Köppen climate classification types of Albania. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Hot Mediterranean climate   Warm Mediterranean climate   Subtropical climate   Oceanic climate   Continental climate   Subartic climate
Köppen climate classification types of Albania.

Albania has a variety of climate systems. With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the Mediterranean sea, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, however it has a high number of climatic regions for such a small area.[1] The coastal lowlands have typically mediterranean climate while the highlands have a continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.[2]

Under the Köppen climate classification, the country has Hot Mediterranean climate, Warm Mediterranean climate, Subtropical climate, Oceanic climate, Continental climate and Subartic climate.[3]

Overview

The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C (45 °F). Summer temperatures average 32 °C (90 °F), humidity is low. In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C (41 °F) in the winter and 30 °C (86 °F) during the summer.

Inland temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor. Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the continental air mass that dominates the weather in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Northerly and northeasterly winds blow much of the time. Average summer temperatures are lower than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. Daytime maximum temperatures in the interior basins and river valleys are very high, but the nights are almost always cool.

Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the Mediterranean Sea and the continental air mass. Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central uplands. Vertical currents initiated when the Mediterranean air is uplifted also cause frequent thunderstorms. Many of these storms are accompanied by high local winds and torrential downpours. When the continental air mass is weak, Mediterranean winds drop their moisture farther inland. When there is a dominant continental air mass, cold air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the winter. Because the season's lower temperatures damage olive trees and citrus fruits, groves and orchards are restricted to sheltered places with southern and western exposures, even in areas with high average winter temperatures.

Lowland rainfall averages from 1,000 millimeters (39.37 in) to more than 1,500 millimeters (59.06 in) annually, with the higher levels in the north. Nearly 95% of the rain falls in the winter.

Rainfall in the upland mountain ranges is heavier. Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1,800 millimeters (70.87 in) and are as high as 2,550 millimeters (100.39 in) in some northern areas. The seasonal variation is not quite as great in the coastal area.

The higher inland mountains receive less precipitation than the intermediate uplands. Terrain differences cause wide local variations, but the seasonal distribution is the most consistent of any area.

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg low
(°C/°F)
2 °C
35.6 °F
2 °C
35.6 °F
5 °C
41 °F
8 °C
46.4 °F
12 °C
53.6 °F
16 °C
60.8 °F
17 °C
62.6 °F
17 °C
62.6 °F
14 °C
57.2 °F
10 °C
50 °F
8 °C
46.4 °F
5.0 °C
41.0 °F
Avg high
(°C/°F)
12 °C
53.6 °F
12 °C
53.6 °F
15 °C
59 °F
18 °C
64.4 °F
23 °C
73.4 °F
29 °C
84.2 °F
32 °C
89.6 °F
32 °C
89.6 °F
30 °C
86.0 °F
23 °C
73.4 °F
17 °C
62.6 °F
14 °C
57.2 °F
Humidity in % 71 69 68 69 67 57 42 42 54 67 75 73
Sunshine (h/day) 5 5 6 7 10 15 18 16 12 7 5 5
Precipitation in days 13 13 14 13 10 7 5 4 6 9 16 17
Spring: Climate data
Climate data for Tirana (7)[a] 1961-1990 normals and extremes 1940-present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
28.0
(82.4)
30.3
(86.5)
32.6
(90.7)
35.9
(96.6)
39.7
(103.5)
42.2
(108.0)
41.4
(106.5)
39.7
(103.5)
36.1
(97.0)
31.3
(88.3)
22.5
(72.5)
42.2
(108.0)
Average high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.9
(55.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
27.7
(81.9)
30.7
(87.3)
30.7
(87.3)
27.3
(81.1)
21.8
(71.2)
17.1
(62.8)
13.0
(55.4)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.8
(46.0)
10.0
(50.0)
13.4
(56.1)
18.0
(64.4)
21.6
(70.9)
24.0
(75.2)
23.8
(74.8)
20.7
(69.3)
16.0
(60.8)
11.7
(53.1)
8.1
(46.6)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.6
(36.7)
4.5
(40.1)
7.9
(46.2)
12.1
(53.8)
15.6
(60.1)
17.2
(63.0)
16.9
(62.4)
14.1
(57.4)
10.1
(50.2)
6.3
(43.3)
3.2
(37.8)
9.4
(48.9)
Record low °C (°F) −10.4
(13.3)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.5
(36.5)
5.6
(42.1)
4.2
(39.6)
10.0
(50.0)
3.8
(38.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
−10.4
(13.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 143
(5.6)
132
(5.2)
115
(4.5)
104
(4.1)
103
(4.1)
68
(2.7)
42
(1.7)
46
(1.8)
78
(3.1)
114
(4.5)
172
(6.8)
148
(5.8)
1,266
(49.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 13 14 13 12 7 5 4 6 9 16 16 128
Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 69 72 68 69 62 64 71 70 76 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124 125 165 191 263 298 354 327 264 218 127 88 2,544
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: DWD,[4][5][c] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows),[6] NOAA (some records, rain and snow days)[7] and Weather Atlas[8]
  1. ^ Elevation at 90 m (300 ft)
  2. ^ The monthly estimations for rainy and snowy days are not available, only annual.
  3. ^ ftp://ftp-cdc.dwd.de/pub/CDC/help/stations_list_CLIMAT_data.txt Station ID for Tirana is 13615] Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

See also

References

  1. ^ "Albania". weatheronline.de.
  2. ^ "Albania - Climate". britannica.com.
  3. ^ "CLIMATE: ALBANIA". en.climate-data.org.
  4. ^ "Klimatafel von Tirana (Flugh.) / Albanien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  5. ^ "Station 13615 Tirana". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  6. ^ "Station Tirana" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  7. ^ "Tirane (13615) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  8. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Tirana, Albania - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.