Blaan
Native toPhilippines
RegionMindanao
EthnicityBlaan
Native speakers
240,000 (2000–2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
bpr – Koronadal Blaan (Tagalagad)
bps – Sarangani Blaan (Tumanao)
Glottologblaa1241

Blaan, also known as Bilaan, is an Austronesian language of the southern Philippines.

Classification

Blaan belongs to the Bilic microgroup of the Philippine language subgroup, along with Giangan Manobo, Tiruray, and Tboli.[2]

Distribution

There are two major varieties of Blaan: Koronadal Blaan (Tagalagad) and Sarangani Blaan (Tumanao).

According to the Ethnologue, Koronadal Blaan is spoken in:

Sarangani Blaan is spoken in:

Phonology

Blaan has fifteen consonant and seven vowel phonemes.[3] Unlike most other Philippine languages and Austronesian languages in general, Blaan (as its related language Tboli, permits a variety of consonant clusters at the onset of a syllable. This is evident in the name of the language, /bla'an/. This contraction of the original schwa sound exists in other Austronesian languages (such as Javanese, a major language of Java in Indonesia), but is rarely seen outside of the Bilic group within the Philippines.

Blaan Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative f s h
Approximant w l j
Blaan Vowels
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ɛ ə ɔ
Low a ɑ

/i, ɛ/ are also heard as [ɪ, e]. /ə/ can also be heard as sounds [ɨ, ʌ] within syllables.

Syntax

Blaan uses word order to indicate the thematic roles of nominal elements in the sentence.[4]

Kamfe

AV.catch

kuku

cat

ungeh.

rat

Kamfe kuku ungeh.

AV.catch cat rat

'The cat catches the rat'

Similar to other Philippine-type Austronesian languages, Blaan uses verbal morphology to indicate voice (or focus, as it is usually called in the literature).[5] Here are some examples of voice/focus types in Blaan:

Agent voice/focus (-m-)

Magin

AV.accompany

nga

child

do.

me

Magin nga do.

AV.accompany child me

'The child accompanies me.'

Patient voice/focus (-n-)

Nebe

PV.bring

libun

girl

ale.

them

Nebe libun ale.

PV.bring girl them

'The girl brings them.'

Vocabulary

English Blaan
chicken anuk
flower bulek
horse kura
corn agul
needle dalum
basket been
broom fune
rat unge
money filak
goat uhe
scissors gunting
mat igem
clouds labun
fish nalaf
eye mata
pestle sung
leaf doon
bone tulan
lamp salo
snake ulad
crow wak
foot bli
mother ye
father ma

[6]

References

  1. ^ Koronadal Blaan (Tagalagad) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Sarangani Blaan (Tumanao) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Blust, Robert (1991). "The Greater Central Philippines Hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 30 (2): 73–129. doi:10.2307/3623084. JSTOR 3623084.
  3. ^ Dean, J.; Dean, G. (1955). "The Phonemes of Bilaan" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Science. 84 (3): 311–322.
  4. ^ McLachlin, B.; Blackburn, B. (1968). "Verbal Clauses of Sarangani Blaan" (PDF). Asian Studies. 6 (1): 108–128.
  5. ^ Dean, James C. (1958). "Some Principal Grammatical Relations in Bilaan". In Healey, Alan (ed.). Studies in Philippine Linguistics by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (Pacific Branch). Oceania Linguistic Monographs, No. 3. Sydney: University of Sydney. pp. 59–64.
  6. ^ "ABKD" (PDF) – via sil.org.