|Philip the Handsome|
|King of Castile|
|Reign||12 July – 25 September 1506|
|Proclamation||12 July 1506|
|Predecessor||Joanna (as sole monarch)|
|Successor||Joanna (as sole monarch)|
|Lord of the Netherlands|
Duke of Burgundy
|Reign||27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506|
|Predecessor||Mary and Maximilian I|
|Regent||Maximilian I (1482–1494)|
|Reign||26 November 1504 – 12 July 1506|
|Born||22 July 1478|
Bruges, Flanders, Burgundian Netherlands
|Died||25 September 1506 (aged 28)|
Burgos, Castile, Spain
|Father||Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Mary, Duchess of Burgundy|
Philip the Handsome[a] (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), also called the Fair, was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands and titular Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first Habsburg King of Castile (as Philip I) for a brief time in 1506.
The son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy, Philip was less than four years old when his mother died, and upon her death, he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands. Despite his young age, Philip quickly proved himself an effective ruler beloved by his people in the Low Countries, pursuing policies that favoured peace and economic development, while maintaining a steady course of government building.
In 1496, his father arranged for him to marry Joanna, the second daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Around the same time, Philip's sister Margaret was given in marriage to Joanna's brother John, Prince of Asturias. After the deaths of her elder siblings John and Isabella and her infant nephew, Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal, Joanna became heir presumptive to the thrones of Castile and Aragon. Most of Philip's time in Spain was spent consolidating his power, often leading to conflicts against his own wife and her father. She became Queen of Castile when her mother died in 1504. Philip was proclaimed King in 1506, but died a few months later, leaving his wife distraught with grief, eventually leading to her father and son Charles seizing power from Joanna and leaving her imprisoned for the rest of her life on account of her alleged insanity.
Philip was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain, and every Spanish monarch since his son Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, has been one of his descendants. Philip died before his father, and therefore never inherited his father's territories or became Holy Roman Emperor. However, his son Charles eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances. By inheriting the Burgundian Netherlands and acquiring much of Spain and its possessions in the New World by marriage to Joanna, Philip was instrumental in vastly enhancing the territories of the Habsburgs, and his progeny would dominate European history for over the next five centuries.
Philip was born in Bruges on 22 July 1478, the son of the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. He was born in the County of Flanders (today in Belgium) during the reign of his grandfather Frederick III. When Philip was born, King Louis XI of France, the chief opponent of his parents, spread the rumour that the child was actually a girl, not a boy. When Philip's baptism was organized, his step-grandmother Margaret of York showed the boy naked to the populace, so that any doubt about the child's sex would disappear. The child was named in honour of his maternal great-grandfather, Philip the Good, paternal grandfather of his mother Mary. In his first presentation to the father, the parents expressed double dynastic pride. Mary said: “Sir, look at your son and our child, young Philip of imperial seed.” Maximilian kissed the baby, and replied, “O noble Burgundian blood, my offspring, named after Philip of Valois.”
Philip was only four years old when his mother died in 1482, resulting in him succeeding her as ruler of the Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, principally, the large towns of Flanders (especially Ghent and Bruges) and the supporters of Maximilian. Philip became caught up in events and his custody was taken away by a council appointed by the Netherlandish Estates as part of the larger Flemish campaign to support their claims of greater autonomy, which they had wrested from Mary of Burgundy in an agreement known as the Great Privilege of 1477. It was only in the summer of 1485 that Maximilian, marching into Ghent with German troops and forcing its leader Jan Coppenhole to flee, could embrace his son again. Young Philip was then brought to Mechelen and delivered to the loving care of Margaret of York. By 1492, rebellions were completely suppressed. Maximilian revoked the Great Privilege and established a strong ducal monarchy undisturbed by particularism. But he would not reintroduce Charles the Bold's centralizing ordinances. Since 1489 (after his departure), the government under Albert of Saxony had made more efforts in consulting representative institutions and showed more restraint in subjugating recalcitrant territories. Notables who had previously supported rebellions returned to city administrations. The Estates General continued to develop as a regular meeting place of the central government.By the time Maximilian handed over the government to Philip, Habsburg rule was a matter of fact.
Despite tumultous political conditions, the early death of the mother as well as separation from father and sister, Philip's young life did not lack luxuries and he was educated for the needs of a person of his class. He became accomplished in archery, tennis, stick fighting, hunting and proved a valiant knight like his father. He was also a good dancer and conversationalist. Although, this boisterousness would not manifest in his manners as a politician. He inherited his parents' passion for music and would later become a notable patron supporting masters such as Alexander Agricola and Marbriano de Orto. Due to constant campaigning, Maximilian, the father, tended to be absent in the young Philip's life (he returned to battles only two months after Philip's birth). Later, due to emotional problems, Maximilian tried to avoid returning to the Netherlands, and would miss both the 1494 inauguration and 1496 wedding of his son. His tutor since arriving at Mechelen were Olivier de la Marche and François de Busleyden, who would later be his chancellor in Flanders.
In 1493, Frederick III died, thus Maximilian I became defacto leader of the Holy Roman Empire. Burdened by his new responsibilities and personally exasperated by his relationship with the Burgundian lands, he decided to transfer power to the 15-year-old Philip. The news was welcomed by Burgundian lands, as the new ruler was native-born, spoke the language, was peace-loving and trusted his advisors, while Maximilian was warlike and did not respect the Great Privilege. In 1494, Maximilian relinquished his regency under the terms of the Treaty of Senlis and Philip, aged 16, took over the rule of the Burgundian lands himself.
At his inauguration in 1494, one of Philip the Fair's first administrative acts was the abolition of the Great Privilege. He swore to maintaining only the privileges granted at the time of Philip the Good. As during the revolts, many of the rebels had claimed Philip as their rightful and natural prince (as opposed to his father), Philip capitalized on this to restore several of his great-grandfather and grandfather's centralizing policies, while abandoning their expansionism.
Philip was an inexperienced ruler and had a reputation for accommodating and trusting advisors, but also had a backbone. Philip freed himself from his father's control. Although Busleyden was temporarily disgraced when Maximilian summoned his son to Germany in 1496 to Germany, he was soon restored. In 1497, Philip replaced Jean Carondelet, the chancellor Maximilian had appointed, by Thomas de Plaine, who was devoted to his interests. His pursuit of peace with France frustrated Maximilian, who was waging war against Charles VIII. He reconciled the regionalism represented by the Great Privilege with the harsh centralization the country had experienced under Charles the Bold, softening the rigorous demands of both sides while giving in to neither. He reimposed the Parliament of Mechelen (renamed as the Great Council) and reclaimed royal domains. He placated France while reopening the trade route with England in the Magnus Intercursus. His policies gained him the love of the country. Patricia Carson opines, though, that it was clear from the beginning that this did not mean to last, as Philip would never be able to focus on Burgundian lands forever, as he was the heir of his father as Holy Roman Emperor. What the Low Countries could not have foreseen, was that Philip would one day claim the throne in Spain as well, as husband of Joanna.
From the time of Philip, the government in the Low Countries constituted a compromise between the states and the Empire (although, at this time, Burgundian lands had not become part of imperial circles yet, which would be confirmed in 1512 and formalized in 1548). The chancellor of Burgundy became responsible for the government's practical work in the absence of the emperor while the Great Council (Hoge Raad) acted as the country's highest body of judicial power.
Philip's policy was focused on maintaining peace and economic development for his Burgundian lands. Maximilian wanted to recover Guelders, but his son wanted to keep a neutral policy and thus the father was left fighting Charles of Egmond over Guelders on his own. Only at the end of his reign, Philip decided to deal with this threat together with his father.Guelders had been weakened due to the continuous state of war and other problems. This would turn out to be the only campaign in Philip's life. The duke of Cleves and the bishop of Utrecht, hoping to share spoils, gave Philip aid. Maximilian invested his own son with Guelders and Zutphen. Within months, Philip conquered the whole land and Charles of Egmond was forced to prostrate himself in front of his sovereign at the palace of Rosendaal. Charles was then forced to follow Philip wherever he went. In October 1505, they were in Brussels. But after that, Charles was able to escape and start the war again. Philip was not in a good position to make good his claims yet, because by this time he needed to depart to Spain to claim the Castilian throne.
Philip was a patron to Desiderius Erasmus, who praised him for making peace with France and advised him that after God, a prince's duty was owed first to patria (the nation) and not to pater (father, in this case Maximilian).
Philip (and later his son Charles V) joined his father in patronising the devotion of the Seven Sorrows that associated his own mother Mary of Burgundy, who had died young and been idealised in vernacular literature, with the Virgin Mary. The devotion, with its strong current of patriotism and Burgundian nostalgia, successful helped to rally loyalty to the ruling family in the turbulence after Mary's death and was later used to promote dynastic and territorial unity.
The marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power, which had increased significantly thanks to the policies of Louis XI and the successful assertion of regal power after war with the League of the Public Weal. The matter became more urgent after Charles VIII's invasion of Italy (known as the First Peninsular War). This was a matter of compromise for Philip. While assuring his pro-French advisors that he would maintain peaceful policies towards France, the marriage pleased Maximilian while allowing a partial, prudent emergence from France's shadow. Although, Philip did put efforts in safeguarding the 1493 Treaty of Senlis. His independent tendency frustrated both Maximilian and his new parents-in-law.
On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium.
Philip's sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and heir apparent to the unified crowns of Castile and Aragon. The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control. At the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny.
In 1500, shortly after the birth of Joanna and Philip's second child (the future Emperor Charles V), in Flanders, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns was thrown into turmoil. The heir apparent, John, had died in 1497 very shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joanna's elder sister Isabella, wife of Manuel I of Portugal. She died in 1498, while giving birth to a son named Miguel da Paz, to whom succession to the united crowns of Castile, Aragon and Portugal now fell; however, the infant was sickly and died during the summer of 1500.
The succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna. Because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon. In the Kingdom of Castile, however, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joanna. At this point, the issue of Joanna's supposed mental incompetence moved from courtly annoyance to the center of the political stage, since it was clear that Philip and his Burgundian entourage would be the real power-holders in Castile.
In 1502, Philip, Joanna and a large part of the Burgundian court travelled to Spain to receive fealty from the Cortes of Castile as heirs, a journey chronicled in intense detail by Antoon I van Lalaing (French: Antoine de Lalaing), the future Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. Philip and the majority of the court returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna behind in Madrid, where she gave birth to Ferdinand, later Holy Roman Emperor.
Although Joanna was deeply in love with Philip, their married life was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, during which time he constantly attempted to usurp her legal birthrights of power. This led in great part to the rumors of her insanity due to reports of depressive or neurotic acts committed while she was being imprisoned or coerced by her husband, rumors that benefited Philip politically. Most historians now agree she was merely clinically depressed at the time, not insane as commonly believed. Before her mother's death, in 1504, husband and wife were already living apart.
In 1504, Philip's mother-in-law, Queen Isabella of Castile, died, leaving the Crown of Castile to Joanna. Isabella I's widower and former co-monarch, King Ferdinand II, endeavored to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw. Philip was summoned to Spain, where he was recognized as king.
However, en route to Spain in January 1506, Philip and Joanna were caught in a tempest and shipwrecked off the Dorset coast, forcing them on shore near Melcombe Regis. The couple stayed as guests of Henry VII of England but were in fact hostages for the duration of their stay. To get released Philip was forced to sign a treaty with Henry VII–the so-called Malus Intercursus–which included a mutual defense pact, the extradition of rebels, including the Earl of Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, who as an exile was a guest of Philip in the Low Countries, and a trade agreement which allowed English merchants to import cloth duty-free into the Low Countries. After handing over Edmund, Philip and Joanna were allowed to leave England after a stay of six weeks.
Philip and Joanna landed at Corunna on 28 April 1506, accompanied by a body of German mercenaries. Father- and son-in-law mediated under Cardinal Cisneros at Remesal, near Puebla de Sanabria, and at Renedo, the only result of which was an indecent family quarrel, in which Ferdinand professed to defend the interests of his daughter, who he said was imprisoned by her husband. In meetings between 20 and 27 June, mediated by Cardinal Cisneros, the senior churchman in Spain, Ferdinand accepted that his 'most beloved children' (Joanna and Philip) should take over control of Castile.
The two kings then agreed that Joanna was neither fit nor inclined to rule 'considering her infirmities and sufferings, which for the sake of honour are not expressed' and further that if 'the said most serene Queen, either from her own choice or from being persuaded by other persons should attempt to meddle in the government both would prevent it'. It suited both her father and her husband that she be regarded as incapable.
On 27 June 1506, the Treaty of Villafáfila was signed between Ferdinand and Philip, with Philip being proclaimed King of Castile by the Cortes of Valladolid. Yet on the same day Ferdinand drew up secret documents repudiating all the agreements on the grounds of coercion, claiming that he would never otherwise have signed treaties that did 'such enormous damage to the said most serene Queen, my daughter, and me'. Having left his options for the future open, he departed for Aragon.
However, Philip died suddenly at Burgos, apparently of typhoid fever, on 25 September 1506, although a poisoning (assassination) was widely spoken of at the time, and is what his wife believed to be the cause of Philip's death. His wife supposedly refused to allow his body to be buried or part from it for a while. Philip I is entombed at the Royal Chapel of Granada (Capilla Real de Granada), alongside his wife, and her parents Isabella I and Ferdinand II.
In the aftermath, a delegation of the States General of the Netherlands was sent to Austria to offer the regency to Maximilian. The depressed emperor tried to evade them to their surprise. In 1507, he finally received them and decided that Philip's sister would become the governor. In April 1517, the States General welcomed the appointment of another native of the Netherlands.
Philip was a figure often eclipsed in history books by his parents, Mary and Maximilian, partly also by his tragic wife Joanna I, and even moreso by his son, Charles V. In his 2003 biography Philippe le Beau: le dernier duc de Bourgogne (Philip the Handsome: the last Duke of Burgundy), Belgian historian Jean-Marie Cauchies writes that Philip, who died young, still at the beginning of his political ascendancy, was not yet an aspirant for universal monarchy like his son later, but remained above all the heir and continuator of the dukes of Burgundy. Surrounded by ambitious ministers with very divergent views, facing his father–the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, his parents-in-law–the Catholic monarches, and the king of France, his choices as a leader presented him as the "enfant terrible" of international European politics.
At the beginning of their marriage, Philip had genuine affection for Joanna. But his education, which was influenced by Franco-Burgundian traditions, contributed to a model of rulership "exclusively male", thus he never saw Joanna as his political equal and could not accept that she tried to forge her own political identity. Maximilian tried to reconcile the couple, telling Philip that he could only succeed as a ruler if husband and wife acted as "una cosa medesima" (one and the same), but despite Philip's efforts, Joanna would not cooperate in his power struggle against her own father. In the end, his controlling and manipulative behaviours, together with Ferdinand's ambitions and Joanna's depression, ruined the marriage and led to Joanna's personal tragedies. Philip and Joanna of Castile had:
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