Royal Netherlands Navy
Koninklijke Marine
Emblem of the Royal Netherlands Navy
Founded8 January 1488; 536 years ago (1488-01-08)
Country Kingdom of the Netherlands
Size7,508 Active military personnel (2021)[1]

19 helicopters: NH-90
Part ofArmed forces of the Netherlands
HeadquartersDen Helder
Motto(s)Veiligheid op en vanuit zee
Security on and from the sea.
MarchDefileermars der Koninklijke Marine
(Royal Netherlands Navy Service Marchpast)
EngagementsEighty Years' War
Dutch–Portuguese War
Anglo-Dutch Wars
War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Quadruple Alliance
French Revolutionary Wars
World War II
Indonesian National Revolution
Korean War
Battle of Arafura Sea
CommanderVice-Admiral René Tas
Deputy commanderRear admiral Huub Hulsker
Michiel de Ruyter, Piet Hein, Maarten Tromp
Naval ensign
Naval jack
Aircraft flown

The Royal Netherlands Navy (Dutch: Koninklijke Marine) is the naval force of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.[2] It is one of the four Netherlands Armed Forces.[3] It was founded on 8 January 1488,[4] making it the third oldest naval force in the world.

During the 17th century, the navy of the Dutch Republic (1581–1795) was one of the most powerful naval forces in the world and played an active role in the Anglo-Dutch Wars, the Franco-Dutch War, and wars against Spain and several other European powers. The Batavian Navy of the later Batavian Republic (1795–1806) and Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810) played an active role in the Napoleonic Wars, though mostly dominated by French interests.

After the establishment of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands, it served an important role in protecting Dutch colonial rule, especially in Southeast Asia, and would play a minor role in World War II, especially against the Imperial Japanese Navy. Since World War II, the Royal Netherlands Navy has taken part in expeditionary peacekeeping operations. It often participates in European Union and NATO operations.

Ship prefixes

An international prefix for ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy is HNLMS (His/Her Netherlands Majesty's Ship).[5][better source needed] The Netherlands navy itself uses the prefixes Zr.Ms. (Dutch: Zijner Majesteits, lit.'His Majesty's') when a King is on the throne, and Hr.Ms. (Dutch: Harer Majesteits, lit.'Her Majesty's') when there is a Queen. This happens automatically at end of the monarch's reign.[6]


Main article: Naval history of the Netherlands

The modern Netherlands Navy dates its founding to a "statute of admiralty" issued by Maximilian, King of the Romans and his son Philip the Fair, the ruler of Burgundian lands (a minor at that time) on 8 January 1488.[7][a]

Netherlands Golden Age

The Battle of Scheveningen in 1653 during the First Anglo-Dutch War

The Netherlands navy was involved in several wars against other European powers from the late 16th century, initially for independence against Spain in European waters, later for shipping lanes, trade and colonies in many parts of the world, notably in four Anglo-Dutch wars against England. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world. As an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic consisted of five separate admiralties (three of them in Holland, and one each in Friesland and Zeeland), each with its own ships, personnel, shipyards, command structures and revenues.[8]

World War II

HNLMS Java, ca. 1941
Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy on manoeuvres, 1936
Piet de Jong, commanding officer of HNLMS Gelderland in 1958

At the start of WW2 the Dutch had five cruisers, eight destroyers, 24 submarines, and smaller vessels, along with 50 aircraft. The Netherlands was conquered in 1940 by Nazi Germany in a matter of days, and two Dutch light cruisers and one destroyer leader and three destroyers that were under construction were captured in their shipyard.

For the rest of the war, the Dutch navy was based in Allied countries: the Dutch navy had its headquarters in London, and smaller units in Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and Western Australia. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys and attacked enemy targets. Dutch submarines scored some victories, including one on a Kriegsmarine U-boat U-95 in the Mediterranean Sea, which was sunk by O 21, but during the war the Dutch Navy suffered heavy losses, particularly in the Pacific Theatre.

A small force of submarines based in Western Australia sank more Japanese ships in the first weeks after Japan joined the war than the entire British and American navies together during the same period, an exploit which earned Admiral Helfrich the nickname "Ship-a-day Helfrich".[9] The aggressive pace of operations against the Japanese was a contributing factor to both the heavy losses sustained and the greater number of successes scored as compared to the British and Americans in the region.

But during the relentless Japanese offensive of February through April 1942 in the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch navy in Asia was virtually annihilated, particularly in the Battle of the Java Sea (27 February 1942) in which the commander, Karel Doorman, went down with his fleet along with 1,000 sailors. The Navy sustained losses of a total of 20 ships (including two of its three light cruisers) and 2,500 sailors killed in the course of the campaign.[10] The Dutch navy had suffered from years of underfunding and came ill-prepared to face an enemy with more and heavier ships with better weapons, including the Long Lance-torpedo, with which the cruiser Haguro sank the light cruiser HNLMS De Ruyter.[11]

Netherlands New Guinea

After the war, the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority. After four years of conflict the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia.

Part of the Dutch Navy was next stationed in Netherlands New Guinea until that, too, was turned over to the Indonesian government in 1962. This followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province.

European Union cooperation

The Navy has participated in joint European Union naval operations and exercises. Ten separate Dutch vessels have contributed to the EU Naval Force Operation Atalanta, combating Somali piracy forces in the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean since 2009. The last vessel was sent in 2018; since then the Navy has only contributed staff and advisors to the mission.[12][13]

NATO cooperation

The Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 in 2007 with HNLMS Evertsen second from the right

With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the military focus was on the army and air force; it was not until the Korean War (1950–53) that the navy got more recognition. The government allowed the creation of a balanced fleet consisting of two naval squadrons. Apart from the aircraft carrier HNLMS Karel Doorman the Dutch navy consisted of two light cruisers (two De Zeven Provinciën class), 12 destroyers (four Holland class, eight Friesland class), eight submarines, six frigates (van Speijk-class frigates), and a considerable number of minesweepers.

As a member of NATO, the Netherlands developed its security policy in close cooperation with other members. The establishment of the Warsaw pact in 1955 intensified the arms race between West and East. Technical innovations rapidly emerged, the introduction of radar and sonar were followed by nuclear weapon systems and long-range missiles. The geopolitical situation allowed for a fixed military strategy. Beginning in 1965, the Dutch Navy joined certain permanent NATO squadrons like the Standing Naval Force Atlantic.


Vice-Admiral René Tas is the current Commander of the Royal Netherlands Navy.

The constituent parts of the Royal Netherlands Navy are:

Naval squadron

Contains all surface combatants, replenishment ships, and amphibious support ships.

Submarine service

Main article: Royal Netherlands Navy Submarine Service

Houses the submarines and a support vessel.

Mine Detection and Clearing Service

Main article: Mine Service

Contains various minehunters.

Hydrographic Survey

The Dienst der Hydrografie (Hydrographic Service) is responsible for relevant hydrographic surveys.

Naval aviation

Main article: Netherlands Naval Aviation Service

Two squadrons equipped with NH90 helicopter based at De Kooy Airfield.

Netherlands Marine Corps

Main article: Netherlands Marine Corps

Netherlands & Dutch Caribbean Coastguard

Although the Netherlands Coastguard is not an official part of the Navy, it is under its operational control. Also the Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard is under the operational control of the Navy and is commanded by the commander of the Navy in the Caribbean.

Coastguard aircraft
Aircraft Origin Type Coastguard Base In service Notes
Patrol Aircraft
Bombardier Dash 8 MPA Canada SAR / patrol Schiphol - The Netherlands 2[14]
Bombardier Dash 8 MPA Canada SAR / patrol HATO - Curaçao Dutch Caribbean 2
AgustaWestland AW169 Italy SAR / transport HATO - Curaçao Dutch Caribbean 2
AgustaWestland AW189 Italy SAR Den Helder & Midden Zeeland - The Netherlands 3[15] operated by Bristow Group


The main naval base is in Den Helder, North Holland. Secondary naval bases are in Amsterdam, Vlissingen and Willemstad (Curaçao). Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are in Rotterdam, Doorn, Suffisant on Curaçao, and Savaneta on Aruba.

Officer training

Officers of the Nederland Navy are trained at the Royal Naval Institute (Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine), which is part of the Netherlands defence academy (Nederlandse Defensie Academie) in Den Helder.[16] Around 100–120 people start training every year.



Main article: List of active Royal Netherlands Navy ships

The Royal Netherlands Navy currently operates 7 main classes of vessels: Note: in the Royal Netherlands Navy frigates are interchangeable with destroyers as there is no separate class

Type ship Defensenote 1974 Defensenote 1984 Priority Document 1993 Navy study 2005 Economize 2011 Defensenote 2018
LC frigates 4 4 4
M frigates 4 8 8 2 2 2
GW frigates 2 2 2
L frigates 1 2 2
S frigates 12 10 6
MLM frigates 6
Frigates 25 22 18 6 6 6
Patrol ships 4 4 4
Submarine 6 6 4 4 4 4
Supply ships 2 2 2 1 1
LPD 1 2 2 2
JSS 1 1 1
Minehunters 15 15 15 10 6 6
Minesweepers 11 11
Total ships 59 56 40 28 23 24
LRMP Aircraft 21 13 13
Helicopters 36 30 20 20 20 20
Total aircraft 57 43 33 20 20 20

The Royal Netherlands Navy classifies the De Zeven Provinciën-class as frigates, but internationally they are most comparable to destroyers (due to their size and weapon capability) platform for Sea Based Anti-Ballistic Missile defence

Naval aviation – maritime helicopters

Royal Netherlands Navy NH-90 NFH at De Kooy Naval Air Station

Since the retirement of the Westland Lynx, the Royal Netherlands Air Force fills the gap of the Lynx's amphibious task with Airbus AS-532U2 Cougar helicopters. The Cougar's main task is to support the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps on board of the LPD's and JSS. Other tasks are to provide Medical air transport to and from these ships, but also support SOF units in amphibious missions and trainings.

In 2012 an Boeing AH-64 Apache attack helicopter from the Royal Netherlands Air Force made a deck landing on board HNLMS Rotterdam for the first time as part of an initial study into the possibilities for wider use of the helicopters as these will be upgraded to the AH-64E standard which has specific features for maritime operations.

The Dutch amphibious support ship HNLMS Johan de Witt and the HNLMS Karel Doorman JSS are designed to handle Royal Netherlands Air Force CH-47F Chinook helicopters but still require additional anti corrosion measures (part of the ongoing upgrade of the CH-47F).

Autonomous underwater vehicles


Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Defenture VECTOR  Netherlands Multipurpose wheeled vehicle 75 Used by Netherlands Maritime Special Operations Forces.[19]
DAF YAM 4442  Netherlands Truck Unknown Phased replacement with new Scania trucks.
Bushmaster  Australia Infantry mobility vehicle 20
Leopard 1 BARV  Germany
Beach armoured recovery vehicle 4 Recovery vehicle built on a Leopard 1 tank.
Bv 206S  Sweden Armoured personnel carrier 96 156 originally purchased. 96 vehicles have been given a mid-life update, the rest of the vehicles have been cannibalised, sold or disposed of.
BvS10  Sweden Armoured personnel carrier 74 74 vehicles in use. 46 personnel carriers, 20 command vehicles, 4 recovery vehicles and 4 ambulances. The Vikings are part of the Armoured All Terrain Vehicle (AATV) Troops.
Scania R-series  Sweden Palletized Load System Unknown Various versions in use.
DMV Anaconda 4x4  Italy
Off-road vehicle 60 Non-armoured vehicle based on an Iveco Daily chassis, modified by Dutch Military Vehicles (DMV) for use by marines. 46 vehicles in use in the Dutch Caribbean, 14 vehicles in use with the Anti-Armour Troop.
Volkswagen Amarok  Germany Off-road vehicle 194 Non-armoured vehicles, replacement of the Mercedes-Benz 290GD.
Land Rover Defender 110XD  United Kingdom Off-road vehicle 140 Non-armoured vehicle, to be replaced by new armoured vehicles in 2023.


Name Type Caliber Notes
L16 Mortar 81mm
M6 C-640 Mortar 60mm mortar
Colt Canada C7NLD Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO
Colt Canada C8NLD Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO
Heckler & Koch HK416 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO
Glock 17M Pistol 9×19mm Parabellum
FN MAG General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm
M2HB-QCB Heavy machine gun .50 BMG
Accuracy International AWM Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
Barrett M82A1 Anti-materiel rifle .50 BMG
FN P90 Personal defense weapon FN 5.7x28mm
Mossberg M590A1 Shotgun 12 gauge
Panzerfaust 3 Anti-tank weapon
GILL Anti-tank weapon


In 2023 the fleet of the Royal Netherlands Navy consists of these ships:

Class Photo Type Number Dates Details
Walrus class Submarine 3 1994 Multi-purpose diesel-electric powered hunter-killer submarines for deep ocean, brown water & special forces operations. SLEP 2015–2019, two being phased out early (Walrus decommissioned in 2023); entire class to be replaced by 4 new subs starting in 2034.[20][21][22][23]
De Zeven Provinciën class Frigate 4 2002 Mainly anti-air warfare with BMD capability with extensive command & communication facilities.
Karel Doorman class Frigate 2 1994 8 initially built for the Royal Netherlands Navy, pairs of ships subsequently sold to the Belgian, Portuguese and Chilean navies. Belgian and Dutch M-Class frigates recently received extensive upgrades such as an extended helicopter deck and new advanced sensors and improvements in stealthiness. Will be replaced in Dutch- & Belgian Navy in 2028–2030
Holland class Offshore patrol vessel 4 2011 Ocean patrols
Alkmaar class Minehunter 5 1989 Originally a class of 15 ships, will be replaced starting 2025[24]2 will be donated to Ukraine Navy in 2024 and 2025
Karel Doorman class Joint logistic support ship 1 2014 Combined amphibious operations/seabased helicopter platform & fleet replenishing, capable of supporting CH-47/AH-64/NH-90 operations
Rotterdam & Johan de Witt class Landing platform dock 2 1998/2007 Troop & equipment transport, helicopter platform with command & communication & hospital facilities.
Cerberus class Diving support vessel 4 1992 Multi-purpose diving support vessels & harbour protection, will be replaced by 2026
Soemba class Diving support vessel 1 1989 Diving training- & support vessel, will be replaced 2026
Pelikaan class Multi-purpose logistic support vessel 1 2006 Multi-purpose logistic & amphibious support vessel based in Dutch Caribbean, will be replaced in 2030
Mercuur class Submarine support vessel 1 1987 Submarine support vessel & MCM command, upgraded in 2017 and will be replaced in 2028
Snellius class Hydrographic survey vessel 2 2004 Multi-purpose hydrographic survey vessel, will be replaced in 2030
Van Kinsbergen Training Vessel Training Vessel 1 1999 Training vessel, will be replaced in 2026
Geosea Mine countermeasures vessel 1 2020 Civilian ship that the RNN leased from the company N-Sea to test, and make personnel familiar with, components of the new Mine Countermeasures-toolbox that will be used on the future Vlissingen class.[25][26][27]
Damen StanPatrol 2005 Training & Patrol 3 2014 Multifunctional ships
Noordzee class Coastal & Harbour Tug 3 2016 Damen ASD2810 Hybrid

The total tonnage will be approx. 140,000 tonnes. Next to these ships a lot of other smaller vessels remain in the navy.

With these changes the Royal Netherlands Navy will have 10 large oceangoing vessels ranging from medium/low to high combat action ships. The renewed Dutch Navy will be a green-water navy, having enough frigates and auxiliaries to operate far out at sea, while depending on land-based air support, and, with the large amphibious squadron, they will have significant brown-water navy capabilities.

Future changes

Main article: Future of the Royal Netherlands Navy

In April 2018, the Dutch Government approved a multi-year investment program and allocated funds for the 2018–2030 period, including;

Theater ballistic missile defence

Together with the United States and several other NATO members, the Dutch Navy is testing and updating its ships for Tactical ballistic missile defense capability. Although tests conducted concerning the capability of the APAR (Active Phased Array Radar) have been very successful, in 2018 the Dutch Government approved plans to acquire the SM-3 missiles for integration into the existing weapon suite of the LCF frigates. The four LCF ships will be fitted out with eight SM-3 missiles each (they are provisioned for this VLS extension) through Foreign Military Sales (under discussion between the US and The Netherlands).

Historic ships

Surviving historic ships

Ranks and insignia

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 Royal Netherlands Navy[40]
Luitenant-Admiraal Vice-Admiraal Schout-bij-Nacht Commandeur Kapitein ter zee Kapitein-luitenant ter zee Luitenant ter zee der 1ste klasse Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse oudste categorie Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse Luitenant ter zee der 3de klasse
Abbreviation (stnd) LAdm VAdm SBN Cdr KTZ KLTZ LTZ1 LTZ2OC LTZ2 LTZ3 SgtADB KplADB ADB

Enlisted ranks
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Royal Netherlands Navy[40]

Adjudant onderofficer/
Marinier der 1e klasse
Marinier der 2e klasse
Marinier der 3e klasse

See also


  1. ^ This is also the date accepted by Wragg.[41] Richard Ernest Dupuy and Trevor Nevitt Dupuy consider this as the founding date of the administrative foundations of the Dutch navy.[42] Sicking opines that the 1488 Ordinance marked a departure point from previous policies by establishing a centralized structure, although the objectives of the Ordinance initially could not be carried out because of strong opposition and unfavourable political climate (for example, the first central Admiral, Philip of Cleves, sided with the rebels against Maximilian since 1488). The situation improved with the appointment of Philip of Burgundy-Beveren in 1491, and especially since the tenures of Adolf and Maximilian of Burgundy. A true permanent central navy only emerged after the 1550-1555 period, under the governorship of Mary of Hungary, with Cornelis de Schepper also playing a major role.[43][44][45][46] Jaap R. Bruijn traces the origins of an independent Dutch navy to the early stages of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) while the formation of a "national" navy is dated to the establishment of the Dutch Republic in 1597.[47]


  1. ^ "Aantallen personeel". (in Dutch). 1 July 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  2. ^ "The Royal Netherlands Navy in Focus". Government of the Netherlands. November 2015. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  3. ^ Defensie, Ministerie van (13 February 2014). "Organisation -". Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  4. ^ Defensie, Ministerie van (16 September 2019). "Geschiedenis marine - Koninklijke Marine -". (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  5. ^ "List of Acronyms Preceding the Name of a Ship". Corporation of Lower St. Lawrence Pilots. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Defensieschepen worden meteen Zr. Ms. in plaats van Hr. Ms" (in Dutch). Volkskrant. 29 January 2013.
  7. ^ "Geschiedenis marine". Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
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  10. ^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "The War at Sea". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign, 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  11. ^ Dr. L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog (Dutch), 14 parts, part 11a-I-second half, RIOD, Amsterdam, 1975
  12. ^ "European Union Naval Force Operation ATALANTA". Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Missie in Somalië – Antipiraterij" [Mission in Somalia – Anti-piracy]. (Ministry of Defence). Archived from the original on 9 January 2024. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  14. ^ "Eerste nieuwe Kustwachtvliegtuig aangekomen - Nieuwsbericht -". 10 September 2022.
  15. ^ @Nicole_Kuipers3 (28 October 2022). "De nieuwe SAR-helikopters van @kustwacht_nl zijn aangekomen op Den Helder Airport! Voordat ze operationeel worden,…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
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  19. ^ "Vector-terreinwagen (SOF)". Ministerie van Defensie. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
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  23. ^ a b "Netherlands' Walrus-Class Submarine Replacement Program Facing Delays". 31 October 2021.
  24. ^ a b "First Steel Cutting Ceremony for Dutch-Belgian MCM program". 20 July 2021.
  25. ^ Robbie Warmerdam (14 February 2020). "Marine tekent contract voor civiel testschip voor mijnenbestrijding". (in Dutch).
  26. ^ "MV Geosea onderdeel van de marinevloot". Stichting Regio omroep Noordkop (in Dutch). 5 March 2020.
  27. ^ Martin Manaranche (23 August 2021). "Royal Netherlands Navy Started Evaluation of its Future Mine Warfare Toolbox". Naval News.
  28. ^ Kuper, Stephen (10 January 2020). "Dutch Navy confirms three corner fight for future sub program".
  29. ^ "Defensie zet in op meer maritieme slagkracht en inzetbaarheid - Nieuwsbericht -". 17 May 2023.
  30. ^ "Dutch MoD clears path for the M-frigates replacement, expects delays". 24 June 2020.
  31. ^ a b Marine krijgt nieuwe schepen, Dutch Ministry of Defence, 3 May 2018, archived from the original on 3 May 2018, retrieved 3 May 2018
  32. ^ "France's Naval Group clinches Belgian-Dutch minehunter replacement contract". Naval Today. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
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  35. ^ Karremann, Jaime. "Marine wil bevoorrader 'in de geest van Zr.Ms. Amsterdam'". Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
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  38. ^ "Damen "Launches" Royal Netherlands Navy's Combat Support Ship". Naval News. 25 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
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  40. ^ a b "De rangonderscheidingstekens van de krijgsmacht" (PDF) (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence (Netherlands). 19 December 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  41. ^ Wragg, David (24 October 2012). The World Sea Power Guide. Pen and Sword. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-78303-558-8. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
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  43. ^ Sicking, L. H. J. (1 January 2004). Neptune and the Netherlands: State, Economy, and War at Sea in the Renaissance. BRILL. pp. 83, 129, 482–484. ISBN 978-90-04-13850-6. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  44. ^ Bes, Lennart; Frankot, Edda; Brand, Hanno (2007). Baltic Connections: Archival Guide to the Maritime Relations of the Countries Around the Baltic Sea (Including the Netherlands) 1450-1800. BRILL. p. 1256. ISBN 978-90-04-16429-1. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
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  46. ^ Heebøll-Holm, Thomas; Höhn, Philipp; Rohmann, Gregor (17 January 2019). Merchants, Pirates, and Smugglers: Criminalization, Economics, and the Transformation of the Maritime World (1200-1600). Campus Verlag. p. 120. ISBN 978-3-593-50979-2. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  47. ^ Jaap R. Bruijn, "Dutch Navy" in Bruce, Anthony & Cogar, William (editors) An Encyclopedia of Naval History. Facts on File, New York. 1998; p. 121


Dutch naval ship classes post-1945