This is a list of heads of state of Albania who have served since the Declaration of Independence of 1912.

Since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991, the head of state of Albania is the president of the republic (Albanian: Presidenti i Republikës). The president is indirectly elected to a five-year term and is limited to a maximum of two terms, as specified by the Constitution. As in most parliamentary systems, the president is now by-and-large a ceremonial office, with the prime minister de facto heading the executive branch.[1]

Heads of state

Independent Albania (1912–1914)

Main article: Independent Albania

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
1 Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
28 November 1912 22 January 1914 1 year, 55 days Chairman of the Provisional Government Independent
2 Fejzi Alizoti
(1874–1945)
22 January 1914 7 March 1914 44 days Chairman of the Central Administration Independent

Republic of Central Albania (1913–1914)

Main article: Republic of Central Albania

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
Esad Toptani
(1863–1920)
12 October 1913 12 February 1914 123 days Chairman of the Opposition Council of the Elders of Central Albania Independent

Principality of Albania (1914–1925)

Main article: Principality of Albania

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
3 Wilhelm I
(1876–1945)
7 March 1914 3 September 1914 180 days Prince of Albania House of Wied-Neuwied
Mustafa Ndroqi
(????–????)
23 September 1914 4 October 1914 11 days Chairman of the First General Council Independent
4 Esad Toptani
(1863–1920)
5 October 1914 24 February 1916 1 year, 142 days Chairman of the Provisional Government Independent
Austro-Hungarian Command
(23 January 1916 – 30 October 1918)
5 Turhan Përmeti
(1839–1927)
28 December 1918 28 January 1920 1 year, 31 days Chairman of the Provisional Government Independent
Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
28 January 1920 30 January 1920 2 days Chairman of the Provisional Government Independent
High Council of Regency
(30 January 1920 – 31 January 1925)
6 Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
2 July 1924 24 December 1924 175 days Head of state in place of the High Council People's Party

Albanian Republic (1925–1928)

Main article: Albanian Republic (1925–1928)

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Election Affiliation
7 Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
31 January 1925 1 September 1928 3 years, 213 days President of Albania 1925 Conservative Party

Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)

Main article: Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)

No. Portrait Name Reign Title Affiliation
(7) Zog I
(1895–1961)
1 September 1928 7 April 1939 10 years, 218 days King of the Albanians House of Zogu

Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)

Main article: Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
9 April 1939 12 April 1939 3 days Chairman of the Provisional Administration Committee Fascist Party
Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
12 April 1939 16 April 1939 4 days Chairman of the Provisional Administration Committee Fascist Party
9 Victor Emmanuel III
(1869–1947)
16 April 1939 8 September 1943 4 years, 145 days King of the Albanians House of Savoy

German occupation of Albania (1943–1944)

Main article: German occupation of Albania

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
10 Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
14 September 1943 20 October 1943 36 days Chairman of the Provisional Executive Committee Balli Kombëtar
11 Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
20 October 1943 25 October 1944 1 year, 5 days Chairman of the Provisional Administration Committee Balli Kombëtar

People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)

Main article: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

De-jure head of state

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
12 Omer Nishani
(1887–1954)
26 May 1944 1 August 1953 9 years, 67 days Chairman of the Presidium of the
People's Assembly of Albania
Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
13 Haxhi Lleshi
(1913–1998)
1 August 1953 22 November 1982 29 years, 113 days Chairman of the Presidium of the
People's Assembly of Albania
Party of Labour
14 Ramiz Alia
(1925–2011)
22 November 1982 3 April 1992 9 years, 133 days Chairman of the Presidium of the
People's Assembly of Albania
Party of Labour

De-facto leader

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Affiliation
Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
20 October 1944 11 April 1985 † 40 years, 173 days First Secretary of the Communist Party / Party of Labour of Albania Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
Ramiz Alia
(1925–2011)
13 April 1985 13 June 1991 6 years, 21 days First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania Party of Labour

Republic of Albania (1991–present)

Main articles: Albania and History of Post-Communist Albania

No. Portrait Name Term of office Title Election Affiliation
(14) Ramiz Alia
(1925–2011)
30 April 1991 3 April 1992 339 days President of Albania 1991 Party of Labour
Kastriot Islami
(born 1952)
3 April 1992 6 April 1992 3 days Speaker of the Parliament Socialist Party
Pjetër Arbnori
(1935–2006)
6 April 1992 9 April 1992 3 days Speaker of the Parliament Democratic Party
15 Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
9 April 1992 24 July 1997 5 years, 106 days President of Albania 1992 Democratic Party
Skënder Gjinushi
(born 1949)
24 July 1997 0 days Speaker of the Parliament Socialist Party
16 Rexhep Meidani
(born 1944)
24 July 1997 24 July 2002 5 years President of Albania 1997 Socialist Party
9 Alfred Moisiu
(born 1929)
24 July 2002 24 July 2007 5 years President of Albania 2002 Independent
17 Bamir Topi
(born 1957)
24 July 2007 24 July 2012 5 years President of Albania 2007 Democratic Party
18 Bujar Nishani
(1966–2022)
24 July 2012 24 July 2017 5 years President of Albania 2012 Democratic Party
19 Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
24 July 2017 24 July 2022 5 years President of Albania 2017 Socialist Movement for Integration
20 Bajram Begaj
(born 1967)
24 July 2022 Incumbent 1 year, 267 days President of Albania 2022 Independent

Timeline

Bajram BegajIlir MetaBujar NishaniBamir TopiAlfred MoisiuRexhep MeidaniSkënder GjinushiSali BerishaPjetër ArbnoriKastriot IslamiRamiz AliaHaxhi LleshiEnver HoxhaOmer NishaniMehdi FrashëriIbrahim BiçakçiuVictor Emmanuel IIIShefqet VërlaciXhafer YpiAhmet ZoguFan NoliHigh Council of RegencySulejman DelvinaTurhan Pasha PërmetiAlbania during World War I#Austro-Hungarian occupation of Albania (1916–1918)Mustafa NdroqiWilhelm, Prince of AlbaniaFejzi AlizotiEssad Pasha ToptaniIsmail Qemali

See also

References

  1. ^ "Albania Heads of State" (PDF).