Indonesian National Armed Forces
Tentara Nasional Indonesia
Insignia of the Indonesian National Armed Forces
Flag of the Indonesian National Armed Forces
MottoSanskrit: Tri Dharma Eka Karma
transl. 'Three services, one determination'
Founded5 October 1945; 77 years ago (1945-10-05) as the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat ('People's Security Forces')
Current form3 June 1947; 76 years ago (1947-06-03)
Service branches
HeadquartersCilangkap, Jakarta
Websitetni.mil.id
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Joko Widodo
Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs Mahfud MD
Minister of Defence Lt. Gen. (ret.) Prabowo Subianto
Commander of the Armed Forces Admiral Yudo Margono
Personnel
Military age17
ConscriptionNo
Available for
military service
131,000,000, age 15–49 (2016[4])
Fit for
military service
108,000,000, age 15–49 (2016[4])
Reaching military
age annually
4,500,000 (2016[4])
Active personnel400,000[1] (ranked 13th)
Reserve personnel400,000[1]
8,574 (Komcad)[2]
Deployed personnel3,544[3]
Expenditures
BudgetUS$10.1 billion (2022)
Percent of GDP0.7% (2018)[5]
Industry
Domestic suppliers
List
Foreign suppliers
Related articles
History
RanksIndonesian military ranks

The Indonesian National Armed Forces (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, lit.'Indonesian National Military'; abbreviated as TNI) are the military forces of the Republic of Indonesia. It consists of the Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL), and Air Force (TNI-AU). The President of Indonesia is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. As of 2021, it comprises approximately 395,500 military personnel including the Indonesian Marine Corps (Korps Marinir RI), which is a branch of the Navy.[1]

Initially formed with the name of the People's Security Army (TKR), then later changed to the Republic of Indonesia Army (TRI) before changing again its name to the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) to the present. The Indonesian Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution, when it undertook a guerrilla war along with informal militia. As a result of this, and the need to maintain internal security, the Armed forces including the Army, Navy, and Air Force has been organised along territorial lines, aimed at defeating internal enemies of the state and potential external invaders.[8]

Under the 1945 Constitution, all citizens are legally entitled and obliged to defend the nation. Conscription is provided for by law, yet the Forces have been able to maintain mandated strength levels without resorting to a draft.

The Indonesian armed forces (military) personnel does not include members of law enforcement and paramilitary personnel such as the Indonesian National Police (Polri) consisting of approximately 440,000+ personnel, Mobile Brigade Corps (Brimob) of around 42,000+ armed personnel, and the Indonesian College Students' Regiment or Resimen Mahasiswa (Menwa) which is a collegiate military service consisting 26,000 trained personnel.

History

Main articles: Military history of Indonesia and Order of battle of the Indonesian National Armed Forces as of January 1946

A road-side painting in Jakarta commemorating the anniversary of the Indonesian National Armed Forces in 1985

Before the formation of the Indonesian Republic, the military authority in the Dutch East Indies was held by the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) and naval forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy (KM). Although both the KNIL and KM were not directly responsible for the formation of the future Indonesian armed forces, and mainly took the role of foe during Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949, the KNIL had also provided military training and infrastructure for some of the future TNI officers and other ranks. There were military training centers, military schools and academies in the Dutch East Indies. Next to Dutch volunteers and European mercenaries, the KNIL also recruited indigenous, especially Ambonese, Kai Islanders, Timorese, and Minahasan people. In 1940, with the Netherlands under German occupation and the Japanese pressing for access to Dutch East Indies oil supplies, the Dutch had opened up the KNIL to large intakes of previously excluded Javanese.[9][clarification needed] Some of the indigenous soldiers that had enjoyed Dutch KNIL military academy education would later become important TNI officers, for example Soeharto and Nasution.

Indonesian soldiers in front of Borobudur, March 1947

Indonesian nationalism and militarism started to gain momentum and support in World War II during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies. To gain support from the Indonesian people in their war against the Western Allied force, Japan started to encourage and back Indonesian nationalistic movements by providing Indonesian youth with military training and weapons. On 3 October 1943, the Japanese military formed the Indonesian volunteer army called PETA (Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Homeland). The Japanese intended PETA to assist their forces oppose a possible invasion by the Allies. The Japanese military training for Indonesian youth originally was meant to rally the local's support for the Japanese Empire, but later it became the significant resource for the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. Many of these men who served in PETA, both officers and NCOs alike like Soedirman, formed the majority of the personnel that would compose the future armed forces.

General Soedirman, first commander of the Indonesian Armed Forces

The Indonesian Armed Forces started out as the People's Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Rakyat – "People's Security Agency"; BKR), which was formed in the third PPKI meeting, on 29 August 1945. BKR united militias across the newly independent country to maintain civil order; it was more of a constabulary than an army. The decision to create a "security agency", and not an army, was taken to avoid the Allied forces seeing it as an armed revolution and invading in full force. One of the terms of surrender to Japan was to return the Asian colonies they had conquered to their previous rulers, certainly not to make them independent.

When confrontations became sharp and hostile between Indonesia and the Allied forces, on 5 October 1945 the People's Security Forces (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat – TKR ) was formed on the basis of existing BKR units; this was a move taken to formalize, unite, and organize the splintered pockets of independent troopers (laskar) across Indonesia, ensuing a more professional military approach, to contend with the Netherlands and the Allied force invaders.

The Indonesian armed forces have seen significant action since their establishment in 1945. Their first conflict was the 1945–1949 Indonesian National Revolution, in which the 1945 Battle of Surabaya was especially important as the baptism of fire of the young armed forces.

In January 1946, TKR renamed as the People's Safety Military Forces (Tentara Keselamatan Rakyat – TKR), then succeeded by Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (Tentara Republik Indonesia – TRI ), in a further step to professionalize the armed forces and increase its ability to engage systematically.

In June 1947, the TRI, per a government decision, was renamed the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia – TNI ) which is a merger between the TRI and the independent paramilitary organizations (laskar) across Indonesia, becoming by 1950 the APRIS or National Military Forces of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia Serikat), by mid year the APRI or Military Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia), also absolving native personnel from within both the former KNIL and KM within the expanded republic.

According to the official website of Indonesian veterans, there were 863,432 people who joined the struggle for Indonesian independence and this included those who were members of the militia, police, intelligence and auxiliary[10][11] and as of july 2023, there are still 89,377 Indonesian National Revolution veteran are still alive.[12]

Emblem of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (ABRI) (1962–1999)

On 21 June 1962, the name "Tentara Nasional Indonesia" (TNI) was changed to "Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia" (Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia, ABRI). The POLRI (Indonesian National Police) was integrated under the Armed Forces and changed its name to "Angkatan Kepolisian" (Police Force), and its commander maintained the concurrent status of Minister of Defense and Security, reporting to the President, who is commander in chief. The commanding generals (later chiefs of staff) and the Chief of the National Police then all held ministerial status as members of the cabinet of the republic, while a number of higher-ranking officers were appointed to other cabinet posts. On 1 July 1969, the Police Force's name was reverted to "POLRI".

After the fall of Suharto in 1998, the democratic and civil movement grew against the acute military role and involvements in Indonesian politics. As a result, the post-Soeharto Indonesian military has undergone certain reforms, such as the revocation of the Dwifungsi doctrine and the terminations of military controlled business. The reforms also involved law enforcement in common civil society, which questioned the position of Indonesian police under the military corps umbrella. These reforms led to the separation of the police force from the military. In April 1999, the Indonesian National Police officially regained its independence and now is a separate entity from the armed forces proper. The official name of the Indonesian military also changed from "Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia" (ABRI) back to "Tentara Nasional Indonesia" (TNI).[13]

Future plans

At the beginning of 2010, the Indonesian government sought to strengthen the TNI to achieve minimum standards of minimum strength (Minimum Essential Force, or MEF). The MEF was divided into three strategic five-year plan stages, 2010–2014, 2015–2019, and 2020–2024. Initially the government budgeted Rp156 trillion (around US$16 billion at the time) for the provision of TNI's main weapon system equipment (known as alutsista, an abbreviation for Alat Utama Sistem Senjata or "Advanced Weapons System") in the MEF period 2010–2014.[14][15][16]

Naming history

*the name TNI was still used during ABRI era when it came to the military itself and the branches excluding the Police (e.g. TNI-AD/AL/AU). But when it was Armed Forces as a whole including the Police the term ABRI was used instead.

Philosophy and doctrine

Indonesian soldiers participate in a mass casualty training scenario as part of exercise Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT)

The Indonesian military philosophy about the defense of the archipelago is summarily civilian-military defence, called "Total People's Defense", consisting of a three-stage war: a short initial period in which an invader would defeat a conventional Indonesian military, a long period of territorial guerrilla warfare followed by a final stage of expulsion, with the military acting as a rallying point for defense from grass-roots village level upwards. The doctrine relies on a close bond between villager and soldier to encourage the support of the entire population and enable the armed forces to manage all war-related resources.

The civilian population would provide logistical support, intelligence, and upkeep with some of the population that is armed forces-trained to join the guerrilla struggle against the aggressor. The armed forces regularly engage in large-scale community and rural development. The "Armed Forces Enters the Village" (AMD/TMMD) program, begun in 1983, is held three times annually to organize and assist construction and development of civilian village projects.

The current developments in Indonesia's defense policies are framed within the concept of achieving "Minimum Essential Force" or MEF by 2024. This concept of MEF was first articulated in Presidential Decree No. 7/2008 on General Policy Guidelines on State Defense Policy[17] which came into effect on 26 January 2008. MEF is defined as a capability based defense and force level that can guarantee the attainment of immediate strategic defense interests, where the procurement priority is given to the improvement of minimum defense strength and/or the replacement of outdated main weapon systems/equipment. To achieve this aim, MEF had been restructured into a series of 3 strategic programs with timeframes from 2010 to 2014, 2015 to 2019 and 2020 to 2024 as well as spending of up to1.5–2% of the GDP.

The identity of the Indonesian National Armed forces is as defined by the Article 2 of the Law No 34/2004 on Indonesian National Armed forces[18] is the TNI must aim to become the:

  1. People's Military Forces, the armed forces whose serving personnel come from Indonesian citizens from all walks of life;
  2. Military of Warriors, which are soldiers who fought to establish the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia and do not recognize surrender in carrying out and completing its obligations;
  3. National Armed Forces, the Indonesian national armed forces who serve in the interest of the country and her people over the interests of the regions/provinces, ethnic groups, races, and religions;
  4. and Professional Armed Forces, an armed forces that is well-trained, well-educated, well-equipped, non-practicable, prohibited to do business and politics and guaranteed welfare, and following the country's political policies that embrace democratic principles, civil supremacy, human rights, and the provisions of national law and international laws in force, as ratified and approved in the 1999–2003 amendments to the Constitution.

Organization

Further information: Indonesian military ranks

See also: Military Police § Indonesia

The Indonesian armed forces have long been organized around territorial commands.[19] Following independence, seven were established by 1958. No central reserve formation was formed until 1961 (when the 1st Army Corps of the Army General Reserve, "CADUAD", the precursor of today's Kostrad was established). It was only after the attempted coup d'état of 1 October 1965 and General Suharto's rise to the presidency that it became possible to integrate the armed forces and begin to develop a joint operations structure.

Following a decision in 1985, major reorganization separate the Ministry of Defense and Security from the ABRI (Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, the name of the armed forces used during the New Order) headquarters and staff.[20] MoDS was made responsible for planning, acquisition, and management tasks but had no command or control of troop units. The ABRI Commander in chief retained command and control of all armed forces and continued by tradition to be the senior military officer in the country, while continuing to be a part of the cabinet.

The administrative structure of Ministry of Defense and Security consisted of a minister, deputy minister, secretary general, inspector general, three directorates-general and a number of functional centers and institutes. The minister, deputy minister, inspector general, and three directors general were retired senior military officers; the secretary general (who acted as deputy minister) and most functional center chiefs were, as is the case today, active-duty military officers, while employees and staff were personnel of the armed forces and of the civil service.

The 1985 reorganization also made significant changes in the armed forces chain of command. The four multi-service Regional Defense Commands ("Kowilhans") and the National Strategic Command ("Kostranas") were eliminated from the defense structure, establishing the Military Regional Command ("Kodam"), or area command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services. The chain of command flowed directly from the "ABRI" commander in chief to the ten "Kodam" commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands. The former territorial commands of the air force and navy were eliminated from the structure altogether, with each of those services represented on the "Kodam" staff by a senior liaison officer. The navy and air force territorial commands were replaced by operational commands. The air force formed two Operational Commands ("Ko-Ops") while the navy had its two Fleet Commands, the Western and Eastern Armadas. The air force's National Air Defense Command ("Kohanudnas") remained under the "ABRI" commander in chief. It had an essentially defensive function that included responsibility for the early warning system.

After Suharto's presidential era collapsed in 1998, the Indonesian National Police was separated from the Armed Forces making the Indonesian Armed Forces under the direct auspices command of the Ministry of Defense and the Police Force under the direct auspices of the President of Indonesia. Before 1998, the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (the then name "ABRI") was composed of four service branches: Indonesian Army, Indonesian Navy, Indonesian Air Force, and the Indonesian National Police. Then after 1998 (After reformation from Soeharto), the Armed Forces' name, in 1999, was changed to TNI (Tentara Nasional Indonesia) literally meaning: "The National Military of Indonesia" and the independent Indonesian Police Force changed its name to POLRI (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia) literally meaning: "The National Police Force of Indonesia". Now specifically, although the Armed Forces of Indonesia and the National Police of Indonesia has been separated, they still cooperate and conduct special duties and tasks together for the sake of the national security and integrity of Indonesia.

On 13 May 2018, Commander Hadi Tjahjanto reorganized the armed forces once more by inaugurating 4 new military units: Kostrad's 3rd Infantry Division, Navy's 3rd Fleet Command, Air Force's 3rd Air Force Operations Command, and Marine Force III. The new military units are intended to reduce response time against any threats and problems in Eastern Indonesia. He also officially renamed the Western and Eastern Fleet Commands to 1st and 2nd Fleet Commands.[21]

The Indonesian National Armed Forces is structured into the following in accordance with Article 9 of Presidential Regulation No. 66/2019. The organization of the Indonesian National Armed Forces consists of Indonesian National Armed Forces General Headquarters (Markas Besar Tentara Nasional Indonesia) based in the Joint Armed Forces Headquarters in Cilangkap, East Jakarta, of which it oversee the headquarters of the three branch of the military:[22]

Armed Forces Headquarters Organization

Leadership elements

The current Panglima (Commander) of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Admiral Yudo Margono from the Navy

The leadership elements of the Indonesian armed forces consist of the Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Panglima TNI) and the Deputy Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, both position are held by four-star Generals/Admirals/Air Marshalls appointed by and reporting directly to the President of Indonesia, who is the overall commander-in-chief of the armed forces. As of Nov 2019, the position of deputy commander remains vacant.[23]

Leadership support elements

  1. Armed Forces General Staff (Staf Umum)
  2. Armed Forces Inspectorate General (Inspektorat Jenderal)
  3. Armed Forces Commander Advisory Staff (Staf Ahli Panglima)
  4. Armed Forces Strategic Policy and General Planning Staff (Staf Kebijakan Strategis dan Perencanaan Umum)
  5. Armed Forces Intelligence Staff (Staf Intelijen)
  6. Armed Forces Operations Staff (Staf Operasi)
  7. Armed Forces Personnel Staff (Staf Personalia)
  8. Armed Forces Logistics Staff (Staf Logistik)
  9. Armed Forces Territorial Staff (Staf Teritorial)
  10. Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Staff (Staf Komunikasi dan Elektronik)

Service Elements

  1. Armed Forces Psychology Center (Pusat Psikologi)
  2. Armed Forces Electronics and Communication Unit (Satuan Komunikasi dan Elektronika)
  3. Armed Forces Operations Control Center (Pusat Pengendalian Operasi)
  4. Armed Forces Bureaucratic Reform Center (Pusat Reformasi Birokrasi)
  5. Armed Forces General Secretariat (Sekretariat Umum)
  6. Armed Forces General Headquarters and Services Detachment (Detasemen Markas Besar)

Central Executive Agencies

Military Academy of Indonesia
Indonesian Military Academy cadets
  1. Armed Forces Staff and Command Colleges (Sekolah Staf dan Komando TNI/Sesko TNI) based in Bandung, which consist of:
    • Army Staff and Command College, based in Bandung;
    • Naval Staff and Command College, based in Cipulir, South Jakarta; and
    • Air Force Staff and Command College, based in Lembang, West Bandung.
  2. Armed Forces Education, Training and Doctrine Development Command (Komando Pembinaan Doktrin dan Latihan TNI/ Kodiklat TNI);
  3. Armed Forces Academy (Akademi TNI), based in Cilangkap, which consist of:
  4. Armed Forces Strategic Intelligence Agency (Badan Intelijen Strategis TNI/ BAIS TNI);
  5. Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Komando Operasi Khusus/ Koopsus TNI);
  6. Indonesian Presidential Security Forces (Pasukan Pengamanan Presiden/ Paspampres);
  7. Armed Forces Legal Agency (Badan Pembinaan Hukum/ Babinkum TNI);
  8. Armed Forces Information Center (Pusat Penerangan TNI);
  9. Armed Forces Medical Center (Pusat Kesehatan TNI);
  10. Armed Forces Military Police Center (Pusat Polisi Militer/ Puspom TNI);
  11. Armed Forces Finance Center (Pusat Keuangan TNI);
  12. Armed Forces Peacekeeping Missions Center (Pusat Misi Pemeliharaan Perdamaian TNI)
  13. Armed Forces Strategic Assessment, Research, and Development Center (Pusat Pengkajian Strategis, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan TNI);
  14. Armed Forces Logistics Agency (Badan Perbekalan/ Babek TNI);
  15. Armed Forces Mental Guidance and Chaplaincy Center (Pusat Pembinaan Mental/ Pusbintal TNI);
  16. Armed Forces Historical Heritage Center (Pusat Sejarah TNI);
  17. Armed Forces Information and Data Processing Center (Pusat Informasi dan Pengolahan Data/ Pusinfolahta TNI);
  18. Armed Forces International Cooperation Center (Pusat Kerjasama Internasional TNI);
  19. Armed Forces Physical Fitness and Basic Military Regulation Center (Pusat Jasmani dan Peraturan Militer Dasar TNI);
  20. Armed Forces Procurement Center (Pusat Pengadaan TNI);
  21. Armed Forces Maritime Information Center (Pusat Informasi Maritim);
  22. Armed Forces Permanent Garrison Commands (Komando Garnisun Tetap), which consist of:
    • 1st Permanent Garrison/Jakarta
    • 2nd Permanent Garrison/Bandung
    • 3rd Permanent Garrison/Surabaya
  23. Armed Forces Cyber Operations Unit (Satuan Siber TNI)

Principal Operational Commands

Indonesian Army Infantry soldiers is one of the main combatant forces of the Indonesian armed forces

The Principal Operational Commands (Komando Utama Operasi TNI) are the centralized TNI forces which are under the command of the Armed Forces General Headquarters.[22] Some of these commands are actually part of the three military branches (such as Kostrad and Koarmada RI, armed and trained by the Army and Navy, respectively), but these are operationally controlled by the Armed Forces General Headquarters.

  1. Joint Defense Territorial Command (Komando Gabungan Wilayah Pertahanan / Kogabwilhan), tasked with coordinating and integrating operational readiness of all military bases throughout Indonesia. Command held by three-star General/Admiral/Air Marshall. It consists of:
    • Kogabwilhan I, based in Tanjung Pinang, covering western territories of Indonesia;
    • Kogabwilhan II, based Penajam Paser, covering central territories of Indonesia; and
    • Kogabwilhan III, based in Timika, covering eastern territories of Indonesia.
  2. Army Strategic Reserves Command (Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat / Kostrad). Command held by three-star General. It consists of:
  3. Indonesian Fleet Command (Komando Armada Republik Indonesia / Koarmada RI). Command held by three-star Admiral. It consists of:
    • Koarmada I, based in Tanjung Uban, operationally western fleet of Indonesia;
    • Koarmada II, based in Surabaya operationally central fleet of Indonesia; and
    • Koarmada III, based in Sorong, operationally eastern fleet of Indonesia.
  4. National Air Operations Command (Komando Operasi Udara Nasional / Koopsudnas). Command held by three-star Air Marshall. It consists of:
    • Koopsud I, based in Jakarta, operationally western air forces of Indonesia;
    • Koopsud II, based in Makassar operationally central air forces of Indonesia; and
    • Koopsud III, based in Biak, operationally eastern air forces of Indonesia.
  5. Naval Hydro-Oceanographic Center (Pusat Hidro-Oseanografi TNI Angkatan Laut), based in North Jakarta. Command held by three-star Admiral.
  6. Army Military Regional Commands (Komando Daerah Militer / Kodam). Command held by two-star General. It consists of fifteen Military Regions (Kodams) territorially covering all 38 Provinces of Indonesia.
  7. Army Special Forces Command (Komando Pasukan Khusus / Kopassus). Command held by two-star General. It conducts mainly special operations of Army.
  8. Military Sealift Command (Komando Lintas Laut Militer / Kolinlamil). Command held by two-star Admiral. It conduct maritime transportation and logistic transferring.
  9. Indonesian Marine Corps (Korps Marinir Republik Indonesia / Kormar RI). Command held by two-star Marine General. It consists of:

Branches

Indonesian Army soldiers

TNI has three service branches, the Army (TNI-AD), the Navy (TNI-AL), and the Air Force (TNI-AU). Each service branch is led by a Chief of Staff (Chief of Staff of the Army, Chief of Staff of the Navy, and Chief of Staff of the Air Force respectively) who is responsible for the administration and capability development for his/her own branch. These positions were previously called Commander or Panglima (for some period in 60s, it is a Minister-equivalent post) which was equipped with commanding authority until it was changed as Chief of Staffs (until now). In the present day, the Commander of The Indonesian National Armed Forces is the only military officer holding commanding authority for all the service branches under the overall authority of the President as Commander in Chief of the Forces.

Indonesian Navy Frigate KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai 332 and Tanker KRI Bontang 907
Indonesian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30 fighter at Sultan Hasanuddin Air Force Base

Special Forces Unit

Indonesian Military Special Forces

In the immediate aftermath of 2018 Surabaya bombings, President Widodo has agreed to revive the TNI Joint Special Operations Command (Koopsusgab) to assist the National Police in antiterrorism operations under certain conditions. This joint force is composed of special forces of the National Armed Forces as mentioned above, and is under the direct control of the Commander of the National Armed Forces.[27] In July 2019, President Widodo officially formed the Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Koopsus TNI) which comprised 400 personnel each from Sat-81 Gultor of Kopassus, Denjaka, and Den Bravo of Kopasgat to conduct special operations to protect national interests within or outside Indonesian territory.[28][29]

Equipment of the Indonesian National Armed Forces during a parade on Armed Force Anniversary Day in 2017

Equipment

President Jokowi and Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto inaugurates reserve component (Komcad) in ILSV vehicle

Reserves

The Indonesian National Armed Forces Reserve Component (Komponen Cadangan TNI, abbreviated into KOMCAD) is the military reserve force element of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.[30]

On January 12, 2021, President Joko Widodo, as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, issued Government Regulation Number 3 of 2021 implementing Law 23 on the Management of National Resources for Defense of the Nation which established the Reserve as a directly reporting unit under the General Headquarters, in order to supplement the Principal Component, i.e. the Armed Forces and the National Police.[30]

Under the regulation, the Reserve shall consists of land, sea, and air reserve force. The membership is voluntary for all citizens, even for members of the civil service.

Budget

Fiscal Year Budget (IDR) Budget (USD)
2005 Rp 21.97 trillion US$2.5 billion
2006 Rp 23.6 trillion US$2.6 billion
2007 Rp 32.6 trillion US$3.4 billion
2008 Rp 36.39 trillion US$3.8 billion
2009 Rp 33.6 trillion US$3.3 billion
2010 Rp 42.3 trillion US$4.47 billion
2011 Rp 47.5 trillion US$5.2 billion
2012 Rp 64.4 trillion[31] US$7.5 billion
2013 Rp 81.8 trillion[32] US$8.44 billion[citation needed]
2014 Rp 83.4 trillion[citation needed] US$7.91 billion[33]
2015 Rp 95.5 trillion[34] US$8.05 billion
2016 Rp 99.5 trillion[35] US$7.3 billion
2017 Rp 109.3 trillion[36] US$8.17 billion
2018 Rp 108 trillion[37] US$8 billion
2019 Rp 121 trillion[38] US$9.1 billion
2020 Rp 131 trillion[38] US$9.35 billion
*2020 (Budget cuts) Rp 122 trillion[39] US$8.67 billion
2021 Rp 134 trillion[40] US$9.2 billion[41]
2022 Rp 151 trillion[40] US$10.1 billion
2023 (Originally) Rp 123.44 trillion[42] US$8.54 billion
2023 (Proposed) Rp 319 trillion[43] US$22 billion
2023 (Planned) Rp 134.33 trillion[44] US$8.83 billion[45]
2024 (Proposed) Rp 350 trillion[46]

*The 2020 budget was changed due to COVID-19 outbreak, while the budget for the Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Education and Culture has been increased.[39]

Commander

Main article: Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces

Uniforms

See also: Military uniform § Indonesia

Indonesian navy officer dressed (Colonel from sailor corps) in service uniform (PDH).

The Indonesian National Armed Forces have three types of uniforms worn by its personnel, which are general service uniforms, specialized service uniforms and branch-specific uniforms.[47]

General service uniforms have three subtypes of uniform, which are Dress uniform (Pakaian Dinas Upacara / PDU), Service uniform (Pakaian Dinas Harian / PDH) and Field Uniform (Pakaian Dinas Lapangan / PDL). Each uniform subtypes also consists of several categories, which are:[47]

Dress Uniform (PDU) Service Uniform (PDH) Field Uniform (PDL)
PDU I – (Service medals and brevets attached) PDH I – (with military beret or side cap) PDL I
PDU IA – (Order decorations attached and honorary sash worn over for those who are entitled to wear it) PDH II – (with cap) PDL II
PDU II – (Mess dress uniform) PDH III – (with blue beret) PDL IIA
PDU IIA – (Mess dress uniform with order decorations attached) PDL III
PDU III – (Service ribbons attached) PDL IV
PDU IV – (Short sleeved, with no necktie worn)

Each branches of the national armed forces have different color in their general service uniforms.

Specialized service uniform consists of:[47]

  1. Pregnant-women service uniform (PDSH)
  2. Standard-bearer service uniform (Gampokbang)
  3. Military parade service uniform (PDP)
  4. State visit service uniform (Gamprot)
  5. Provost service uniform (Gamprov)
  6. Military police service uniform (Gam Pom)
  7. Military band service uniform (Gamsik)
  8. Presidential security force service uniform (Gam Paspampres)
  9. Desert field uniform

Branch-specific uniforms consists of:[47]

Army Navy Air Force
NKRI field uniform "Sailing" field uniform Swa Bhuwana Paksa field uniform
Kostrad field uniform Marines field uniform Air crew uniform (includes flight suit, pilot uniform and Flight attendant uniform)
Raider field uniform Kopaska field uniform Kopasgat field uniform
Kopassus field uniform Service dress white uniform
Service dress black uniform

On 2 March 2022, the Army unveiled their field uniform with new camo pattern, called as "Loreng Angkatan Darat" (Army camo pattern), that is specific only to the Army.[48][49] This camo is a variant of Multicam based on US Army OCP with local DPM color palette. A Desert/Arid variant intended to replace the older local Desert DPM Variant are also Present.[50][51][52]

Personnel

The Indonesian armed forces are voluntary. The active military strength is 400,000 with 400,000 reserves[1] with available manpower fit for military service of males aged between 16 and 49 is 75,000,000, with a further 4,500,000 new suitable for service annually.[53]

The Indonesian soldier marching with goose step on a parade.

Rank structures

Main article: Indonesian military ranks

In the Indonesian Army, Navy (including Marine Corps), Air Force, and the Police Force, the rank consists of officer known as in Indonesian: "Perwira", NCO: "Bintara" and enlisted: "Tamtama". The rank titles of the Marine Corps are the same as those of the Army, but it still uses the Navy's style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue are replacing the red colour).

Armed Forces Pledge (Sapta Marga)

The Armed Forces Pledge is a pledge of loyalty and fidelity of the military personnel to the government and people of Indonesia and to the principles of nationhood.[54][55]

Original Indonesian English
1. Kami Warga Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang bersendikan Pancasila. We, solemn citizens of the Republic of Indonesia, truthfully believe in Pancasila.
2. Kami Patriot Indonesia, pendukung serta pembela Ideologi Negara yang bertanggung jawab dan tidak mengenal menyerah. We, patriots of Indonesia, are the forthright supporter and defender of the nation's ideology and shall admit to refuse surrender.
3. Kami Kesatria Indonesia, yang bertaqwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, serta membela kejujuran, kebenaran dan keadilan. We, humble guardians of Indonesia, who believe in the One True God, are ever-committed to uphold honesty, truth and justice.
4. Kami Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia, adalah Bhayangkari Negara dan Bangsa Indonesia. We, (the servicemen and women) of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, hereby (swear the oath to forever) serve as the champion of the Indonesian nation and its people.
5. Kami Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia, memegang teguh disiplin, patuh dan taat kepada pimpinan serta menjunjung tinggi sikap dan kehormatan prajurit. We, (the servicemen and women) of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, strive to uphold military discipline, loyalty to the chain of command and promote the honor and conduct of becoming (military) service personnel.
6. Kami Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia, mengutamakan keperwiraan di dalam melaksanakan tugas, serta senantiasa siap sedia berbakti kepada Negara dan Bangsa. We, (the servicemen and women) of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, will ever exemplify the values of honor in carrying out our duties, and readily answer to the call of the nation at any time of need.
7. Kami Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia, setia dan menepati janji serta Sumpah Prajurit. And we, (the servicemen and women) of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, will be faithful, loyal and true to our Oath of Duty (Enlistment/Commissioning).

Soldier's Oath (Sumpah Prajurit)

The Soldier's Oath is a statement of determination expressed since the inception of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and has become a value system for Indonesian National Armed Forces soldiers that is still upheld and preserved. The Soldier's Oath as an oath, is uttered during the inauguration ceremony for each student soldier to become a soldier of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.[56][55]

Original Indonesian
Demi Allah saya bersumpah / berjanji :
1. Bahwa saya akan setia kepada Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang berdasarkan Pancasila dan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945.
2. Bahwa saya akan tunduk kepada hukum dan memegang teguh disiplin keprajuritan.
3. Bahwa saya akan taat kepada atasan dengan tidak membantah perintah atau putusan.
4. Bahwa saya akan menjalankan segala kewajiban dengan penuh rasa tanggung jawab kepada Tentara dan Negara Republik Indonesia.
5. Bahwa saya akan memegang segala rahasia Tentara sekeras-kerasnya.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The total numbers of aircraft as of February 2021. For more info please go to List of equipment of the Indonesian Army#Aircraft
  2. ^ The total numbers of aircraft as of February 2021. For more info please go to List of equipment of the Indonesian Navy#Aircraft

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Further reading