Dukedom of Burgundy

Creation date880
PeeragePeerage of France
First holderRichard the Justiciar
Last holder
Extinction date
  • 5 January 1477 (fief)
  • 22 March 1761 (courtesy title)

Duke of Burgundy (French: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by the French crown in 1477, and later by members of the House of Habsburg, including Holy Roman emperors and kings of Spain, who claimed Burgundy proper and ruled the Burgundian Netherlands.[1]

The Duchy of Burgundy was a small portion of the traditional lands of the Burgundians west of the river Saône which, in 843, was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of the West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France (r. 996–1031), the title was held by the Capetians, the French royal family. In 1032 King Henry I of France granted the duchy to his younger brother, Robert, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct in 1361, the title was inherited by King John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy to his younger son, Philip the Bold, in 1363. The Valois dukes gradually came to rule over a vast complex of territories known as the Burgundian State, and became dangerous rivals to the senior French royal line of the House of Valois.

When the male line of the Valois dukes of Burgundy became extinct in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy was confiscated by Louis XI of France. The title "duke of Burgundy" passed to Habsburg monarchs after Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian I of Austria in 1477. The Habsburgs used this connection to claim Burgundy proper and to rule their Burgundian inheritance until the Napoleonic era. Since 1975, branches of the House of Bourbon have used "duke of Burgundy" as a revived courtesy title.

List of dukes of Burgundy

Bosonid dynasty (880–956)

Main article: Bosonid dynasty

The first margrave (marchio), later duke (dux), of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes,[citation needed] whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.

His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century later by the French crown, their suzerain.

Robertian dynasty (956–1002)

Main article: Robertian dynasty

House of Ivrea (1002–1004)

Main article: Anscarids

House of Capet (1004–1032)

Main article: House of Capet

In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule what would come to be called the Free County of Burgundy. His descendants formed another House of Ivrea.

House of Burgundy (1032–1361)

Main article: House of Burgundy

Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry.

Picture Name Birth Became Duke Ruled until Death Notes Arms
Robert I the Old
(Robert Ier le Vieux)
1011 1032 21 March 1076 Younger son of Robert II of France.
Hugh I
(Hugues Ier)
1057 21 March 1076 1079 29 August 1093 Eldest son of Henry of Burgundy, grandson of Robert I. Abdicated in favour of his younger brother, Odo.
Odo I Borel the Red
(Eudes Ier Borel le Roux)
1058 1079 23 March 1103 Younger brother of Hugh I.
Hugh II
(Hugues II)
1084 23 March 1103 1143 Son of Odo I
Odo II
(Eudes II)
1118 1143 27 June/27 September 1162 Eldest son of Hugh II
Hugh III
(Hugues III)
1142 27 June/27 September 1162 25 August 1192 Eldest son of Odo II
(Eudes III)
1166 25 August 1192 6 July 1218 Eldest son of Hugh III
Hugh IV
(Hugues IV)
9 March 1213 6 July 1218 27 October 1271 Eldest son of Odo III
Robert II
(Robert II)
1248 27 October 1271 21 March 1306 Eldest surviving son of Hugh IV.
Hugh V
(Hugues V)
1282 21 March 1306 9 May 1315 Eldest son of Robert II.
Odo IV
(Eudes IV)
1295 9 May 1315 3 April 1350 Younger brother of Hugh V.
Philip I of Rouvres
(Philippe Ier de Rouvres)
1346 3 April 1350 21 November 1361 Grandson of Odo IV.

House of Valois-Burgundy (1363–1482)

Main article: House of Valois-Burgundy

John II of France, the second Valois king, successfully claimed the duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John then passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage.

Picture Name Birth Became Duke Ruled until Death Notes Arms
Philip II the Bold
(Philippe II le Hardi)
15 January 1342 6 September 1363 27 April 1404 Youngest son of John the Good
John I the Fearless
(Jean I sans Peur)
28 May 1371 27 April 1404 10 September 1419 Eldest son of Philip the Bold
Philip III the Good
(Philippe III le Bon)
31 July 1396 10 September 1419 15 June 1467 Eldest son of John the Fearless
Charles I the Bold[2]
(Charles I le Téméraire)
21 November 1433 15 June 1467 5 January 1477 Eldest son of Philip the Good
Mary the Rich 13 February 1457 5 January 1477 27 March 1482 Only daughter of Charles the Bold

Family tree

Richard of AutunAdelaide of AuxerreRainier II of HainautAdelaide of BurgundyHugh the BlackWilla of BurgundyHugh of VienneEmma of ParisRudolph of FranceErmengarde of BurgundyGilbert of ChalonHugh the GreatLietaud of MaconRobert of VermandoisHugh CapetOtto, Duke of BurgundyLiutgard of ChalonOtto-Henry of BurgundyAdelbert II of ItalyRobert II of FranceOtto-William of BurgundyHenry I CapetHélie of SemurRobert I, Duke of BurgundyErmengarde of AnjouHildegard of BurgundyWilliam VIII of AquitaineHugh of Burgundy (1034–1059)Constance of BurgundyAlfonso VI of CastileRobert of Burgundy, Bishop of LangresRenauld of Burgundy, abbot of St. PierreBeatrice of Burgundy (born 1063)Guy I of VignoryHélie of Burgundy (born 1061)Henry, Count of PortugalTheresa, Countess of PortugalAlfonso I of PortugalSybille of NeversHugh I, Duke of BurgundySybille of Burgundy (1065-1103)Eudes I of BurgundyBertrand of ToulouseHélie of BurgundyHenry of Burgundy (1083-1131)Florine of BurgundySweyn the CrusaderMatilda of MayenneHugh II of BurgundyAremburge of BurgundyDucissa of BurgundyRaymond of GrignonClemence of BurgundyHenry III of DonzyHenry of Burgundy, Bishop of AutunHugh the RedRoger II of SicilySybille of BurgundyGauthier of BurgundyAigeline of BurgundyHugh I of VaudemontRobert of Burgundy, Bishop of AutunMatilda of BurgundyWilliam VII of MontpellierEudes II of BurgundyMarie of Champagne (1128-1190)Alice of Burgundy (1146-1192)Mahaut of LimaisRobert IV of AuvergneBeatrice d'AlbonHugh III of BurgundyAlice of LorraineAmadeo IV of SavoyMarguerite of BurgundyBeatrice of MontferratGuigues VI of ViennoisMahaut of BurgundyJohn, Count of ChalonSimon I of SemurMarie-Ducissa of BurgundyAlice of Burgundy (born 1177)Bernard VII of MercœurAlexander of MontaguBeatrice of RionInfanta Teresa, Countess of FlandersEudes III of BurgundyAlice of VergyHumbert III de ThoireBeatrice of Burgundy (born 1216)Joanna of BurgundyRaoul II of LusignanAlice of Burgundy (1204-1266)Robert I of ClermontBeatrice of Navarre, Duchess of BurgundyHugh IV of BurgundyYolande de Dreux (1212-1248)Isabelle of BurgundyRudolf I of HabsburgHugh, Viscount of AvallonMaguerite of ChalonBeatrice, Lady of GrignonHugh VIII of La MarcheAlice of Burgundy (1233-1273)Henry III of BrabantMarguerite, Lady of MolinotWilliam III of Mont-St. JeanMaud of DampierreEudes of Nevers and AuxerreJoanna of Burgundy (1253-1271)Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of SicilyCharles I of NaplesYolande of BurgundyJean Tristan of FranceRobert III of FlandersJohn of Burgundy (1231-1268)Agnes of DampierreBeatrice of Burgundy, Dame de BourbonRobert, Count of ClermontDuke of BourbonRobert II of BurgundyAgnes of France, Duchess of BurgundyJoanna of Burgundy (1290-1317)Philip VI of FranceRobert of TonnerreJoanna of TonnerreHugh V of BurgundyBlanche of Burgundy (1288–1348)Edward of SavoyMargaret of Burgundy, Queen of FranceLouis X of FranceLouis of BurgundyMatilda of HainaultEudes IV of BurgundyJeanne III, Countess of BurgundyPhilip V of FranceJeanne I, Countess of AuvergnePhilip of Burgundy, Count of AuvergneJoanna of BurgundyMarguerite of Burgundy (born 1345)Philip I of BurgundyMarguerite III of DampierreJohn II of FrancePhilip II of BurgundyAmadeo VIII of SavoyMary of Burgundy (1386-1422)Catherine of BurgundyLeopold IV, Duke of AustriaPhilip II, Count of NeversBonne of ArtoisJoanna of St. PolAntoine of BrabantElisabeth, Duchess of LuxembourgWilliam II, Duke of Bavaria-StraubingMarguerite of Burgundy (1374-1441)John the FearlessMargaret of Bavaria-StraubingAdolph I, Duke of ClevesMarie of Burgundy (1393-1463)Anne of BurgundyJohn of Lancaster, 1st Duke of BedfordAgnes of BurgundyCharles I, Duke of BourbonLouis, Dauphin of France (1397–1415)Margaret of Burgundy (1393-1441)Arthur III of BrittanyInfanta Isabel, Duchess of BurgundyPhilip III of BurgundyBonne of ArtoisMichelle of ValoisAntoine of BurgundyJoseph of BurgundyCharles I of BurgundyMargaret of YorkCatherine of ValoisIsabelle of BourbonMary of BurgundyMaximilian I of Habsburg

House of Habsburg (1482–1700)

See also: House of Habsburg

In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance.

Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire as well as the County of Charolais in France. They often used the term Burgundy to refer to it (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Circle it was grouped into), until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to the French Republic. The Habsburgs also continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois.

Picture Name Birth Became Duke Ruled until Death Notes Arms
Philip IV the Handsome
(Philippe IV le Beau)
22 July 1478 22 February 1482 25 September 1506 Eldest son of Duchess Mary by Maximilian of Habsburg
Charles II 24 February 1500 25 September 1506 16 January 1556 21 September 1558 Eldest son of Philip the Handsome. Also Charles I of Aragon and Castile, and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

House of Bourbon, claimants of the title (1682–1761)

See also: House of Bourbon

House of Habsburg (1713–1918)

House of Bourbon, revived title (1975–present)

Main article: House of Bourbon

See also


  1. ^ Duerloo, Luc (2019-01-02). "The Utility of an Empty Title. The Habsburgs as Dukes of Burgundy". Dutch Crossing. 43 (1): 63–77. doi:10.1080/03096564.2018.1559527. ISSN 0309-6564. S2CID 150856167.
  2. ^ Tabri, Edward (2004). Political culture in the early northern Renaissance : the court of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1467-1477). Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-6228-7. OCLC 56755716.

Further reading