Languages of Indonesia
OfficialIndonesian
NationalIndonesian
Regional
Foreign
SignedIndonesian Sign Language
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More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.[1] These figures indicate that Indonesia has about 10% of the world's languages,[2] establishing its reputation as the second most linguistically diverse nation in the world after Papua New Guinea.[3] Most languages belong to the Austronesian language family, while there are over 270 Papuan languages spoken in eastern Indonesia.[4]

Languages in Indonesia are classified into nine categories: national language, locally used indigenous languages, regional lingua francas, foreign and additional languages, heritage languages, languages in the religious domain, English as a lingua franca, and sign languages.[5][6]

National language

The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian[7] (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a standardised form of Malay,[8] which serves as the lingua franca of the archipelago. The vocabulary of Indonesian borrows heavily from regional languages of Indonesia, such as Javanese, Sundanese and Minangkabau, as well as from Dutch, Sanskrit, Portuguese, Arabic and more recently English.[9][10][11] The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, and thus nearly every Indonesian speaks the language to varying degrees of proficiency.[12] Most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language.[1] This makes plurilingualism a norm in Indonesia.[12]

Indigenous languages and regional lingua francas

The major ethno-linguistic groups within Indonesia
The major ethno-linguistic groups within Indonesia

Indonesia recognizes only a single national language, and indigenous languages are recognized at the regional level, although policies vary from one region to another. For example, in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the Javanese language is the region's official language along with Indonesian.[13] The Javanese language is the most spoken indigenous language, as the Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population,[14] and are politically dominant.[15] They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizable numbers in most provinces. The Sundanese, Malay, Batak, Madurese, Minangkabau and Buginese are the next largest groups in the country.[a] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.[16]

There are hundreds of indigenous languages spoken in Indonesia. Most of them are locally used indigenous languages,[17] a category of languages referring to those spoken at the local, regional level, spoken by a small number of people, ranging from a few to a few thousands of people. These include small languages such as Benggoi, Mombum and Towei.[4][page needed] Other languages are spoken at the regional level to connect various ethnicities. For this reason, these languages are known as regional lingua francas (RLFs). According to Subhan Zein, there are at least 43 RLFs in Indonesia, categorized into two types: Malayic RLFs and Non-Malayic RLFs. The former refers to a group of regional lingua francas that are thought of as indigenised varieties of Malay or Indonesian. These include such languages as Ambon Malay, Banjar Malay and Papuan Malay. The latter refers to regional lingua francas that are not associated with Malay or Indonesian, including Biak, Iban and Onin.[18][4][page needed][b]

Foreign languages

As early as the seventh century AD, the natives of the archipelago began an intense period of trades with those coming from China, India and other countries. This was followed by a long period of colonization by the Dutch and Japan colonials. The outcome of these processes has been the development of a group of heritage languages spoken by Arab, Chinese, Eurasian and Indian descendants, among others. Chinese linguistic varieties such as Hokkien, Hakka, and Mandarin are the most common heritage languages. A small number of heritage language speakers speak Arabic and Tamil.[19]

Dutch

Further information: Dutch language § Asia

The use of Dutch, Javanese and Malay in Java, Dutch East Indies
The use of Dutch, Javanese and Malay in Java, Dutch East Indies

Despite the Dutch presence in Indonesia for almost 350 years, as parts of Indonesia were ruled by the Dutch East India Company and the whole of modern Indonesia was in the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch language has no official status in Indonesia.[20] The small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession,[21] as certain law codes are still only available in Dutch.[22]

English

English has traditionally been categorized as the first foreign language in Indonesia.[23] However, increasing exposure to the language, the decreasing influence of native-speaker norms in the country and the prevalent use of the language as a lingua franca in the broader context such as ASEAN means that the categorization has been put into question.[24][25] Scholars such as Lowenberg argue that English is best seen as an additional language. Meanwhile, Zein argues that English in Indonesia is best categorized as a lingua franca,[24] an argument parallel with Kirkpatrick's contention on the use of English as a lingua franca in the broader ASEAN context.[26]

Other languages

Other languages such as Arabic, German, French, Japanese, Mandarin, and Korean are non-native to Indonesia. These languages are included in the educational curriculum and may be categorized as either foreign or additional languages, depending on the instrumental function of the languages, length and types of exposure, as well as the wide-ranging motivations of the speakers or learners who use and or learn them.[27]

Endangered languages

Main article: List of endangered languages in Indonesia

There are 726 languages spoken across the Indonesian archipelago in 2009 (dropped from 742 languages in 2007), the second largest multilingual population in the world after Papua New Guinea. Indonesian Papua, which is adjacent to Papua New Guinea, has the most languages in Indonesia.[28] Based on the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale classification used by Ethnologue (formerly the Summer Institute of Linguistics), 63 languages are dying (shown in red on the bar chart, subdivided into Moribund and Nearly Extinct, or Dormant), which is defined as "The only fluent users (if any) are older than child-bearing age."[29]

Language policy

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2020)

In 2013, Indonesia's then minister of education and culture, Muhammad Nuh, affirmed in January that the teaching of local languages as school subjects would be part of the national education curriculum. Muhammad stated that much of the public worry about the teaching of local languages being left out of the curriculum is misplaced and that the new curriculum will be conveyed to them.[30]

Languages by speakers

Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in Indonesia

The population numbers given below are of native speakers, excepting the figure for Indonesian, which counts its total speakers. The total population of the country was 237.6 million in 2010.

Largest languages in Indonesia[31]
Language Number (millions) % of total population Branch Year surveyed Main areas where spoken
Indonesian 210 80.42 Malayic 2010 throughout Indonesia
Javanese 84.3 32.28 Javanese 2000 (census) throughout Java Island and several provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan island.
Sundanese 42.0 16.08 Sundanese 2016 West Java, Banten, Jakarta
Madurese 13.6 5.21 Madurese 2000 (census) Madura Island (East Java)
Minangkabau 5.5 2.11 Malayic 2007 West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, Jakarta
Buginese 5.0 1.91 South Sulawesi 2000 (census) South Sulawesi
Palembang Malay[32] 3.9 1.49 Malayic 2000 (census) South Sumatra
Banjarese 3.5 1.34 Malayic 2000 (census) South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan
Acehnese 3.5 1.34 Chamic 2000 (census) Aceh
Balinese 3.3 1.26 Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa 2000 (census) Bali Island and Lombok Island
Betawi 2.7 1.03 Malay-based creole 1993 Jakarta
Sasak 2.1 0.80 Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa 1989 Lombok Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Batak Toba 2.0 0.77 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 1991 North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, Jakarta
Ambonese Malay 1.9 0.73 Malay-based creole 1987 Maluku
Makassarese 2.1 0.80 South Sulawesi 2000 (census) South Sulawesi
Chinese-Min Nan 1.3 0.50 Sinitic (Min Nan) 2000 North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, West Kalimantan
Batak Dairi 1.2 0.46 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 1991 North Sumatra
Batak Simalungun 1.2 0.46 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 2000 (census) North Sumatra
Batak Mandailing 1.1 0.42 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 2000 (census) North Sumatra
Jambi Malay 1.0 0.38 Malayic 2000 (census) Jambi
Gorontalo 1.0 0.38 Philippine 2000 (census) Gorontalo (province)
Ngaju Dayak 0.9 0.34 West Barito 2003 Central Kalimantan
Nias 0.8 0.31 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 2000 (census) Nias Island, North Sumatra
Batak Angkola 0.7 0.27 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 1991 North Sumatra
Manado Malay 0.8 0.31 Malay-based creole 2001 North Sulawesi
North Moluccan Malay 0.7 0.27 Malay-based creole 2001 North Maluku
Chinese-Hakka 0.6 0.23 Sinitic 1982 Bangka Belitung, Riau Islands and West Kalimantan
Batak Karo 0.6 0.23 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 1991 North Sumatra
Uab Meto 0.6 0.23 Timor-Babar 1997 West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara)
Bima 0.5 0.19 Bima 1989 Sumbawa Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Manggarai 0.5 0.19 Sumba-Flores 1989 Flores Island (East Nusa Tenggara)
Toraja-Sa’dan 0.5 0.19 South Sulawesi 1990 South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi
Komering 0.5 0.19 Lampungic 2000 (census) South Sumatra
Tetum 0.4 0.15 Timor-Babar 2004 West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara)
Rejang 0.4 0.15 Land Dayak 2000 (census) Bengkulu
Muna 0.3 0.11 Muna–Buton 1989 Southeast Sulawesi
Sumbawa 0.3 0.11 Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa 1989 Sumbawa Island (West Nusa Tenggara)
Bangka Malay 0.3 0.11 Malayic 2000 (census) Bangka Island (Bangka Belitung)
Osing 0.3 0.11 Javanese 2000 (census) East Java
Gayo 0.3 0.11 Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands 2000 (census) Aceh
Chinese-Cantonese 0.3 0.11 Sinitic (Yue) 2000 North Sumatera, Riau Islands, Jakarta
Tolaki 0.3 0.11 Celebic 1991 Southeast Sulawesi
Tae’ 0.3 0.11 South Sulawesi 1992 South Sulawesi

Languages by family

Several prominent languages spoken in Indonesia sorted by language family are:

There are many additional small families and isolates among the Papuan languages.

Below is a full list of Papuan language families spoken in Indonesia, following Palmer, et al. (2018):[33]

  1. Trans-New Guinea
    1. Ok-Oksapmin (also in Papua New Guinea)
    2. Dani
    3. Asmat-Kamoro
    4. Mek
    5. Paniai Lakes
    6. West Bomberai
    7. Somahai
    8. Anim (also in Papua New Guinea)
    9. Greater Awyu
    10. Kayagaric
    11. Kolopom
    12. Marori
  2. Timor-Alor-Pantar
  3. North Halmahera
  4. Tambora
  5. Nuclear South Bird's Head
  6. Inanwatan–Duriankere
  7. Konda–Yahadian
  8. Nuclear East Bird's Head
  9. Hatam–Mansim
  10. West Bird's Head
  11. Abun
  12. Mpur
  13. Maybrat
  14. Mor
  15. Tanah Merah
  16. Tor-Kwerba
  17. Lakes Plain
  18. Border (also in Papua New Guinea)
  19. Sko (also in Papua New Guinea)
  20. East Cenderawasih Bay
  21. Yam (also in Papua New Guinea)
  22. Komolom
  23. Yelmek-Maklew
  24. Eastern Pauwasi (also in Papua New Guinea)
  25. Western Pauwasi
  26. Nimboran
  27. Sentani
  28. Mairasi
  29. Kaure
  30. Lepki-Murkim
  31. Senagi (Angor-Dera) (also in Papua New Guinea)
  32. Tofanma-Namla
  33. Yapen
  34. Abinomn
  35. Burmeso
  36. Elseng
  37. Kapauri
  38. Kembra
  39. Keuw
  40. Kimki
  41. Massep
  42. Mawes
  43. Molof
  44. Usku
  45. Yetfa
  46. Bayono-Awbono
  47. Dem
  48. Uhunduni

Sign languages

There are at least 2.5 million sign language users across the country, although official report only shows less than 50,000.[34] Sign language users are often ridiculed and stigmatized.[35]

Writing system

Indonesian languages are generally not rendered in native-invented systems, but in scripts devised by speakers of other languages, that is, Tamil, Arabic, and Latin. Malay, for example, has a long history as a written language and has been rendered in Brahmic, Arabic, and Latin scripts. Javanese has been written in the Pallava script of South India, as well as their derivative (known as Kawi and Javanese), in an Arabic alphabet called pegon that incorporates Javanese sounds, and in the Latin script.

Chinese characters have never been used to write Indonesian languages, although Indonesian place-names, personal names, and names of trade goods appear in reports and histories written for China's imperial courts.[36]

List of writing systems

Sample text

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The following texts are translations of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the languages of Indonesia.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan.

Sabên manungsa kalairake mardika lan darbe martabat lan hak-hak kang padha. Kabeh pinaringan akal lan kalbu sarta kaajab anggone pasrawungan mêmitran siji lan liyane tansah ngugemi jiwa paseduluran.

Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan.

Sadonyo manusia dilahiakan mardeka dan punyo martabat sarato hak-hak nan samo. Mareka dikaruniai aka jo hati nurani, supayo satu samo lain bagaul sarupo urang badunsanak.

Sininna rupa tau ri jajiangngi rilinoe nappunnai manengngi riasengnge alebbireng . Nappunai riasengnge akkaleng, nappunai riasengnge ati marennni na sibole bolena pada sipakatau pada massalasureng.

Sami manusane sane nyruwadi wantah merdeka tur maduwe kautamaan lan hak-hak sane pateh. Sami kalugrain papineh lan idep tur mangdane pada masawitra melarapan semangat pakulawargaan.

Sakumna jalma gubrag ka alam dunya téh sipatna merdika jeung boga martabat katut hak-hak anu sarua. Maranéhna dibéré akal jeung haté nurani, campur-gaul jeung sasamana aya dina sumanget duduluran.

Sadajana oreng lahir mardika e sarenge drajat klaban hak-hak se dha-padha. Sadajana eparenge akal sareng nurani ban kodu areng-sareng akanca kadi taretan.

Galo-galo uwong dari lahirnyo bebas, samorato martabat jugo hak-haknyo. Wong dienjuk utak samo raso ati, kendaknyo tu begaul sesamo manusio pecak wong sedulur.

Bandum ureuëng lahé deungon meurdéhka, dan deungon martabat dan hak njang saban. Ngon akai geuseumiké, ngon haté geumeurasa, bandum geutanjoë lagèë sjèëdara.

Ema hotu hotu moris hanesan ho dignidade ho direitu. Sira hotu iha hanoin, konsiensia n'e duni tenki hare malu hanesan espiritu maun-alin.

Atoni ma bife ok-okê mahonis kamafutû ma nmuî upan ma hak namnés. Sin napein tenab ma nekmeü ma sin musti nabai es nok es onlê olif-tataf.

Kanan mansian mahonis merdeka ma nok upan ma hak papmesê. Sin naheun nok tenab ma nekmeû ma sin es nok es musti nfain onlê olif-tataf.

Sabarataan manusia diranakakan bibas mardika wan ba'isi martabat lawan jua ba'isi hak-hak nang sama. Bubuhannya sabarataan dibari'i akal wan jua pangrasa hati nurani, supaya samunyaan urang antara sa'ikung lawan sa'ikung bapatutan nangkaya urang badangsanakan.

Unyin Jelema dilaheʁko merdeka jama wat pi'il ʁik hak sai gokgoh. Tiyan dikaruniako akal jama hati nurani maʁai unggal tiyan dapok nengah nyampoʁ dilom semangat muaʁiyan.

Manusio kutə yo lahia mərdeka ngən punyo hak dik samo. Manusio nəlie Tuhan aka ngən atie, kərno o kəlak nə itə bəkuat do dik luyən nak ləm raso səpasuak.

Segalo orang dilahirkan merdeka kek punyo martabat kek hak-hak yang samo. Tobonyo dikasi akal kek hati nurani supayo bekawan dalam raso cak orang besanak.

Comparison chart

Below is a chart of several Indonesian languages. All of them except for Galela belong to the Austronesian language family. While there have been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as languages and which ones should be classified as dialects, the chart confirms that many have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible. The languages are arranged geographically.

English one two three four water person house dog cat coconut day new we (inclusive) what and
Indonesian satu dua tiga empat air orang rumah anjing kucing kelapa hari baru kita apa dan
Minangkabau cie' duo tigo ampe' aie urang rumah anjiang kuciang karambia hari baru awak apo jo
Palembang Malay sikok duo tigo empat banyu wong rumah anjing kucing kelapo siang baru kito apo dan
Betawi atu' dué tigé empat aér orang ruméh anjing kucing kelapé ari baru kité apé amé
Banjarese asa dua talu ampat banyu urang rumah hadupan batingas nyiur hari hanyar kita apa wan
Kutainese satu due tige empat ranam urang rumah koyok nyiur hari beru etam apa dengan
Manado Malay satu dua tiga ampa aer orang ruma anjing kucing kalapa hari baru torang apa deng
Ambonese Malay satu dua tiga ampa air orang ruma anjing kucing kalapa hari baru katong apa dan
Acehnese sa dua lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh asèë miong / miei u uroë ban geutanyoë peuë ngon
Nias sara dua tölu öfa idanö niha omo asu mao banio luo bohou ya'ita hadia ba
Toba Batak sada dua tolu opat aek halak jabu biang huting harambiri ari ibbaru hita aha dohot
Mandailing Batak sada dua tolu opat aek halak bagas asu arambir ari baru hita aha dohot
Lampung say ʁuwa telu ampat way jelema nuwa asu kucing nyiwi ʁani ampai ʁam api jama
Sundanese hiji dua tilu opat cai/ci jalma imah anjing ucing kalapa poé anyar urang naon jeung
Javanese siji loro têlu[37] papat banyu uwòng[37] omah asu kucing kambìl[37] dinå[37] anyar/énggal[37] adhéwé[37] åpå[37]/anu lan
Madurese settong dhuwa' tello' empa' âêng oreng roma pate' kochèng nyior are anyar sengko apa bèn
Balinese besik dadua telu papat yéh jadma umah cicing/kuluk méong nyuh rahina mara iraga apa muah/lan
Sasak sa/seke' due telu mpat aik dengan bale acong/basong kenyamen/nyioh jelo baru ite ape dait
Bima ica dua tolu upa oi dou uma lako ngao ni'u nai bou nami au labo
Ngaju Dayak ije' due' telu' epat danum uluh huma' asu posa enyuh andau taheta itah narai tuntang
Kenyah Dayak[38] dué telew pat sungai kelunan / klunan lamin / uma' asew séang nyo dau maring mé' tew / teleu inew ngan
Buginese seqdi dua tellu eppa je'ne' tau bola asu coki kaluku esso ma-baru idiq aga na
Makassarese se're rua tallu appa' je'ne' tau balla' kongkong ngeong kaluku allo beru ikatte apa na
Mongondow tobatú doyowa toḷu opat tubig intau baḷoi ungkú pinggó bangó singgai mo-bagu kita onu bo
Tolaki o'aso o'ruo o'tolu o'omba iwoi toono laika odahu kaluku oleo wuohu inggito ohawo ronga
Galela moi sinoto sa'ange iha ake nyawa tahu kaso igo wange ḋamomuane ngone okia de
Biak oser/eser suru kyor fyak war snon/kawasa rum naf/rofan pus sray ras babo ko sa ma/kuker

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas.
  2. ^ Zein's definition of "Malayic" RLFs should not be confused with the genealogical Malayic subgroup of Malayo-Polynesian languages. The genealogical Malayic subgroup also includes languages that are listed by Zein as "non-Malayic" RLFs, such as Iban and Musi.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Lewis, M. Paul (2009), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.), SIL International, retrieved 17 November 2009
  2. ^ Florey 2010, pp. 121–140.
  3. ^ "What Countries Have the Most Languages?". Ethnologue. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Simons & Fennig 2018.
  5. ^ Zein 2020, pp. 27–63.
  6. ^ "Indonesia". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ Article 36 of The 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia  – via Wikisource.
  8. ^ Sneddon, James (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. Sydney: University of South Wales Press.
  9. ^ Yee, Danny (2013). "Review of The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society". Danny Yee's Book Reviews (Book review). Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  10. ^ Khaidir Anwar (1976). "Minangkabau, Background of the main pioneers of modern standard Malay in Indonesia". Archipel. 12: 77–93. doi:10.3406/arch.1976.1296 – via Persée.
  11. ^ Ivana Amerl (May 2006). "Halo Bos! English Borrowings in Indonesian". MED Magazine. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  12. ^ a b Zein 2020, p. 18.
  13. ^ Peraturan Daerah Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Nomor 2 Tahun 2021 (in Indonesian) – via Wikisource bahasa Indonesia.
  14. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2010). Kewarganegaraan Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-Hari Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil Sensus Penduk 2010 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. ISBN 978-979-064-417-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015.
  15. ^ Kingsbury, Damien; Aveling, Harry, eds. (2003). Autonomy and Disintegration in Indonesia. London: Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 0-415-29737-0.
  16. ^ Ricklefs 1991, p. 256.
  17. ^ Zein 2020, pp. 39–40.
  18. ^ Zein 2020, pp. 34–41.
  19. ^ Zein 2020, pp. 41–43.
  20. ^ Colin & Jones 1998, p. 302.
  21. ^ Ammon, Ulrich; Dittmar, Norbert; Mattheier, Klaus J.; Trudgill, Peter, eds. (2006). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Vol. 3 (2nd, revised and extended ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 2017. ISBN 9783110184181.
  22. ^ Booij, Geert (1999). The Phonology of Dutch. Oxford Linguistics. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-19-823869-X.
  23. ^ Dardjowidjojo, S. (2000). "English teaching in Indonesia". English Australia. 18 (1): 22–30.
  24. ^ a b Zein 2018, pp. 21–40.
  25. ^ Lowenberg, P. (1991). "English as an additional language in Indonesia". World Englishes. 10 (2): 127–138. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1991.tb00146.x.
  26. ^ Kirkpatrick, A. (2010). English as a Lingua Franca in ASEAN: A Multilingual Model. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9789888028788.
  27. ^ Zein 2020, pp. 44–45.
  28. ^ "Berapa Jumlah Bahasa Daerah di Indonesia?" [How many regional languages in Indonesia?]. portalsatu.com (in Indonesian). 30 October 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  29. ^ "Indonesia - Status". Ethnologue.
  30. ^ "Pelajaran bahasa daerah tetap ada" [Regional language lessons remain]. antaranews.com (in Indonesian). 6 January 2013.
  31. ^ "Indonesia". Ethnologue.
  32. ^ Muhadjir, ed. (2000). Bahasa Betawi: Sejarah dan Perkembangannya. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 13.
  33. ^ Palmer, Bill (2018). "Language families of the New Guinea Area". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  34. ^ Zein 2020, p. 43.
  35. ^ Palfreyman, Nick (2015). Sign language varieties of Indonesia: A linguistic and sociolinguistic investigation (PhD thesis). Lancashire, the UK: University of Central Lancashire.
  36. ^ Taylor 2003, p. 29.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
  38. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification (Ph.D. Dissertation thesis). University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

Bibliography