This is an incomplete list of more recent recorded major earthquakes that have occurred within the boundaries of Indonesia. The determinants of the activity are indicated by the geology of the region, and the volcanic activity.

Large numbers of earthquakes of smaller magnitude occur very regularly due to the meeting of major tectonic plates in the region. Based on the records of the USGS, Indonesia has had more than 150 earthquakes with magnitude > 7 in the period 1901–2019.

Map
Map of earthquakes in Indonesia 1900- (map data)
Earthquakes in Sumatra
Six of the ten strongest Indonesian earthquakes ≥ 8.3 Mw occurred near Sumatra and along the Sunda Trench.

Earthquakes

2000–present

Date Region Mag. MMI Fatalities Injuries Comments Notes
2023-06-30 Special Region of Yogyakarta 5.9 Mw IV 1 23 Severe damage [1]
2023-04-24 West Sumatra 7.1 Mw VIII Moderate damage [2]
2023-04-14 East Java 7.0 Mw V 1 [3]
2023-02-09 Papua 5.1 Mw V 4 5 Severe damage [4]
2023-01-18 North Maluku 7.0 Mw V Minor damage [5]
2023-01-09 Maluku 7.6 Mw VI 11 Moderate damage [6]
2022-12-03 Java 5.7 Mw IV 2 Slight damage [7]
2022-11-21 Java 5.6 Mw VIII 335–635 7,729 Extreme damage [8]
2022-09-30 Sumatra 5.9 Mw VII 2 25 Moderate damage [9]
2022-02-25 Sumatra 6.1 Mw VIII 27 457 Severe damage
2022-01-14 Java 6.6 Mw VI 10 3,000 buildings damaged [10]
2021-12-14 Flores 7.3 Mw VI 1 173 Severe damage [11]
2021-10-16 Bali 4.7 Mw IV 4 72 [12]
2021-08-26 Sulawesi 5.5 Mw VII 1 39 [13]
2021-07-26 Sulawesi 6.3 Mw VI 1 [14]
2021-04-11 Java 6.0 Mw V 10 104 [15]
2021-02-03 Sulawesi 4.9 Mw III 1 [16]
2021-01-14 Sulawesi 6.2 Mw VI 105 3,369 [17]
2020-10-27 Sulawesi 5.4 Mw VI 1 [18]
2019-11-12 Maluku 5.0 Mw IV 2 9 Aftershock. [19]
2019-11-04 Molucca Sea 7.1 Mw VII 1 3 [20]
2019-10-10 Maluku 5.2 Mw IV 1 3 Casualties due to damage to a college. [21][22]
2019-09-25 Maluku 6.5 Mw VII 41 1,578 Landslides. [23]
2019-08-02 Java 6.9 Mw VI 8 8 [24]
2019-07-14 North Maluku 7.2 Mw VIII 14 129 [25]
2019-04-12 Sulawesi 6.8 Mw VI 1 [26]
2019-03-17 Lombok 5.5 Mw V 6 182 [27]
2018-11-14 Sulawesi 5.6 Mw VII 7 6 Landslides. [28]
2018-10-10 Java 6.0 Mw V 4 36 [29]
2018-09-28 Sulawesi 7.5 Mw X 4,340 10,679 Major tsunami (up to 11m), more than 600 people missing. [30]
2018-08-19 Lombok 6.9 Mw VII 14 24 Fatalities also in Sumbawa. [31]
2018-08-19 Lombok 6.3 Mw VII 2 3 Aftershock. [32]
2018-08-09 Lombok 5.9 Mw VII 6 24 Aftershock. [33]
2018-08-05 Lombok 6.9 Mw VIII 513 1,353 Widespread damage. [34]
2018-07-29 Lombok 6.4 Mw VI 20 401 Foreshock. [35][36]
2018-07-21 Sumatra 5.2 MW 1 2 [37]
2018-04-18 Java 4.5 MW 3 21 Buildings damaged in Kalibening District. [38]
2018-01-23 Java 6.0 MW V 2 41
2017-12-15 Java 6.5 Mw VII 4 36
2017-11-18 North Maluku 5.8 Mw VI 1 Moderate damage [39]
2017-10-31 Ambon 6.3 Mw VII 1 [40]
2016-12-07 Sumatra 6.5 Mw VIII 104 1,273 Heavy damage in Aceh region.
2016-03-02 Sumatra 7.8 Mw III
2015-07-28 Papua 7.0 Mw VII 1 Buildings damaged or destroyed. [41]
2013-07-02 Sumatra 6.1 Mw 43 276 [42]
2013-04-06 Papua 7.0 Mw VII 3 2 Deaths from landslides. [43][44]
2012-08-18 Sulawesi 6.3 Mw VIII 6 43 Severe damage [45]
2012-04-11 Wharton Basin 8.2 Mw VI Doublet
2012-04-11 Wharton Basin 8.6 Mw VII 10 12 Doublet
2011-10-13 Bali 6.1 Mw V 43 [46]
2011-09-05 Sumatra 6.7 Mw 10 [47]
2010-10-25 Sumatra 7.8 Mw VII 408 Tsunami (local), hundreds missing.
2010-06-16 Papua 7.0 Mw VII 17
2010-05-09 Sumatra 7.2 Mw V
2010-04-06 Sumatra 7.8 Mw VIII 62
2010-01-10 Java 5.1 Mw V 1 2 [48]
2009-10-01 Sumatra 6.6 Mw VII 3 Severe damage. [49]
2009-09-30 Sumatra 7.6 Mw VIII 1,115 2,902 Tsunami (local)
2009-09-02 Java 7.3 Mw VII 79 1,250 Tsunami (local) [50]
2009-02-12 Talaud 7.2 Mw VI 64
2009-01-04 West Papua 7.4 Mw VII Doublet
2009-01-04 West Papua 7.7 Mw VI 4 50+ Doublet / tsunami (local)
2008-11-16 Sulawesi 7.3 Mw VII 4 59
2008-02-20 Simeulue 7.4 Mw 4 25 [51]
2007-09-13 Sumatra 7.0 Mw VII
2007-09-13 Sumatra 7.9 Mw VII 23 88
2007-09-12 Sumatra 8.5 Mw VI
2007-03-06 Sumatra 6.3 Mw VI
2007-03-06 Sumatra 6.4 Mw VIII 68 460
2007-01-21 Molucca Sea 7.5 Mw VI 4 [52]
2006-12-18 Sumatra 5.8 Mw VI 7 [53]
2006-07-17 Java 7.7 Mw V 668 9,299 Tsunami (regional)
2006-05-27 Java 6.4 Mw IX 5,749 38,568 Extreme damage
2006-03-14 Seram 6.7 Mw VI 4 Tsunami (local) (7 m (23 ft)) [54]
2005-03-28 Sumatra 8.6 Mw VIII 1,314 1,146
2004-12-26 SumatraAndaman 9.1–9.3 Mw IX 227,898 Tsunami (basin wide), 167,540 fatalities in Indonesia
2004-11-26 Papua 7.1 Mw VIII 32 130–213
2004-11-11 Alor 7.5 Mw VIII 34 400 Severe damage [55]
2004-02-07 Western New Guinea 7.3 Mw Doublet / Damage at Nabire [56]
2004-02-05 Western New Guinea 7.0 Mw VI 37 Doublet [57]
2004-01-01 Bali 5.8 Mw VI 1 29 Several thousand buildings damaged NGDC 1972
2003-05-26 Halmahera 7.0 Mw VIII[58] 1 [59]
2002-11-02 Sumatra 7.3 Mw VI 3 65
2002-10-10 Western New Guinea 7.6 Mw 8 Tsunami (local) [60]
2000-06-04 Sumatra 7.9 Mw VIII 103 2,174
2000-05-04 Sulawesi 7.6 Mw VII 46 264 Tsunami (local) NGDC 1972

1900–1999

Date Region Mag. MMI Fatalities Injuries Comments
1999-12-21 Java 6.5 Mw VII 5 220
1998-11-29 North Maluku 7.7 Mw VII 41 171 Tsunami
1996-02-17 Biak 8.1 Mw IX 166 423
1996-01-01 Sulawesi 7.9 Mw 8 Tsunami (local) [61]
1995-10-06 Sumatra 6.8 Mw 84 1868 Extreme damage NGDC 1972
1994-06-03 Java 7.8 Mw IV 250 Tsunami (local)
1994-02-15 Sumatra 7.0 Mw VII 207 2,000+
1992-12-12 Flores 7.8 Mw IX–X 2,500 500 Tsunami (local)
1989-08-01 West Papua 6.0 Mw VIII 120 125
1984-11-17 Sumatra 7.2 Mw VII 1
1982-12-25 Flores 5.9 Mw VI 13 390
1981-01-19 Papua 6.8 ML 305 Hundreds missing
1979-12-18 Bali 6.3 Ms VIII 27 200+
1979-09-12 West Papua 7.5 Mw IX 115 Tsunami
1977-08-19 Sumba 8.3 Mw 180 1,100 Tsunami (local)
1976-07-14 Bali 6.5 Ms IX 573 4,750
1976-06-25 Papua 7.1 Mw X 422 Landslides, thousands missing
1969-02-23 West Sulawesi 7.0 Mw VIII 664 Tsunami
1968-10-14 Sulawesi 7.4 ML 213
1967-02-19 East Java 6.3 Mw VII 54 300 Heavy damage in Malang and Trenggalek Regencies [62][63]
1965-01-24 Sanana 8.2 Mw 71
1950-06-12 Java 6.6 Mw VII 16 [64]
1943-06-08 Sumatra 7.2 Mw Doublet
1943-06-09 Sumatra 7.5 Mw Doublet
1943-07-23 Java 7.0 Mw VIII 213 2,096 Severe damage NGDC 1972
1943-04-01 Java 7.1 Mw VII Severe [65]
1938-02-01 Banda Sea 8.5-8.6 Mw VII Tsunami (local)
1937-09-27 Java 6.9 Mw VII 1 300 Homes destroyed [66]
1935-12-28 Sumatra 7.7 Mw VIII Tsunami (local)
1933-06-24 Sumatra 7.7 Ms IX 76+ Heavy damage. Volcanic eruption triggered.
1931-09-25 Sumatra 7.3 Mw Tsunami (Local)
1926-09-10 Java 7.1 Mw VII [67]
1926-06-28 West Sumatra 7.6 ML VII 354
1924-12-02 Central Java 5.8 Mw IX 900 Extreme damage and mudslide in Wonosobo Regency [68]
1921-09-11 Java 7.6 Mw [69]
1917-01-20 Bali 6.6 Ms IX 1,500 Landslides
1916-09-11 East Java 6.6 Mw Many homes damaged [70]
1913-03-14 Mindanao 7.9 Mw IX 138
1909-06-04 Sumatra 7.6 Mw IX 195–200
1907-01-04 Sumatra 8.2–8.4 Mw VIII 2,188 Tsunami (regional)
1903-02-27 Java, Sumatra 7.3 Mw VIII Tsunami [71]

1629–1899

Date Region Mag. MMI Fatalities Injuries Comments
1899-09-30 Seram 7.8 Ms 3,864 Tsunami (local)
1898-01-06 Ambon 126 300+ Heavy damage [72]
1867-06-10 Java 7.8 Mw IX 700 Severe damage
1861-02-16 Sumatra 8.5 Mw 2,000+
1852-11-25 Banda Sea 8.3 Ms IX 60+ Severe damage / tsunami (regional) NGDC 1972
1843-01-05 Sumatra 7.3 Ms XI Many Severe damage / tsunami (local) NGDC 1972
1834-10-10 Java 7.0-7.7 Mw IX 5 [73]
1833-11-25 Sumatra 8.8–9.2 Mw Numerous Tsunami (local)
1833-01-28 Java 7.0 Mw[failed verification] VII-VIII Multiple [74]
1820-12-29 Flores Sea 7.5 Mw 500 Tsunami [75]
1815-11-22 Bali 7.0 Ms 10,253 Tsunami NGDC 1972
1797-02-10 Sumatra 8.4 Mw Numerous Tsunami (local)
1780-01-22 Java 8.0-8.5 Mw VIII Severe Damage [73]
1699-01-05 Batavia (Jakarta) 7.4-8.0 Mw IX 128 Severe Damage [76]
1674-02-17 AmbonSeram 6.8 Ms 86 135 Severe damage / tsunami NGDC 1972
1629-08-01 Banda Sea 8.2–8.8 Ms Tsunami (regional)
Note: The inclusion criteria for adding events are based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described also apply to lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

Gallery

Earthquake damage in Ambon, 1898
1917 Bali earthquake
1926 Padang Panjang earthquake
2006 Yogyakarta earthquake
2009 Sumatra earthquakes
2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami
2022 West Java earthquake

See also

References

  1. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (30 June 2023). "M 5.9 - 82 km SSW of Bambanglipuro, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
  2. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (14 April 2023). "M 7.1 - 170 km SSE of Teluk Dalam, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
  3. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (9 February 2023). "M 5.1 - near the north coast of Papua, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey.
  4. ^ "Gempa di Jayapura: 700 Orang Mengungsi, 4 Tewas, 5 Luka-luka". Kompas. 9 February 2023. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  5. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (18 January 2023). "M 7.0 - 153 km NW of Tobelo, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey.
  6. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (9 January 2023). "M 7.6 - Kepulauan Tanimbar, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey.
  7. ^ National Earthquake Information Center (3 December 2022). "M 5.7 - 18 km ESE of Banjar, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey.
  8. ^ "M 5.6 - 18 km WSW of Ciranjang-hilir, Indonesia". USGS. 21 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  9. ^ "M 5.9 - 40 km NNE of Sibolga, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  10. ^ "M 6.6 - 88 km SW of Labuan, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  11. ^ "M 7.3 - 112 km N of Maumere, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. December 14, 2021. Archived from the original on December 14, 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  12. ^ "M 4.8 – 16 km NNE of Banjar Wangsian, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. 16 October 2021. Archived from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  13. ^ "M 5.5 - 113 km ENE of Poso, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  14. ^ "M 6.2 - 97 km WNW of Luwuk, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. July 26, 2021.
  15. ^ "M 6.0 - 45 km S of Sumberpucung, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-04-10. Retrieved 2021-12-14.
  16. ^ "M 4.9 - 37 km SSE of Mamuju, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  17. ^ "M 6.2 - 32 km S of Mamuju, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-12-13.
  18. ^ "M 5.4 - 53 km NNE of Mamuju, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-28.
  19. ^ Siwalimanews (2019-11-14). "Dampak Gempa Ambon, 2 Meninggal, 9 Luka". Siwalima (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  20. ^ "M 7.1 – 138km E of Bitung, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
  21. ^ "M 5.2 - 12km NNE of Ambon, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  22. ^ Agency, ANTARA News. "Tertimpa reruntuhan, Seorang siswa SMP tewas akibat gempa beruntun - ANTARA News Banten". Antara News. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  23. ^ "M 6.5 – 10km S of Kairatu, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-09-26. Retrieved 2019-09-26.
  24. ^ "M 6.9 – 102km WSW of Tugu Hilir, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2019-02-08.
  25. ^ "M 7.3 – 102km NNE of Laiwui, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-07-14. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  26. ^ "M 6.8 – 102km SSW of Luwuk, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  27. ^ "Information bulletin Indonesia: Lombok Earthquakes" (PDF). ifrc.org. 22 March 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Seven killed, over 8,000 flee homes as quakes, landslides hit West Sulawesi". borneobulletin.com. November 18, 2018.[permanent dead link]
  29. ^ "M 6.4 East Java Earthquake, Indonesia. Flash Update 02" (PDF). /reliefweb.int. 13 October 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  30. ^ "Indonesia earthquake, tsunami: 70 children still remain missing". The Statesman. 2018-10-19. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  31. ^ "Sutopo Purwo Nugroho on Twitter". Archived from the original on 2019-02-15. Retrieved 2018-08-20 – via Twitter.
  32. ^ Sembahulun, Rosidin (2018-08-20). "Indonesian earthquakes cause deaths, panic". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  33. ^ "'Like doomsday': Lombok rocked by third huge quake". 9news.com.au. 10 August 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-08-10. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  34. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (2018-08-17). "469 Orang Tewas akibat Gempa Lombok, Tim SAR Harap Tak Ada Lagi Korban". KOMPAS.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-19. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  35. ^ "Korban Jiwa Gempa Lombok Bertambah Jadi 20 Orang". liputan6.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-18. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  36. ^ "Indonesian earthquake leaves 16 people dead, 335 injured". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 2018-07-31. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  37. ^ "5.4 magnitude quake hits Solok, kills one". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  38. ^ "Earthquake Causes Deaths and Damage in Indonesia". Time. Archived from the original on 2018-04-20. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  39. ^ "M 5.8 - 82km N of Tobelo, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  40. ^ "One Person Dead, Several Buildings Damaged After Quakes Hit Ambon | Jakarta Globe". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  41. ^ USGS. "M 7.0 – 228km W of Abepura, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  42. ^ USGS. "M6.1 – 55km S of Bireun, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  43. ^ "M7.0 - 239km E of Enarotali, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  44. ^ "Severe earthquake in New Guinea (Indonesia) - At least 3 deaths (6th April)" (in German). 14 April 2013.
  45. ^ "M 6.3 - 51 km SSE of Palu, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  46. ^ "M 6.1 - 88 km SW of Jimbaran, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  47. ^ USGS. "M6.7 – northern Sumatra, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  48. ^ "M 5.1 - 66 km SSW of Singaparna, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  49. ^ USGS. "M 6.6 – southern Sumatra, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-08-07. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  50. ^ USGS. "M7.0 – Java, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  51. ^ USGS. "M7.4 – Simeulue, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  52. ^ USGS. "M7.5 – Molucca Sea". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  53. ^ USGS. "M5.8 – northern Sumatra, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  54. ^ USGS. "M6.7 – Seram, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2017-08-13. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  55. ^ USGS. "M7.5 – Kepulauan Alor, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  56. ^ USGS. "M7.3 – near the south coast of Papua, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  57. ^ USGS. "M7.0 – Papua, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  58. ^ USGS (23 February 2023). "PAGER" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  59. ^ USGS. "M7.0 – Halmahera, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  60. ^ USGS. "M7.6 – near the north coast of Papua, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2018-07-29. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  61. ^ USGS. "M7.9 – Minahasa, Sulawesi, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2019-01-01. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  62. ^ "M 6.3 - Java, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. February 19, 1967. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  63. ^ "Significant Earthquake: INDONESIA: JAVA: DAMPIT,GONDANG,TRENGGALEK". National Geophysical Data Center. February 9, 1967. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  64. ^ "M 6.6 - 9 km S of Tuban, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  65. ^ "M 7.1 - 38 km W of Labuan, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  66. ^ "M 6.9 - 92 km S of Pundong, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. 27 September 1937.
  67. ^ "M 7.1 - south of Java, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. September 10, 1926. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  68. ^ "Java's Forgotten Shallow Earthquakes". Kompas.com. 12 December 2023. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  69. ^ "M 7.6 - south of Java, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. September 11, 1921. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  70. ^ "M 6.6 - 68 km S of Sumberpucung, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. September 11, 1916. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  71. ^ "Centennial Earthquake Catalog". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2024.
  72. ^ Baay, R. (1998). "Het jaar 1898 in de Indische pers". Indische Letteren (in Dutch). 13: 100.
  73. ^ a b Widiyantaro, S.; Supendi, P.; Ardiento, A. (16 June 2022). "Implications for fault locking south of Jakarta from an investigation of seismic activity along the Baribis fault, northwestern Java, Indonesia". Sci Rep. 12 (1): 10143. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1210143W. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-13896-6. PMC 9203524. PMID 35710692.
  74. ^ "Katalog gempabumi signifikan dan merusak 1821-2018". perpustakaan.bnbp. 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  75. ^ "Sejarah Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami di Bulukumba". historia.id. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  76. ^ Reid, A. (2012), Historical Evidence for Major Tsunamis in the Java Subduction Zone (PDF), ARI Working Paper No. 178, Asia Research Institute, p. 4, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-29, retrieved 2017-01-11

Sources

  • National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972), Search Parameters:Country=Indonesia (Data Set), NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K, retrieved 2024-02-29

Further reading