Ghent
Gent  (Dutch)
Gand  (French)
View of Ghent from St. Michel
View of Ghent from St. Michel's Bridge
Flag of Ghent
Coat of arms of Ghent
Ghent is located in Belgium
Ghent
Ghent
Location in Belgium
Ghent in the province of East Flanders
Gent East-Flanders Belgium Map.svg
Coordinates: 51°03′13″N 03°43′31″E / 51.05361°N 3.72528°E / 51.05361; 3.72528Coordinates: 51°03′13″N 03°43′31″E / 51.05361°N 3.72528°E / 51.05361; 3.72528
CountryBelgium
CommunityFlemish Community
RegionFlemish Region
ProvinceEast Flanders
ArrondissementGhent
Government
 • Mayor (list)Mathias De Clercq (Open VLD)
 • Governing party/iesVooruit-Groen, Open VLD, CD&V
Area
 • Total156.18 km2 (60.30 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[1]
 • Total260,341
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
Postal codes
9000–9052
Area codes09
Websitewww.gent.be
Click on the map for a fullscreen view

Ghent (Dutch: Gent [ɣɛnt] (listen); French: Gand [ɡɑ̃] (listen); traditional English: Gaunt) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the third largest in the country, exceeded in size only by Brussels and Antwerp.[2] It is a port and university city.

The city originally started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300.

The municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the surrounding suburbs of Afsnee, Desteldonk, Drongen, Gentbrugge, Ledeberg, Mariakerke, Mendonk, Oostakker, Sint-Amandsberg, Sint-Denijs-Westrem, Sint-Kruis-Winkel, Wondelgem and Zwijnaarde. With 262,219 inhabitants at the beginning of 2019, Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,205 km2 (465 sq mi) and has a total population of 560,522 as of 1 January 2018, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium.[3][4] The current mayor of Ghent, Mathias De Clercq is from the liberal & democratic party Open VLD.

The ten-day-long Ghent Festival (Gentse Feesten in Dutch) is held every year and attended by about 1–1.5 million visitors.

History

See also: Timeline of Ghent

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Ghent in 1775
Ghent in 1775

Archaeological evidence shows human presence around the confluence of the Scheldt and the Leie going back as far as the Stone Age and the Iron Age.[5]

Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent, 'Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word ganda, which means confluence.[5] Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named Gontia.[6]

There are no written records of the Roman period, but archaeological research confirms that the Gent area continued to be inhabited.

When the Franks invaded the Roman territories from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century, they brought their language with them, and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch.

Middle Ages

Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: St. Peter's (Blandinium) and Saint Bavo's Abbey. Around 800, Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, appointed Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, abbot of both abbeys. The city grew from several nuclei, the abbeys, and a commercial centre. However, in 851 and 879 the city was plundered by Vikings.

De Kouter in Ghent in 1763 by Engelbert van Siclers
De Kouter in Ghent in 1763 by Engelbert van Siclers

Under the protection of the County of Flanders the city recovered and flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city in Europe north of the Alps after Paris; it was bigger than Cologne or Moscow.[7] Up to 65,000 people lived within the city walls. The belfry and the towers of the Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church are just a few examples of the skyline of the period.

The rivers flowed in an area where much land was periodically flooded. These rich grass 'meersen' ("water-meadows": a word related to the English 'marsh') were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of which was used to make cloth. Ghent was the leading city for cloth during the Middle Ages.

The wool industry, originally established at Bruges, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High Middle Ages. The mercantile zone was so highly developed that wool had to be imported from Scotland and England. This was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with Scotland and England. Ghent was the birthplace of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Trade with England (but not Scotland) suffered significantly during the Hundred Years' War.

Early modern period

The city recovered in the 15th century when Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the Dukes of Burgundy. High taxes led to a rebellion and eventually the Battle of Gavere in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of Philip the Good. Around this time the centre of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders (Bruges–Ghent) to Brabant (AntwerpBrussels), although Ghent continued to play an important role. With Bruges, the city led two revolts against Maximilian of Austria, the first monarch of the House of Habsburg to rule Flanders.

Buildings along the Leie river in the city of Ghent
Buildings along the Leie river in the city of Ghent
The Palace of Justice in Ghent, c. 1895
The Palace of Justice in Ghent, c. 1895

In 1500, Juana of Castile gave birth to Charles V, who became Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 Revolt of Ghent and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the Emperor barefoot with a noose (Dutch: "strop") around the neck; since this incident, the people of Ghent have been called "Stroppendragers" (noose bearers). Saint Bavo Abbey (not to be confused with the nearby Saint Bavo Cathedral) was abolished, torn down, and replaced with a fortress for Royal Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition.

The late 16th and 17th centuries brought devastation because of the Eighty Years' War. The war ended the role of Ghent as a centre of international importance. In 1745, the city was captured by French forces during the War of the Austrian Succession before being returned to the Empire of Austria under the House of Habsburg following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when this part of Flanders became known as the Austrian Netherlands until 1815, the exile of the French Emperor Napoleon I, the end of the French Revolutionary and later Napoleonic Wars and the peace treaties arrived at by the Congress of Vienna.

19th century

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Ghent's textile industry flourished again. Lieven Bauwens, having smuggled the industrial and factory machine plans out of England, introduced the first mechanical weaving machine on the European continent in 1800.

The Treaty of Ghent, negotiated here and adopted on Christmas Eve 1814, formally ended the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States (the North American phase of the Napoleonic Wars). After the Battle of Waterloo, Ghent and Flanders, previously ruled from the House of Habsburg in Vienna as the Austrian Netherlands, became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands with the northern Dutch for 15 years. In this period, Ghent established its own university (1816)[8] and a new connection to the sea (1824–27).

After the Belgian Revolution, with the loss of port access to the sea for more than a decade, the local economy collapsed, and the first Belgian trade union originated in Ghent. In 1913 there was a world exhibition in Ghent.[8] As a preparation for these festivities, the Sint-Pieters railway station was completed in 1912.

20th century

Ghent was occupied by the Germans in both World Wars but escaped severe destruction. The life of the people and the German invaders in Ghent during World War I is described by H. Wandt in "etappenleven te Gent".[citation needed] In World War II the city was liberated by the British 7th "Desert Rats" Armoured Division and local Belgian fighters on 6 September 1944, with the northern suburbs and the industrial area cleared over the following days by the 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division.

Geography

Municipalities
Municipalities

After the fusions of municipalities in 1965 and 1977, the city is made up of:

Neighbouring municipalities

Climate

The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Ghent has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.[9]

Climate data for Ghent (1981–2010 normals, sunshine 1984–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.8
(51.4)
14.5
(58.1)
18.1
(64.6)
20.6
(69.1)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.3
(59.5)
10.1
(50.2)
6.5
(43.7)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.8
(38.8)
6.8
(44.2)
9.4
(48.9)
13.2
(55.8)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
17.9
(64.2)
14.9
(58.8)
11.2
(52.2)
7.0
(44.6)
4.0
(39.2)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52.0)
13.2
(55.8)
12.8
(55.0)
10.2
(50.4)
7.2
(45.0)
3.9
(39.0)
1.5
(34.7)
6.4
(43.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70.7
(2.78)
56.2
(2.21)
61.5
(2.42)
50.6
(1.99)
63.1
(2.48)
74.3
(2.93)
77.4
(3.05)
84.2
(3.31)
74.2
(2.92)
81.7
(3.22)
82.7
(3.26)
82.2
(3.24)
858.8
(33.81)
Average precipitation days 12.6 10.8 12.0 10.1 11.1 10.5 10.3 10.0 10.9 12.1 13.4 13.0 136.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 79 123 172 204 196 209 196 144 118 66 50 1,618
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute[10]

Demographics

Nationalities

Ethnic background (2020)
Belgian
64.5%
Asian
12.6%
Eastern European
9.1%
Other Western European
5.0%
North African
3.4%
Sub-Saharan African
3.3%
Other
1.8%
Total non-Belgian
35.5%

Ghent is home to many people of foreign origin and immigrants. From the 2020 census,[11] it was concluded that 35.5% of the inhabitants have roots outside of Belgium and 15.3% have a non-Belgian nationality. Many neighbourhoods already have a minority-majority population, primarily in the north, east, and west of the city and some pockets in the south. Some examples are Brugse Poort, Dampoort, Rabot, Ledeberg, Nieuw Gent/UZ and the area around Sleepstraat (known for its many Turkish restaurants).

Tourism

Architecture

The Belfry of Ghent. Excerpt from the manuscript "Gand et Flandre" with chronicles, maps, miniatures and monuments. Written by Bruno Christiaenssens, 1844.[12]
The Belfry of Ghent. Excerpt from the manuscript "Gand et Flandre" with chronicles, maps, miniatures and monuments. Written by Bruno Christiaenssens, 1844.[12]
The Graslei is one of the most scenic places in Ghent's old city centre
The Graslei is one of the most scenic places in Ghent's old city centre
The Gravensteen
Historical centre of Ghent – from left to right: Old post office, Saint-Nicholas Church, Belfry, and Saint Bavo Cathedral.
Historical centre of Ghent – from left to right: Old post office, Saint-Nicholas Church, Belfry, and Saint Bavo Cathedral.
Ghent at night
Ghent at night
Riverside in Ghent
Riverside in Ghent
Sunset over the river Leie in Ghent
Sunset over the river Leie in Ghent

Much of the city's medieval architecture remains intact and is remarkably well preserved and restored. Its centre is a carfree area. Highlights are the Saint Bavo Cathedral with the Ghent Altarpiece, the belfry, the Gravensteen castle, and the splendid architecture along the old Graslei harbour. Ghent has established a blend between comfort of living and history; it is not a city-museum. The city of Ghent also houses three béguinages and numerous churches including Saint-Jacob's church, Saint-Nicolas' church, Saint Michael's church and St. Stefanus.

The well-known Ghent Altarpiece, a 15th-century painting by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck in Saint Bavo Cathedral.
The well-known Ghent Altarpiece, a 15th-century painting by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck in Saint Bavo Cathedral.

In the 19th century Ghent's most famous architect, Louis Roelandt, built the university hall Aula, the opera house, and the main courthouse. Highlights of modern architecture are the university buildings (the Boekentoren or Book Tower) by Henry Van de Velde. There are also a few theatres from diverse periods.

The beguinages, as well as the belfry and adjacent cloth hall, were recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites in 1998 and 1999.

The Zebrastraat, a social experiment in which an entirely renovated site unites living, economy, and culture, can also be found in Ghent.

Campo Santo is a famous Catholic burial site of the nobility and artists.

One of the more notable pieces of contemporary architecture in Ghent is De Krook, the new central library and media center, a collaboration between local firm Coussée and Goris and Catalan firm RCR Arquitectos.

Museums

Important museums in Ghent are the Museum voor Schone Kunsten (Museum of Fine Arts), with paintings by Hieronymus Bosch, Peter Paul Rubens, and many Flemish masters; the SMAK or Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst (City Museum for Contemporary Art), with works of the 20th century, including Joseph Beuys and Andy Warhol; and the Design Museum Gent with masterpieces of Victor Horta and Le Corbusier. The Huis van Alijn (House of the Alijn family) was originally a beguinage and is now a museum for folk art where theatre and puppet shows for children are presented. The Museum voor Industriële Archeologie en Textiel or MIAT displays the industrial strength of Ghent with recreations of workshops and stores from the 1800s and original spinning and weaving machines that remain from the time when the building was a weaving mill. The Ghent City Museum (Stadsmuseum, abbreviated STAM), is committed to recording and explaining the city's past and its inhabitants, and to preserving the present for future generations.

Restaurants and culinary traditions

In Ghent and other regions of East Flanders, bakeries sell a donut-shaped bun called a "mastel" (plural "mastellen"), which is basically a bagel. "Mastellen" are also called "Saint Hubert bread", because, on the Saint's feast day, which is 3 November, the bakers bring their batches to the early Mass to be blessed. Traditionally, it was thought that blessed mastellen immunized against rabies.

Other local delicacies are the praline chocolates from local producers such as Leonidas, the cuberdons or 'neuzekes' ('noses'), cone-shaped purple jelly-filled candies, 'babelutten' ('babblers'), hard butterscotch-like candy, and of course, on the more fiery side, the famous 'Tierenteyn', a hot but refined mustard that has some affinity to French 'Dijon' mustard.

Stoverij is a classic Flemish meat stew, preferably made with a generous addition of brown 'Trappist' (strong abbey beer) and served with French fries. 'Waterzooi' is a local stew originally made from freshwater fish caught in the rivers and creeks of Ghent, but nowadays often made with chicken instead of fish. It is usually served nouvelle-cuisine-style and supplemented by a large pot on the side.

The city promotes a meat-free day on Thursdays called Donderdag Veggiedag[13][14] with vegetarian food being promoted in public canteens for civil servants and elected councillors, in all city-funded schools, and promotion of vegetarian eating options in town (through the distribution of "veggie street maps"). This campaign is linked to the recognition of the detrimental environmental effects of meat production, which the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization has established to represent nearly one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The traditional confectionery is the cuberdon (also known as neuzekes or little noses). These are conical sweets with a soft centre, usually raspberry but other flavours can be found on the many street stalls around the city. Between 2011 and 2015 a feud between two local vendors made international news.[15]

Festivities

The city is host to some big cultural events such as the Gentse Feesten, I Love Techno in Flanders Expo, the "10 Days Off" musical festival, the International Film Festival of Ghent (with the World Soundtrack Awards) and the Gent Festival van Vlaanderen [nl]. Also, every five years, an extensive botanical exhibition (Gentse Floraliën) takes place in Flanders Expo in Ghent, attracting numerous visitors to the city.

The Festival of Flanders had its 50th celebration in 2008. In Ghent, it opens with the OdeGand City festivities that take place on the second Saturday of September. Some 50 concerts take place in diverse locations throughout the medieval inner city and some 250 international artists perform. Other major Flemish cities hold similar events, all of which form part of the Festival of Flanders (Antwerp with Laus Polyphoniae; Bruges with MAfestival; Brussels with KlaraFestival; Limburg with Basilica, Mechelen and Brabant with Novecento and Transit).

The city of Ghent will co-host the 2021 World Choir Games together with the city of Antwerp.[16] Organised by the Interkultur Foundation, the World Choir Games is the biggest choral competition and festival in the world.

Nature

The numerous parks in the city can also be considered tourist attractions. Most notably, Ghent boasts a nature reserve (Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen, 230 hectare (570 acre)[17]) and a recreation park (Blaarmeersen, 87 hectares; 215 acres).[18]

Economy

The port of Ghent, in the north of the city, is the third-largest port of Belgium. It is accessed by the Ghent–Terneuzen Canal, which ends near the Dutch port of Terneuzen on the Western Scheldt. The port houses, among others, large companies like ArcelorMittal, Volvo Cars, Volvo Trucks, Volvo Parts, Honda, and Stora Enso.

The Ghent University and several research-oriented companies, such as Ablynx, Innogenetics, Cropdesign, and Bayer Cropscience, are situated in the central and southern part of the city.

As the largest city in East Flanders, Ghent has many hospitals, schools, and shopping streets. Flanders Expo, the biggest event hall in Flanders and the second biggest in Belgium, is also located in Ghent. Tourism is becoming a major employer in the local area.[citation needed]

Transport

As one of the largest cities in Belgium, Ghent has a highly developed transport system.

Road

The R4 ringroad
The R4 ringroad

By car the city is accessible via two motorways:

In addition, Ghent also has two ringways:

Rail

Gent-Sint-Pieters railway station, Ghent

The municipality of Ghent comprises five railway stations:

Public transport

Ghent has an extensive network of public transport lines, operated by De Lijn.

Trams

A HermeLijn low-floor tram in Ghent
A HermeLijn low-floor tram in Ghent

Main article: Trams in Ghent

Buses

A Van Hool articulated bus in Ghent

Apart from the city buses mentioned above, Ghent also has numerous regional bus lines connecting it to towns and villages across the province of East Flanders. All of these buses stop in at least one of the city's regional bus hubs at either Sint-Pieters Station, Dampoort Station, Zuid or Rabot.

International buses connecting Ghent to other European destinations are usually found at the Dampoort Station. A couple of private bus companies such as Eurolines, Megabus and Flixbus operate from the Dampoort bus hub.

Buses to and from Belgium's first (Brussels Airport) and second airport (Brussels South Charleroi Airport) are operated by Flibco, and can be found at the rear exit of the Sint-Pieters Station.

Cycling

Ghent has the largest designated cyclist area in Europe, with nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of cycle paths and more than 700 one-way streets, where bikes are allowed to go against the traffic. It also boasts Belgium's first bicycle boulevard, where cars are considered 'guests' and must stay behind cyclists.[citation needed] In 2017 the city restricted car traffic circulation which boosts cycling.[20] More cyclists means a higher demand for bicycle parking stations. In 2010, the plans to renovate Gent-Sint-Pieters railway station, included 10,000 bicycle parking spots.[21] In 2020 several sections of the underground parking facilities have been built, and the targets have been adjusted to a total of 17,000 parking spots.[22]

Sports

Ghelamco Arena

In the Belgian first football division Ghent is represented by K.A.A. Gent, who became Belgian football champions for the first time in its history in 2015. Another Ghent football club is KRC Gent-Zeehaven, playing in the Belgian fourth division. A football match at the 1920 Summer Olympics was held in Ghent.[23]

The Six Days of Ghent, a six-day track cycling race, is held annually, taking place in the Kuipke velodrome in Ghent. In road cycling, the city hosts the start and finish of the Omloop Het Nieuwsblad, the traditional opening race of the cobbled classics season.[24] It also lends its name to another cobbled classic, Gent–Wevelgem, although the race now starts in the nearby city of Deinze.[25]

The city hosts an annual athletics IAAF event in the Flanders Sports Arena: the Indoor Flanders meeting where two-time Olympic champion Hicham El Guerrouj set an indoor world record of 3:48.45 in the mile run in 1997.[26]

The Flanders Sports Arena was host to the 2015 Davis Cup Final between Belgium and Great Britain.[27]

Notable people

Saint Bavo
Saint Bavo
Emperor Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500
Emperor Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
Statue of Jacob van Artevelde on the Vrijdagmarkt in Ghent
Statue of Jacob van Artevelde on the Vrijdagmarkt in Ghent

See also: List of people from Ghent

Jacques Rogge, 2014
Jacques Rogge, 2014

Sport

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium

Twin towns – sister cities

Ghent is twinned with:[42]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Wettelijke Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2018". Statbel. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Medieval and magical, vibrant and edgy – the Belgian city is a sensory overload". The Guardian. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  3. ^ Statistics Belgium; Werkelijke bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2008 (excel-file) Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  4. ^ Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Ghent is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 278,457 inhabitants (1 January 2008). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 455,302. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 594,582. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  5. ^ a b "History of Gent". gent.be. Archived from the original on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2006.
  6. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites, McFarland, 2006, p. 144.
  7. ^ Nicholas, David. The Domestic Life of a Medieval City: Women, Children and the Family in Fourteenth Century Ghent. p. 1.
  8. ^ a b Ghent over the centuries: Concise history of a stubborn city
  9. ^ "Climate Summary for Ghent, Belgium". weatherbase.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  10. ^ "Klimaatstatistieken van de Belgische gemeenten" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Jive".
  12. ^ "Gand et Flandre : chroniques inédites, avec cartes, miniatures, monuments, armories, scels, et aultres choses historiques & tant curieuses". lib.ugent.be. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  13. ^ "Ghent's veggie day: for English speaking visitors" on Vegetarisme.be
  14. ^ "Belgian city plans 'veggie' days" on BBC News (12 May 2009).
  15. ^ Van De Poel, Nana (22 July 2017). "A Tale of Two Cuberdon Vendors: The Story Behind Ghent's 'Little Nose War'".
  16. ^ "World Choir Games kick off in Flanders". INTERKULTUR. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  17. ^ "Nature Domain De Bourgoyen | Visit Gent". visitgent.be. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Blaarmeersen Sport and Recreation Park – Sightseeing in Ghent". inyourpocket.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  19. ^ https://static.delijn.be/Images/LCD%20LW%20einde%20Bravoko_tcm3-16462.jpg[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ Youtube: Streetfilms, 2-1-2020: The Innovative Way Ghent, Belgium Removed Cars From The City
  21. ^ In Dutch: Project Gent Sint-Pieters, nieuwsbericht 9 november 2016:2000 bijkomende fietsenstallingen Archived 28 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ In Dutch: Project Gent Sint-Pieters: Voorstelling project, Stationsproject: Fiets, site bezocht op 28-1-2020
  23. ^ FIFA Confederations Cup – Olympic Football Tournament Antwerp 1920 – FIFA.com Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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  25. ^ Beaudin, Matthew (23 March 2013). "Storied Ghent-Wevelgem poised for a brutal edition". VeloNews. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  26. ^ "World records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  27. ^ "Ghent to host 2015 Davis Cup Final". daviscup.com. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
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  39. ^ "Goes, Hugo van der" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 181.
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Further reading