): 31 – via Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia.
  11. ^ a b c Klöter (2011)
  12. ^ a b Van der Loon (1966)
  13. ^ Chow, Chino (June 10, 2020). "Chow: The Cantonese–Chinese cultural minority in the Philippines". SunStar. Archived from the original on February 19, 2023.
  14. ^ a b Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong (2016). Exploring Trilingual Code-Switching: The Case of 'Hokaglish' (PDF). The 26th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, Manila, Philippines.
  15. ^ See, Teresita Ang (1997). The Chinese in the Philippines: Problems and Perspectives. Manila: Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran. p. 57.
  16. ^ Chappell, Hilary; Peyraube, Alain (2006). "The Analytic Causatives of Early Modern Southern Min in Diachronic Perspective". In Ho, D.-a.; Cheung, S.; Pan, W.; Wu, F. (eds.). Linguistic Studies in Chinese and Neighboring Languages. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. pp. 973–1011.
  17. ^ Yue, Anne O. (1999). "The Min Translation of the Doctrina Christiana". Contemporary Studies on the Min Dialects. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series 14. Chinese University Press. pp. 42–76. JSTOR 23833463.
  18. ^ Cobo, Juan (1593). Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China, compuesta por los padres ministros de los Sangleyes, de la Orden de Sancto Domingo (in Spanish). Manila – via UST Miguel de Benavidez Library.
  19. ^ Cobo, Juan (1593). Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China, compuesta por los padres ministros de los Sangleyes, de la Orden de Sancto Domingo (in Early Modern Spanish & Zhangzhou Hokkien). Manila: Keng Yong – via ip194097.ntcu.edu.tw.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  20. ^ Cobo, Juan (1593). Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China, compuesta por los padres ministros de los Sangleyes, de la Orden de Sancto Domingo (in Early Modern Spanish & Zhangzhou Hokkien). Manila: Keng Yong – via Catálogo BNE (Biblioteca Nacional de España).((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  21. ^ a b c d Lee, Fabio Yuchung; José, Regalado Trota; Caño, José Luis Ortigosa; Chang, Luisa (August 12, 2023). "1. Taiwan. Mesa Redonda. Fabio Yuchung Lee, José Regalado, Luisa Chang". Youtube (in Spanish and Mandarin).((cite web)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  22. ^ Mançano, Melchior; Feyjoó, Raymundo (1620). Arte de la Lengua Chiõ Chiu – via Universitat de Barcelona.
  23. ^ Zulueta, Lito B. (February 8, 2021). "World's Oldest and Largest Spanish-Chinese Dictionary Found in UST". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  24. ^ Van der Loon (1967)
  25. ^ Medhurst, Walter Henry (1832). "A Short Historical and Statistical Account of the Province of Hok-këèn. (Compiled from European and Chinese Authors.)". A Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms: Containing About 12,000 Characters. Accompanied By A Short Historical And Statistical Account of Hok-këèn (in English and Hokkien). Macao & Batavia: The Honorable East India Company's Press, by G.J. Steyn and Brother. pp. xiii.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  26. ^ Greenberg, Michael (1969). British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. CUP Archive. pp. 47–48.
  27. ^ Douglas, Carstairs (1899). "Extent of the Amoy Vernacular, and its Sub-division into Dialects.". Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy (in English & Amoy Hokkien). London: Presbyterian Church of England. p. 610.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  28. ^ Macgowan, John (1883). "Luzon". English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect (in English & Amoy Hokkien). Amoy & London: A. A. Marcal and Trubner & Co. 57 Ludgate Hill. p. 287.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  29. ^ Macgowan, John (1883). "Manilla". English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect (in English & Amoy Hokkien). Amoy & London: A. A. Marcal and Trubner & Co. 57 Ludgate Hill. p. 293.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  30. ^ Macgowan, John (1883). "Philippines". English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect (in English & Amoy Hokkien). Amoy & London: A. A. Marcal and Trubner & Co. 57 Ludgate Hill. p. 379.((cite book)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  31. ^ Blumentritt, Ferdinand; Pardo de Tavera, T. H. (1885). Vocabular einzelner Ausdrücke und Redensarten, welche dem Spanischen der Philippinischen Inseln eigenthümlich sind (in Spanish and German). Leitmeritz: Verlag der Communal-Ober-Realschule. p. 18.
  32. ^ Andrade, Pío (2008). "Education and Spanish in the Philippines". Asociación Cultural Galeón de Manila.
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  34. ^ Palanca, Ellen H. (2002). "A Comparative Study of Chinese Education in the Philippines and Malaysia*" (PDF). Asian Studies. 38 (2): 55 – via Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia.
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Further reading