Köppen climate types of Russia
Köppen climate types of Russia

The climate of Russia is formed under the European peninsula. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the best extreme southwest. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow of cold air masses from the Arctic Ocean and the plain of the south and north makes the country open to Pacific and Atlantic influences.[1][2]

Dynamics

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See also: Climate change in Russia

Due to the moderating influence of the Atlantic or Pacific, most areas of the country in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East, including the cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, experience a humid continental climate. (Köppen's Dfb, Dfa, Dwb, Dwa types). Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia between the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd) in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −69 °C or −92.2 °F), and more moderate (Dwc, Dfc) elsewhere.

The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Arctic islands, have a polar climate (ice cap climate (EF) on some of the islands and tundra climate (ET) elsewhere). A small portion of the Black Sea coast, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate (Köppen's Cfa) with unusually wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East (Dwa, Dwb, Dwc, Dwd types), while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate (BSk). The city of Kaliningrad has an Oceanic climate (Cfb) due to its relatively mild (avg. above -3C) winters and cool summers.

About 65% of the Russian territory is underlain by permafrost.

Temperature records

Climate data for Russia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
28.3
(82.9)
33.5
(92.3)
36.8
(98.2)
39.0
(102.2)
43.7
(110.7)
45.4
(113.7)
45.0
(113.0)
41.5
(106.7)
36.3
(97.3)
31.0
(87.8)
28.1
(82.6)
45.4
(113.7)
Record low °C (°F) −71.2
(−96.2)
−67.8
(−90.0)
−60.6
(−77.1)
−57.2
(−71.0)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−17.1
(1.2)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−48.7
(−55.7)
−58.5
(−73.3)
−64.5
(−84.1)
−71.2
(−96.2)
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Monitor[3] — Meteo.ru - Baseline Climatological Data Sets[4]
Source 2: NOAA NCDC - Climate Data Online[5]

Extreme highs

Month Temperature Date Location
January 26.7 °C (80.1 °F) 4 January 1979 Derbent, Dagestan Republic
February 28.3 °C (82.9 °F) 28 February 2020 Kasumkent, Dagestan Republic
March 33.5 °C (92.3 °F) 29 March 1901 Maykop, Adygea Republic
April 36.8 °C (98.2 °F) 12 April 1998 Armavir, Krasnodar Krai
May 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) 30 May 2007 Verkhny Baskunchak, Astrakhan Oblast
June 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) 22 June 2015 Alexandrov Gay, Saratov Oblast
July 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) 12 July 2010 Utta, Kalmykia Republic
August 45 °C (113 °F) 7 August 1940 Lake Elton, Volgograd Oblast
September 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) 2 September 2010 Lake Elton, Volgograd Oblast;
Kalininsk, Saratov Oblast
October 36.3 °C (97.3 °F) 2 October 1999 Armavir, Krasnodar Krai;
Novoalexandrovsk, Saratov Oblast
November 31.0 °C (87.8 °F) 10 November 2016 Shatoy, Chechen Republic
December 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) 10 December 1998 Buynaksk, Dagestan Republic

Extreme lows

Month Temperature Date Location
January −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) 26 January 1926 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
February −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) 5,7 February 1892;
6 February 1933
Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic;
Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
March −60.6 °C (−77.1 °F) 10 March 1954 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
April −57.2 °C (−71.0 °F) 2 April 1896 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic
May −35.8 °C (−32.4 °F) 2 May 1964 Ilirney, Chukotka AO
June −22.2 °C (−8.0 °F) 2 June 1964 Strait of Sterlegova, Krasnoyarsk Krai
July −9.3 °C (15.3 °F) 15 July 1966 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
August −17.1 °C (1.2 °F) 31 August 1969
September −27.6 °C (−17.7 °F) 29 September 1965 Ilirney, Chukotka AO
October −48.7 °C (−55.7 °F) 29 October 1915 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic
November −58.5 °C (−73.3 °F) 29 November 1960 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
December −64.5 °C (−84.1 °F) 22 December 1902 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic

Averages and records by city

Climate data for Arkhangelsk (1991–2020, extremes 1881–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
5.2
(41.4)
12.3
(54.1)
25.3
(77.5)
32.1
(89.8)
33.0
(91.4)
34.4
(93.9)
33.4
(92.1)
27.7
(81.9)
18.3
(64.9)
10.0
(50.0)
5.8
(42.4)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) −8.4
(16.9)
−7.1
(19.2)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.6
(42.1)
13.1
(55.6)
18.7
(65.7)
22.1
(71.8)
18.6
(65.5)
12.8
(55.0)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
−5.3
(22.5)
6.0
(42.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−10.7
(12.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
0.8
(33.4)
7.5
(45.5)
13.1
(55.6)
16.5
(61.7)
13.6
(56.5)
8.8
(47.8)
2.5
(36.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
1.9
(35.4)
Average low °C (°F) −15.2
(4.6)
−14.4
(6.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−3.4
(25.9)
2.5
(36.5)
7.7
(45.9)
11.5
(52.7)
9.3
(48.7)
5.6
(42.1)
0.4
(32.7)
−6.7
(19.9)
−11.3
(11.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
Record low °C (°F) −45.2
(−49.4)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−37.1
(−34.8)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−43.2
(−45.8)
−45.2
(−49.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42
(1.7)
32
(1.3)
31
(1.2)
32
(1.3)
48
(1.9)
65
(2.6)
75
(3.0)
82
(3.2)
62
(2.4)
68
(2.7)
51
(2.0)
48
(1.9)
636
(25.0)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 36
(14)
45
(18)
48
(19)
19
(7.5)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
11
(4.3)
24
(9.4)
48
(19)
Average rainy days 2 2 4 10 17 17 18 19 22 19 9 4 143
Average snowy days 27 26 23 13 6 1 0 0.03 1 13 25 28 163
Average relative humidity (%) 85 84 80 72 68 69 75 81 85 88 89 87 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 13 56 117 193 262 298 301 203 116 59 19 6 1,643
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[6]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[7]
Climate data for Chita (1991–2020, extremes 1890–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
7.4
(45.3)
18.3
(64.9)
29.3
(84.7)
34.6
(94.3)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
40.6
(105.1)
30.9
(87.6)
22.7
(72.9)
12.7
(54.9)
5.0
(41.0)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −17.2
(1.0)
−9.5
(14.9)
0.0
(32.0)
9.7
(49.5)
18.2
(64.8)
24.9
(76.8)
26.7
(80.1)
23.7
(74.7)
16.8
(62.2)
7.0
(44.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−15.7
(3.7)
6.6
(43.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24.6
(−12.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−8.1
(17.4)
2.2
(36.0)
10.2
(50.4)
17.1
(62.8)
19.5
(67.1)
16.6
(61.9)
9.2
(48.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
−12.5
(9.5)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
Average low °C (°F) −30.4
(−22.7)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
2.2
(36.0)
9.2
(48.6)
12.7
(54.9)
10.4
(50.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−6.0
(21.2)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−7.6
(18.3)
Record low °C (°F) −49.6
(−57.3)
−48.0
(−54.4)
−45.3
(−49.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−13.3
(8.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−9.2
(15.4)
−10.8
(12.6)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−41.1
(−42.0)
−47.8
(−54.0)
−49.6
(−57.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
12
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
59
(2.3)
88
(3.5)
85
(3.3)
41
(1.6)
10
(0.4)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
341
(13.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 7
(2.8)
7
(2.8)
2
(0.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
6
(2.4)
7
(2.8)
Average rainy days 0 0 1 5 11 16 18 17 13 5 0.2 0 86
Average snowy days 15 9 8 7 3 0.03 0 0 1 7 11 15 76
Average relative humidity (%) 76 72 59 47 46 58 68 73 66 61 70 77 64
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139 179 239 242 277 279 247 226 212 190 134 108 2,472
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[8]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[9]
Climate data for Irkutsk (1991–2020, extremes 1820–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
10.2
(50.4)
20.0
(68.0)
29.2
(84.6)
34.5
(94.1)
35.6
(96.1)
37.2
(99.0)
34.7
(94.5)
29.7
(85.5)
25.6
(78.1)
14.4
(57.9)
5.3
(41.5)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) −12.7
(9.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
1.2
(34.2)
10.5
(50.9)
18.1
(64.6)
23.8
(74.8)
25.7
(78.3)
22.9
(73.2)
16.1
(61.0)
7.9
(46.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
−10.8
(12.6)
7.7
(45.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −17.6
(0.3)
−14.1
(6.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
3.6
(38.5)
10.4
(50.7)
16.4
(61.5)
19.0
(66.2)
16.4
(61.5)
9.5
(49.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−7.6
(18.3)
−15.4
(4.3)
1.4
(34.5)
Average low °C (°F) −21.4
(−6.5)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−11.1
(12.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.7
(38.7)
10.1
(50.2)
13.5
(56.3)
11.4
(52.5)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
Record low °C (°F) −49.7
(−57.5)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−37.3
(−35.1)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−14.3
(6.3)
−6
(21)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−11.9
(10.6)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−46.3
(−51.3)
−49.7
(−57.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.6)
9
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
21
(0.8)
36
(1.4)
69
(2.7)
107
(4.2)
96
(3.8)
53
(2.1)
21
(0.8)
20
(0.8)
19
(0.7)
477
(18.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 24
(9.4)
28
(11)
18
(7.1)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
8
(3.1)
18
(7.1)
28
(11)
Average rainy days 0 0.04 1 9 15 18 18 17 16 9 2 0 105
Average snowy days 21 16 13 11 3 0.2 0 0 2 10 20 23 119
Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 65 56 55 67 74 78 76 73 79 85 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 149 207 223 266 264 243 218 182 152 93 62 2,142
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[10]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[11]
Climate data for Kaliningrad (1991–2020, extremes 1848–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
16.9
(62.4)
23.0
(73.4)
28.5
(83.3)
30.6
(87.1)
34.0
(93.2)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
33.8
(92.8)
26.4
(79.5)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
2.1
(35.8)
6.1
(43.0)
13.1
(55.6)
18.2
(64.8)
21.3
(70.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
18.4
(65.1)
12.2
(54.0)
6.2
(43.2)
2.6
(36.7)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.4
(36.3)
7.9
(46.2)
12.7
(54.9)
16.1
(61.0)
18.5
(65.3)
18.1
(64.6)
13.5
(56.3)
8.4
(47.1)
3.9
(39.0)
0.4
(32.7)
8.3
(46.9)
Average low °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.4
(38.1)
7.5
(45.5)
11.3
(52.3)
13.9
(57.0)
13.3
(55.9)
9.4
(48.9)
5.2
(41.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
4.7
(40.5)
Record low °C (°F) −32.5
(−26.5)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.5
(40.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−11.2
(11.8)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−33.3
(−27.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68
(2.7)
54
(2.1)
49
(1.9)
38
(1.5)
52
(2.0)
69
(2.7)
91
(3.6)
91
(3.6)
73
(2.9)
86
(3.4)
76
(3.0)
69
(2.7)
816
(32.1)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 7
(2.8)
7
(2.8)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
5
(2.0)
7
(2.8)
Average rainy days 14 13 14 14 14 16 15 16 17 18 18 16 185
Average snowy days 15 15 10 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 64
Average relative humidity (%) 85 83 78 72 71 74 75 77 81 83 86 87 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 61 120 171 253 264 257 228 158 96 38 26 1,707
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[12]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[13]
Climate data for Khabarovsk (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1953–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
6.3
(43.3)
17.0
(62.6)
28.6
(83.5)
31.5
(88.7)
36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
35.6
(96.1)
29.8
(85.6)
26.4
(79.5)
15.5
(59.9)
6.6
(43.9)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) −14.9
(5.2)
−9.9
(14.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
10.5
(50.9)
19.2
(66.6)
23.8
(74.8)
26.8
(80.2)
24.9
(76.8)
19.7
(67.5)
10.6
(51.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−13.6
(7.5)
7.8
(46.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.2
(−2.6)
−14.9
(5.2)
−5.9
(21.4)
4.8
(40.6)
12.9
(55.2)
18.0
(64.4)
21.4
(70.5)
19.9
(67.8)
14.1
(57.4)
5.4
(41.7)
−6.9
(19.6)
−17.4
(0.7)
2.7
(36.9)
Average low °C (°F) −23.1
(−9.6)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
7.3
(45.1)
12.8
(55.0)
16.8
(62.2)
15.7
(60.3)
9.4
(48.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−10.4
(13.3)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
(−40.0)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
4.9
(40.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−36.7
(−34.1)
−40.0
(−40.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
(0.5)
12
(0.5)
22
(0.9)
37
(1.5)
70
(2.8)
84
(3.3)
137
(5.4)
143
(5.6)
85
(3.3)
48
(1.9)
26
(1.0)
19
(0.7)
696
(27.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 14
(5.5)
16
(6.3)
12
(4.7)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
5
(2.0)
10
(3.9)
16
(6.3)
Average rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Average snowy days 14 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 0.1 4 12 14 73
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147 181 231 213 242 262 248 217 212 189 159 145 2,446
Source 1: Погода и Климат[14]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[15]
Climate data for Krasnoyarsk (1991–2020, extremes 1891–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
8.5
(47.3)
18.5
(65.3)
31.4
(88.5)
34.0
(93.2)
34.8
(94.6)
36.4
(97.5)
35.1
(95.2)
31.3
(88.3)
24.5
(76.1)
13.6
(56.5)
8.6
(47.5)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
0.7
(33.3)
9.3
(48.7)
17.1
(62.8)
23.5
(74.3)
25.2
(77.4)
22.2
(72.0)
14.6
(58.3)
6.7
(44.1)
−3.6
(25.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
7.3
(45.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.6
(3.9)
−12.3
(9.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
3.4
(38.1)
10.4
(50.7)
16.9
(62.4)
19.1
(66.4)
16.1
(61.0)
9.1
(48.4)
2.3
(36.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−13.2
(8.2)
2.0
(35.6)
Average low °C (°F) −19.2
(−2.6)
−16.3
(2.7)
−9.4
(15.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.7
(40.5)
11.1
(52.0)
13.7
(56.7)
11.2
(52.2)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
−10.7
(12.7)
−16.9
(1.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
Record low °C (°F) −52.8
(−63.0)
−41.6
(−42.9)
−38.7
(−37.7)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−11.2
(11.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−42.3
(−44.1)
−47.0
(−52.6)
−52.8
(−63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.7)
15
(0.6)
19
(0.7)
29
(1.1)
48
(1.9)
66
(2.6)
70
(2.8)
76
(3.0)
55
(2.2)
42
(1.7)
39
(1.5)
31
(1.2)
507
(20.0)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 16
(6.3)
16
(6.3)
13
(5.1)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
7
(2.8)
14
(5.5)
16
(6.3)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.4 2 9 17 19 18 18 19 13 4 0.3 120
Average snowy days 24 21 17 14 4 0.1 0 0.03 2 14 23 25 144
Average relative humidity (%) 73 70 64 58 54 64 72 76 75 71 74 73 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 63 100 171 216 251 280 281 237 160 111 58 41 1,969
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[16]
Source 2: NOAA (sun only 1961–1990)[17]
Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1991–2020, records 1879–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.3
(46.9)
19.7
(67.5)
28.9
(84.0)
33.2
(91.8)
34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
24.0
(75.2)
16.2
(61.2)
9.6
(49.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3
(27)
3.0
(37.4)
11.7
(53.1)
19.0
(66.2)
22.4
(72.3)
24.7
(76.5)
22.7
(72.9)
16.4
(61.5)
8.9
(48.0)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.9
(44.4)
13.6
(56.5)
17.3
(63.1)
19.7
(67.5)
17.6
(63.7)
11.9
(53.4)
5.8
(42.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
6.3
(43.3)
Average low °C (°F) −8.7
(16.3)
−8.8
(16.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.3
(36.1)
8.1
(46.6)
12.2
(54.0)
14.8
(58.6)
13.0
(55.4)
8.0
(46.4)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
2.6
(36.7)
Record low °C (°F) −42.1
(−43.8)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−32.4
(−26.3)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−42.1
(−43.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53
(2.1)
44
(1.7)
39
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
61
(2.4)
78
(3.1)
84
(3.3)
78
(3.1)
66
(2.6)
70
(2.8)
52
(2.0)
51
(2.0)
713
(28.1)
Average rainy days 8 6 9 15 16 16 15 16 16 17 13 8 155
Average snowy days 25 23 15 6 1 0 0 0 0.3 5 17 24 116
Average relative humidity (%) 85 81 74 68 67 72 74 78 82 83 86 86 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1,731
Percent possible sunshine 14 27 35 40 53 53 52 51 38 24 13 8 34
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 1 1 0 3
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net,[18][19] Thermograph.ru,[20] Meteoweb.ru (sunshine hours)[21]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[22]
Climate data for Murmansk (1991–2020, extremes 1918–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
17.6
(63.7)
29.4
(84.9)
30.8
(87.4)
32.9
(91.2)
30.2
(86.4)
24.2
(75.6)
15.0
(59.0)
9.6
(49.3)
7.2
(45.0)
32.9
(91.2)
Average high °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.4
(20.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
2.9
(37.2)
8.4
(47.1)
13.8
(56.8)
17.7
(63.9)
15.3
(59.5)
10.7
(51.3)
3.6
(38.5)
−1.8
(28.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
4.3
(39.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.6
(14.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
4.6
(40.3)
9.4
(48.9)
13.2
(55.8)
11.5
(52.7)
7.6
(45.7)
1.6
(34.9)
−4.0
(24.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
1.1
(34.0)
Average low °C (°F) −12.7
(9.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−8.2
(17.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.9
(42.6)
9.6
(49.3)
8.3
(46.9)
5.1
(41.2)
−0.3
(31.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−9.6
(14.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F) −39.4
(−38.9)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−10.3
(13.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.1
(13.8)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−32.2
(−26.0)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−39.4
(−38.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
(1.3)
24
(0.9)
29
(1.1)
29
(1.1)
37
(1.5)
56
(2.2)
66
(2.6)
71
(2.8)
54
(2.1)
56
(2.2)
36
(1.4)
37
(1.5)
529
(20.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 26
(10)
28
(11)
30
(12)
19
(7.5)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
11
(4.3)
19
(7.5)
30
(12)
Average rainy days 2 2 3 9 18 22 22 22 24 17 5 3 149
Average snowy days 27 26 24 19 14 4 0.03 0.1 2 16 24 27 183
Average relative humidity (%) 84 83 79 73 72 70 75 79 80 83 86 85 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 3 33 122 182 192 228 236 154 89 47 7 0 1,293
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[23]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[24]
Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod (1991–2020, extremes 1835–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
7.2
(45.0)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.2
(100.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.8
(56.8)
8.5
(47.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.5
(34.7)
11.0
(51.8)
19.3
(66.7)
22.7
(72.9)
24.9
(76.8)
22.6
(72.7)
16.2
(61.2)
8.3
(46.9)
0.1
(32.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
9.3
(48.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−8.0
(17.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
6.1
(43.0)
13.5
(56.3)
17.3
(63.1)
19.7
(67.5)
17.4
(63.3)
11.7
(53.1)
5.0
(41.0)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.7
(19.9)
5.3
(41.5)
Average low °C (°F) −11.1
(12.0)
−10.7
(12.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
2.2
(36.0)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
15.1
(59.2)
13.2
(55.8)
8.3
(46.9)
2.5
(36.5)
−4.0
(24.8)
−8.9
(16.0)
1.9
(35.4)
Record low °C (°F) −41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
−16.0
(3.2)
−30.9
(−23.6)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 50
(2.0)
40
(1.6)
40
(1.6)
40
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
73
(2.9)
75
(3.0)
68
(2.7)
59
(2.3)
67
(2.6)
52
(2.0)
59
(2.3)
665
(26.2)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 31
(12)
43
(17)
40
(16)
5
(2.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
6
(2.4)
16
(6.3)
43
(17)
Average rainy days 5 4 5 13 17 19 18 18 18 18 10 6 151
Average snowy days 28 24 18 7 1 0.1 0 0 1 8 20 26 133
Average relative humidity (%) 86 81 74 64 60 69 70 74 79 82 87 86 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43 79 145 196 275 287 280 238 152 81 38 25 1,839
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[25]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[26]
Climate data for Saint Petersburg (1991–2020; extremes 1743–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
10.2
(50.4)
15.3
(59.5)
25.3
(77.5)
33.0
(91.4)
35.9
(96.6)
35.3
(95.5)
37.1
(98.8)
30.4
(86.7)
21.0
(69.8)
12.3
(54.1)
10.9
(51.6)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.3
(36.1)
9.5
(49.1)
16.3
(61.3)
20.5
(68.9)
23.3
(73.9)
21.4
(70.5)
15.9
(60.6)
8.7
(47.7)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.6
(49.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.2
(41.4)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(61.0)
19.1
(66.4)
17.4
(63.3)
12.4
(54.3)
6.2
(43.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
6.3
(43.3)
Average low °C (°F) −7.2
(19.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.7
(35.1)
7.2
(45.0)
12.2
(54.0)
15.3
(59.5)
13.9
(57.0)
9.4
(48.9)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
3.3
(37.9)
Record low °C (°F) −35.9
(−32.6)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−6.6
(20.1)
0.1
(32.2)
4.9
(40.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
−12.9
(8.8)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−35.9
(−32.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
36
(1.4)
36
(1.4)
37
(1.5)
47
(1.9)
69
(2.7)
84
(3.3)
87
(3.4)
57
(2.2)
64
(2.5)
56
(2.2)
51
(2.0)
670
(26.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 15
(5.9)
19
(7.5)
14
(5.5)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
9
(3.5)
19
(7.5)
Average rainy days 9 7 10 13 16 18 17 17 20 20 16 10 173
Average snowy days 25 23 16 8 1 0.1 0 0 0.1 5 16 23 117
Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 79 69 65 69 71 76 80 83 86 87 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 22 54 125 180 260 276 267 213 129 70 27 13 1,636
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[27]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[28]
Climate data for Samara (1991–2020, extremes 1852–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.8
(44.2)
16.7
(62.1)
31.1
(88.0)
35.9
(96.6)
38.4
(101.1)
39.4
(102.9)
39.9
(103.8)
34.0
(93.2)
26.0
(78.8)
14.7
(58.5)
7.3
(45.1)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.9
(33.6)
12.4
(54.3)
21.4
(70.5)
25.3
(77.5)
27.3
(81.1)
25.5
(77.9)
19.0
(66.2)
10.3
(50.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
10.4
(50.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.6
(14.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
−2.9
(26.8)
7.5
(45.5)
15.6
(60.1)
19.8
(67.6)
21.9
(71.4)
19.9
(67.8)
13.8
(56.8)
6.5
(43.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
6.1
(43.0)
Average low °C (°F) −12.3
(9.9)
−12.5
(9.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
3.2
(37.8)
10.3
(50.5)
14.7
(58.5)
16.8
(62.2)
15.0
(59.0)
9.6
(49.3)
3.5
(38.3)
−3.8
(25.2)
−10.2
(13.6)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −44.0
(−47.2)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−36.1
(−33.0)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−4.9
(23.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.0
(42.8)
4.1
(39.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
−15.7
(3.7)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−41.3
(−42.3)
−44.0
(−47.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 56
(2.2)
44
(1.7)
42
(1.7)
40
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
47
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
46
(1.8)
49
(1.9)
46
(1.8)
52
(2.0)
549
(21.6)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 37
(15)
54
(21)
50
(20)
7
(2.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2.0)
19
(7.5)
54
(21)
Average rainy days 4 3 5 11 14 15 14 12 14 14 10 6 122
Average snowy days 24 20 14 4 1 0.1 0 0 0.3 4 15 22 104
Average relative humidity (%) 83 80 79 67 58 64 67 69 73 76 83 83 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64 102 149 214 305 303 310 275 190 108 47 46 2,113
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[29]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[30]
Climate data for Sochi (1991–2020, extremes 1870–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
23.5
(74.3)
30.0
(86.0)
33.7
(92.7)
34.7
(94.5)
35.2
(95.4)
35.2
(95.4)
38.5
(101.3)
36.0
(96.8)
32.1
(89.8)
29.1
(84.4)
23.5
(74.3)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
10.4
(50.7)
12.7
(54.9)
17.0
(62.6)
21.2
(70.2)
25.4
(77.7)
27.9
(82.2)
28.6
(83.5)
25.2
(77.4)
20.7
(69.3)
15.6
(60.1)
12.0
(53.6)
18.9
(66.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.5
(43.7)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
16.6
(61.9)
20.9
(69.6)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
20.5
(68.9)
16.2
(61.2)
11.4
(52.5)
8.3
(46.9)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
3.7
(38.7)
5.6
(42.1)
9.0
(48.2)
13.3
(55.9)
17.4
(63.3)
20.0
(68.0)
20.7
(69.3)
16.9
(62.4)
13.1
(55.6)
8.5
(47.3)
5.7
(42.3)
11.5
(52.7)
Record low °C (°F) −13.4
(7.9)
−12.6
(9.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
3.0
(37.4)
7.1
(44.8)
12.6
(54.7)
10.4
(50.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 177
(7.0)
134
(5.3)
133
(5.2)
109
(4.3)
107
(4.2)
95
(3.7)
120
(4.7)
106
(4.2)
140
(5.5)
177
(7.0)
175
(6.9)
178
(7.0)
1,651
(65.0)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
Average rainy days 19 18 18 18 16 14 11 10 13 15 17 20 189
Average snowy days 6 6 3 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 20
Average relative humidity (%) 73 72 72 75 79 79 79 78 76 76 74 72 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96 105 145 161 221 258 279 281 226 195 121 86 2,174
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[31]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[32]
Climate data for Ulan-Ude (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1847–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
7.9
(46.2)
18.4
(65.1)
28.7
(83.7)
35.6
(96.1)
40.0
(104.0)
40.6
(105.1)
39.7
(103.5)
32.2
(90.0)
24.7
(76.5)
11.3
(52.3)
5.2
(41.4)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −17.6
(0.3)
−10.6
(12.9)
0.4
(32.7)
10.7
(51.3)
18.6
(65.5)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
24.2
(75.6)
16.8
(62.2)
6.9
(44.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−14.8
(5.4)
6.9
(44.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.7
(19.9)
3.4
(38.1)
10.9
(51.6)
17.9
(64.2)
20.6
(69.1)
17.7
(63.9)
10.0
(50.0)
0.8
(33.4)
−10.3
(13.5)
−19.4
(−2.9)
0.4
(32.7)
Average low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−13.0
(8.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
3.8
(38.8)
11.1
(52.0)
14.6
(58.3)
12.3
(54.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
−14.4
(6.1)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
Record low °C (°F) −54.4
(−65.9)
−44.9
(−48.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−11.4
(11.5)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−48.8
(−55.8)
−54.4
(−65.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
6
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
34
(1.3)
64
(2.5)
63
(2.5)
27
(1.1)
7
(0.3)
9
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
250
(9.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 12
(4.7)
12
(4.7)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
9
(3.5)
12
(4.7)
Average rainy days 0 0.04 1 6 10 14 16 15 13 7 1 0 83
Average snowy days 15 11 9 8 2 0.03 0 0 1 8 17 18 89
Average relative humidity (%) 77 75 66 53 49 57 64 69 68 68 76 78 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 115 155 225 248 287 288 270 247 211 167 113 92 2,418
Source 1: Погода и Климат[33]
Source 2: NOAA[34]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
9.9
(49.8)
19.4
(66.9)
27.7
(81.9)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
33.6
(92.5)
32.6
(90.7)
30.0
(86.0)
23.4
(74.1)
17.5
(63.5)
9.4
(48.9)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F) −7.8
(18.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.7
(36.9)
10.1
(50.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.9
(64.2)
21.6
(70.9)
23.3
(73.9)
20.1
(68.2)
13.2
(55.8)
3.3
(37.9)
−5.4
(22.3)
9.2
(48.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
5.3
(41.5)
10.0
(50.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.0
(68.0)
16.3
(61.3)
9.2
(48.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
−9.2
(15.4)
5.1
(41.2)
Average low °C (°F) −15.0
(5.0)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
2.1
(35.8)
7.0
(44.6)
11.3
(52.3)
16.1
(61.0)
17.9
(64.2)
13.5
(56.3)
6.2
(43.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.0
(10.4)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
(−24.5)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.7
(38.7)
8.7
(47.7)
10.1
(50.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−9.7
(14.5)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.5)
16
(0.6)
27
(1.1)
43
(1.7)
97
(3.8)
105
(4.1)
159
(6.3)
176
(6.9)
103
(4.1)
67
(2.6)
36
(1.4)
19
(0.7)
860
(33.9)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 5
(2.0)
4
(1.6)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
3
(1.2)
5
(2.0)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 4 13 20 22 22 19 14 12 5 1 133
Average snowy days 7 8 11 4 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 7 9 47
Average relative humidity (%) 58 57 60 67 76 87 92 87 77 65 60 60 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 178 184 216 192 199 130 122 149 197 205 168 156 2,096
Source 1: Погода и Климат[35]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[36]
Sea temperature data for Vladivostok
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) -1.2
(29.8)
-1.6
(29.1)
-0.9
(30.4)
2.6
(36.7)
8.8
(47.8)
14.2
(57.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
6.2
(43.2)
0.7
(33.3)
8.64
(47.6)
Source: [37]
Climate data for Yakutsk/Jakutsk weather station (WMO identifier: 24959), 98.3m amsl, 1991−2020 normals, extremes 1829–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.4
(95.7)
38.4
(101.1)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
18.6
(65.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) −34.0
(−29.2)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−11.6
(11.1)
2.6
(36.7)
13.8
(56.8)
23.1
(73.6)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
11.9
(53.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −36.9
(−34.4)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.0
(46.4)
17.0
(62.6)
19.9
(67.8)
15.6
(60.1)
6.4
(43.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−37.0
(−34.6)
−8.0
(17.6)
Average low °C (°F) −39.8
(−39.6)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−10.4
(13.3)
1.5
(34.7)
9.8
(49.6)
13.1
(55.6)
9.3
(48.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−11.0
(12.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−13.2
(8.2)
Record low °C (°F) −63.0
(−81.4)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41.0
(−41.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.4)
9
(0.4)
6
(0.2)
8
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
30
(1.2)
40
(1.6)
37
(1.5)
30
(1.2)
19
(0.7)
17
(0.7)
9
(0.4)
235
(9.3)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 27
(11)
31
(12)
33
(13)
21
(8.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
15
(5.9)
22
(8.7)
33
(13)
Average rainy days 0 0 0.1 3 14 16 15 15 16 4 0.1 0 83
Average snowy days 28 28 17 10 5 0.3 0.03 0 4 25 28 27 172
Average relative humidity (%) 76 76 70 60 54 57 62 67 72 78 78 76 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 19 97 234 274 303 333 347 273 174 106 59 12 2,231
Source 1: Погода и Климат[38]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[39]


See also

References

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  2. ^ "Climate". Library Of Congress. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  3. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  4. ^ "Meteo.ru". Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  5. ^ "NOAA NCDC Climate Data Online". Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  6. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Arkhangelsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  7. ^ "Arhangelsk (Arkhangelsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  8. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Chita" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  9. ^ "Cita/Kadala (Chita) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  10. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net- Climate Data for Irkutsk 1991–2020" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
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  12. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kaliningrad" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  13. ^ "Kaliningrad Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
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  15. ^ "KHABAROVSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
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  17. ^ "Krasnojarsk (Krasnoyarsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
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  20. ^ "Thermograph.ru averages". Retrieved 12 January 2011.
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  22. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Moscow, Russia - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  23. ^ Климат Мурманска [The Climate of Murmansk]. Weather and Climate (Погода и климат) (in Russian). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
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  25. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  26. ^ "Gorkij (Nizhny Novgorod) Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  27. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  28. ^ "Leningrad/Pulkovo Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  29. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  30. ^ "Kujbysev/Bezencuk (Samara) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  31. ^ "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Sochi" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  32. ^ "Soci (Sochi) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  33. ^ "Climate Ulan-Ude". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  34. ^ "ULAN-UDE/MUHINO 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  35. ^ "Climate Vladivostok". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  36. ^ "VLADIVOSTOK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ "Climate Jakutsk". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  39. ^ "JAKUTSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 3 November 2021.

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