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Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia[1]
Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten
Rinca, Lesser Sunda Islands
Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan
Mount Rinjani summit
Gili Meno Beach, Lombok
Puncak Jaya region icecap, Papua

The climate of Indonesia is almost entirely tropical. The uniformly warm waters that make up 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that temperatures on land remain fairly constant, with the coastal plains averaging 28 °C (82 °F), the inland and mountain areas averaging 26 °C (79 °F), and the higher mountain regions, 23 °C (73 °F). Temperature varies little from season to season, and Indonesia experiences relatively little change in the length of daylight hours from one season to the next; the difference between the longest day and the shortest day of the year is only forty-eight minutes. This allows crops to be grown all year round.[2]

The main variable of Indonesia's climate is not temperature or air pressure, but rainfall. The area's relative humidity ranges between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through September and from the northwest in December through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners in Indonesian waters; the major danger comes from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits.

Indonesia experiences a number of climates, mostly tropical rainforest (highest precipitation), followed by tropical monsoon and tropical savanna (lowest precipitation).[a] However, oceanic climates and subtropical highland climates are found in a number of high-altitude regions in Indonesia, mostly between 1,500 and 3,500 metres (4,900 and 11,500 ft) above sea level. Regions that are above this level (mostly in the Papuan highlands) fall into the tundra climate category and the subpolar oceanic category.[3]

Monsoons

The extreme variations in rainfall are linked with the Australian-Indonesian monsoons. Generally speaking, there is a dry season (April to September), influenced by the Australian continental air masses, and a rainy season (October to March) that is caused by Asia and Pacific Ocean air masses. Local wind patterns, however, can greatly modify these general wind patterns, especially in the islands of central Maluku—Seram, Ambon, and Buru. This oscillating annual pattern of wind and rain is related to Indonesia's geographical location as an isthmus between two large continents. In September and May, high pressure over the Gobi desert moves winds from that continent toward the northwest. As the winds reach the equator, the Earth's rotation causes them to veer off their original course in a northeasterly direction toward the Southeast Asian mainland. During January and February, a corresponding low pressure system over Asia causes the pattern to reverse. The result is a monsoon which is augmented by humid breezes from the Indian Ocean, producing significant amounts of rain throughout many parts of the Malay Archipelago. See also monsoon trough.

Prevailing winds

Prevailing wind patterns interact with local topographic conditions to produce significant variations in rainfall throughout the archipelago. In general, western and northern parts of Indonesia experience the most precipitation, since the north- and westward-moving monsoon clouds are heavy with moisture by the time they reach these more distant regions. Western Sumatra, Java, Bali, the interiors of Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua are the most predictably damp regions of Indonesia, with rainfall measuring more than 2,000 millimeters (78.7 in) per year. In part, this moisture originates on high mountain peaks that trap damp air. The city of Bogor, near Jakarta, lays claim to having the world's highest number of thunderstorm days per year—322. On the other hand, the islands closest to Australia—including Nusa Tenggara and the eastern tip of Java—tend to be dry, with some areas experiencing less than 1,000 millimeters (39.4 in) per year. To complicate the situation, some of the islands of the southern Malukus experience highly unpredictable rainfall patterns, depending on local wind currents.

Temperature

See also: Climate

Although air temperature changes little from season to season or from one region to the next, cooler temperatures prevail at higher elevations. In general, temperatures drop approximately 1 °C per 90-meter increase in elevation from sea level with some high-altitude interior mountain regions experiencing night frosts. The highest mountain ranges in Papua are permanently capped with snow.

Climate data for Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
33.9
(93.0)
35.6
(96.1)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 28.9
(84.0)
28.9
(84.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88.0)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
29.4
(84.9)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.3
(73.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 300.7
(11.84)
294.7
(11.60)
210.8
(8.30)
147.3
(5.80)
132.1
(5.20)
96.5
(3.80)
63.5
(2.50)
43.2
(1.70)
66.0
(2.60)
110.8
(4.36)
142.2
(5.60)
208.2
(8.20)
1,816
(71.5)
Average rainy days 24 23 19 15 12 9 6 5 6 10 14 18 161
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975
Source 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[4]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)[5]
Climate data for Palembang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.5
(88.7)
32.1
(89.8)
32.4
(90.3)
31.9
(89.4)
31.8
(89.2)
32.1
(89.8)
32.5
(90.5)
32.6
(90.7)
31.9
(89.4)
31.1
(88.0)
31.8
(89.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.7
(81.9)
28.0
(82.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
27.5
(81.5)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
27.3
(81.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.4
(74.1)
23.6
(74.5)
22.9
(73.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 277
(10.9)
262
(10.3)
329
(13.0)
263
(10.4)
213
(8.4)
122
(4.8)
104
(4.1)
107
(4.2)
120
(4.7)
186
(7.3)
274
(10.8)
366
(14.4)
2,623
(103.3)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 169 118 130 150 174 127 131 149 118 160 132 120 1,678
Source 1: Climate-Data.org[6]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst[7][8]
Climate data for Dieng Plateau (2062 m)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.5
(65.3)
18.6
(65.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
18.5
(65.3)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
18.8
(65.8)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
14.3
(57.7)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
14.3
(57.7)
13.8
(56.8)
13.2
(55.8)
12.8
(55.0)
13.6
(56.5)
14.2
(57.6)
14.7
(58.5)
14.4
(57.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
10.1
(50.2)
10.3
(50.5)
10.4
(50.7)
10.1
(50.2)
9.2
(48.6)
8.3
(46.9)
7.6
(45.7)
8.7
(47.7)
9.6
(49.3)
10.3
(50.5)
10.1
(50.2)
9.6
(49.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 370
(14.6)
430
(16.9)
434
(17.1)
249
(9.8)
153
(6.0)
83
(3.3)
53
(2.1)
35
(1.4)
57
(2.2)
170
(6.7)
230
(9.1)
388
(15.3)
2,652
(104.5)
Source: [9]
Climate data for Denpasar, Bali
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.7
(89.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.7
(87.3)
29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.6
(88.9)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
25.8
(78.4)
26.3
(79.3)
26.9
(80.4)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.8
(71.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 323
(12.7)
251
(9.9)
199
(7.8)
89
(3.5)
86
(3.4)
75
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
47
(1.9)
46
(1.8)
117
(4.6)
162
(6.4)
279
(11.0)
1,741
(68.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.1 174.0 210.7 224.7 242.9 228.1 246.8 261.7 251.3 252.5 224.4 176.4 2,666.6
Average ultraviolet index 13 13 13 13 11 9 9 12 13 13 13 13 12
Source 1: [10]
Source 2: WeatherOnline (2000 - 2019 sunshine data)[11]
Climate data for Pontianak
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
31.8
(89.2)
31.9
(89.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.4
(90.3)
32.3
(90.1)
31.9
(89.4)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88.0)
30.8
(87.4)
31.8
(89.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.8
(82.0)
28.1
(82.6)
28.0
(82.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81.0)
27.6
(81.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 266
(10.5)
183
(7.2)
205
(8.1)
264
(10.4)
230
(9.1)
173
(6.8)
148
(5.8)
148
(5.8)
194
(7.6)
316
(12.4)
393
(15.5)
376
(14.8)
2,896
(114)
Average rainy days 18 15 17 20 18 14 13 13 16 20 21 20 205
Average relative humidity (%) 88 87 87 89 87 85 83 81 86 89 91 89 87
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.1 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.2 8.7 8.1 7.7 7.8 8.4
Source: Climate-Data.org[12]
Climate data for Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.7
(78.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.9
(71.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 427
(16.8)
361
(14.2)
338
(13.3)
266
(10.5)
268
(10.6)
277
(10.9)
170
(6.7)
121
(4.8)
149
(5.9)
256
(10.1)
290
(11.4)
365
(14.4)
3,288
(129.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 129 119 155 168 168 144 176 210 179 172 157 152 1,929
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[13][14][15][16][17]
Climate data for Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia (Extremes: 1912-1936)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
(95.9)
35.5
(95.9)
35.0
(95.0)
33.9
(93.0)
32.3
(90.1)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.5
(86.9)
31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.5
(95.9)
35.5
(95.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
31.1
(88.0)
30.7
(87.3)
29.8
(85.6)
28.5
(83.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
29.1
(84.4)
30.3
(86.5)
31.1
(88.0)
31.5
(88.7)
30.0
(86.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
25.6
(78.1)
25.0
(77.0)
25.1
(77.2)
25.7
(78.3)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.3
(79.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
23.3
(73.9)
23.8
(74.8)
24.1
(75.4)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
21.6
(70.9)
20.0
(68.0)
20.5
(68.9)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
20.0
(68.0)
18.9
(66.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 127
(5.0)
119
(4.7)
135
(5.3)
279
(11.0)
516
(20.3)
638
(25.1)
602
(23.7)
401
(15.8)
241
(9.5)
155
(6.1)
114
(4.5)
132
(5.2)
3,459
(136.2)
Average rainy days 12 13 12 12 19 21 22 21 16 10 10 13 181
Average relative humidity (%) 79 80 83 85 87 86 85 84 83 81 80 82 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192 186 211 177 158 120 115 112 150 192 219 202 2,034
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[18]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute[19]
Climate data for Tembagapura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
22.5
(72.5)
21.9
(71.4)
20.7
(69.3)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
21.0
(69.8)
22.4
(72.3)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.0
(71.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
16.4
(61.5)
15.9
(60.6)
15.8
(60.4)
16.3
(61.3)
17.2
(63.0)
17.6
(63.7)
17.8
(64.0)
17.1
(62.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
12.5
(54.5)
12.8
(55.0)
12.7
(54.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
11.7
(53.1)
11.6
(52.9)
12.0
(53.6)
12.1
(53.8)
12.5
(54.5)
12.3
(54.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 248
(9.8)
306
(12.0)
266
(10.5)
272
(10.7)
273
(10.7)
292
(11.5)
299
(11.8)
296
(11.7)
277
(10.9)
248
(9.8)
221
(8.7)
222
(8.7)
3,220
(126.8)
Source: Climate-Data.org[20]
Climate data for Jayapura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.9
(87.6)
30.5
(86.9)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
30.7
(87.3)
30.7
(87.3)
31.1
(88.0)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
22.8
(73.0)
22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73.0)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 288
(11.3)
272
(10.7)
315
(12.4)
209
(8.2)
161
(6.3)
173
(6.8)
126
(5.0)
158
(6.2)
154
(6.1)
143
(5.6)
182
(7.2)
244
(9.6)
2,425
(95.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org[21]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The tropical monsoon climate predominantly lies along Java's coastal north, Sulawesi's coastal south and east, and Bali, while the tropical savanna climate lies in isolated parts of Central Java, lowland East Java, coastal southern Papua and smaller islands to the east of Lombok.

References

  1. ^ Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  2. ^ "Indonesia". Weatheronline. Retrieved 2009-09-06.
  3. ^ "Climate: Indonesia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Indonesia – Halim Perdanakus". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  5. ^ "Stations Number 96745" (PDF). Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  6. ^ "Climate Palembang: Temperature, Climate graph, Climate table for Palembang - Climate-Data.org". climate-data.org.
  7. ^ "Sunshine duration 1961-1990". Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Stations list CLIMAT data". Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Dieng climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Dieng weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2021-12-25.
  10. ^ "Denpasar Climate". Archived from the original on 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2023-01-06.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  11. ^ "Total Hours of Sunshine - Denpasar - Climate Robot Indonesia". www.weatheronline.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  12. ^ "Climate: Pontianak". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  13. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Klimatafel von Ambon / Insel Ambon, Molukken / Indonesien" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  19. ^ "STATIONSNUMMER 97724" (PDF). Danish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  20. ^ "Climate: Tembagapura". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  21. ^ "Climate: Jayapura". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 24 July 2020.