Moronene
Native toIndonesia
RegionSulawesi
Native speakers
37,000 (2000)[1]
Dialects
  • Wita Ea (Rumbia, Poleang)
  • Tokotu’a (Kabaena)
Language codes
ISO 639-3mqn
Glottologmoro1287

Moronene is an Austronesian language spoken in Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It belongs to the Bungku–Tolaki branch of the Celebic subgroup.

Phonology

Moronene has the following consonant inventory:[2]

Consonants
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless plain p t k ʔ
prenasalized ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk
voiced plain b d g
prenasalized ᵐb ⁿd ᵑg
Fricative β s h
Flap r ɽ

The vowel phonemes are /a e i o u/. Sequences of two like vowels are pronounced as a long vowel, e.g. nee [ne:].[2]

Grammar

Word Order

Moronene has flexible word order. However, there is a high frequency of clause-initial verbs in "connected narrative discourse." Noun phrases are not marked for case.[3] The language has prepositions.

Pronouns

There are two forms of pronouns, free pronouns and absolutive clitics.[2] There are singular and plural forms, there are no dual, trial or paucal forms. There is an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person plural forms. There is no gender, and there appears to be no present-day politeness distinction.

Moronene Free Pronouns and Absolutive Clitics[2]
Person Free Absolutive
1SG [i'?aku] ['?aku] ['aku] ~ [’?aku] ~ ['haku]
2SG [i'tʃoʔo] ['tʃoʔo] [ko]
3SG [i'a:] [o]~[?o]~[ho]
1PL (Inclusive) [i'tʃita] ['tʃita] ['kita]
1PL (Exclusive) [i'tʃami] ['tʃami] ['kami]
2PL [itʃo'miu] [tʃo'miu] [ko'miu]
3PL [i'ʔiɾa] ['ʔiɾa] ['ʔiɾa]~['hiɾa]

Genitive Pronouns

There are two classes of genitive pronouns in Moronene which must be learned by speakers, which is unique among Bungku–Tolaki languages.[4] There are singular and plural forms, there are no dual, trial or paucal forms. There is an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person plural forms. Example (1) demonstrates the class 1 first person genitive pronoun in use with the noun 'hair'.[4]

(1)

wulu-ngku

hair-1SG.GEN

wulu-ngku

hair-1SG.GEN

'My hair'

Moronene Genitive Pronouns[4]
Person Class 1 Class 2
1SG -ngku -ku
2SG -u, -'u
3SG -no -no
1PL (EX.) -mami -mami
1PL (IN) -nto, -to
2PL -miu -miu
3PL -ndo, -do

Number

Moronene has a decimal numeral system.[5]

References

  1. ^ Moronene at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d Andersen, T. David (1999), "Moronene phonology" (PDF), in Wyn D. Laidig (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi linguistics, part VI, Jakarta: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, pp. 1–45.
  3. ^ Andersen, Suree. 1999. When the Moronene say no. In David Mead (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi linguistics part V, 73-112. Jakarta, Indonesia: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.
  4. ^ a b c Mead, David. 1998. Proto–Bungku-Tolaki: Reconstruction of its phonology and aspects of its morphosyntax. PhD dissertation. Houston: Rice University.
  5. ^ Andersen, T. David. 1999. Moronene numbers. In David Mead (ed.), Studies in Sulawesi linguistics part V, 1-72. Jakarta, Indonesia: Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Further reading