Council of Ministers
Këshilli i Ministrave
Këshilli i Ministrave.svg
Overview
Established4 December 1912
StateRepublic of Albania
Appointed byPresident of the Republic
Main organCouncil of Ministers
Ministries15
Responsible toParliament of Albania
HeadquartersDëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard 7, 1010 Tirana, Albania
Websitekryeministria.al

The Council of Ministers (Albanian: Këshilli i Ministrave) is the executive branch that constitutes the Government of Albania. The Council is led by the Prime Minister of Albania.[1] The prime minister is nominated by the President from among those candidates, who enjoy majority support in the Parliament; the candidate is then chosen by the Parliament.[2] In the absence of the prime minister, the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions. There are 19 other government members, serving as deputy prime ministers, government ministers or both; they are chosen by the prime minister and confirmed by the Parliament.[a][b]

As of April 2017, after a reshuffle, 50% of the cabinet ministers are women. The Parliament of Albania must give final approval of the composition of the cabinet. The Cabinet is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state bodies.[3]

Overview

Rank

Council members are subdivided into three substantial ranks, along with one honorary rank:

Role

The Council is responsible to the Parliament of Albania. The Parliament may choose to pass a motion of censure forcing the Council of Ministers to resign. This has the effect of forcing the Government to be composed of members from the majority political party in the Assembly or to be allied to the majority in a coalition. Ministers are required to answer written or oral questions put to them by members of Parliament, known as Government questions. In addition, ministers attend sessions of the Parliament when laws concerning their assigned sectors and departmental portfolios are under consideration.

Cabinet ministers cannot propose legislation without parliamentary approval. Ministers can however propose bills to Parliament and any such legislation is generally very likely to pass. On occasion, the majority opinion in Parliament may differ significantly from those of the executive, resulting in a large number of riders.

The Cabinet plays a major role in determining the agenda of the Parliament. It can propose laws and amendments during parliamentary sessions. It also has a number of procedures at its disposal to expedite parliamentary deliberations.

History

With the unilateral declaration of Albania's Independence on 28 November 1912 by the Ottoman Empire, one of the first governing bodies to emerge from the All-Albanian Congress was the formation of the Provisional Government and the Council of Ministers as the highest executive body in the country.[4] However, the government did not last long due to its non-recognition by some of the Great Powers of the time. On 29 July 1913, Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, and Italy, together with Greece and Romania as interested parties, agreed to adopt the Organic Statute of Albania (Statuti Organik i Shqipërisë) which would serve as the first constitution of the new state created.[5] The statute sanctioned since in the 1st Article that Albania was a constitutional, sovereign, and hereditary Principality under the guarantee of the six Great Powers. Its formal adoption took place in Vlorë on 14 January 1914. On 22 January 1914, Ismail Qemali, one of the founders of the Albanian state and head of the Provisional Government, was forced to resign and hand it over to the International Control Commission (Komisioni Ndërkombëtar i Kontrollit të Kufinjve) which would serve as the highest executive body until the appointment of the monarch from the Great Powers and his arrival in Albania.[6]

The Statute in Chapter V entitled § Government Bodies sanctioned the central government institutions, as well as their competencies and duties. Article 72 states: The Albanian Government consists of a Council of Ministers headed by a Prime Minister. While in the next article it described the composition of the council, where there are a total of 4 ministries, which are: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Finances and the Ministry of Justice, while the Prime Minister simultaneously exercised also the role of Minister of Foreign Affairs. The PM, as well as all ministers were appointed by the Prince, whose oath before taking office should be taken, as well as the handover of office after resignation. Although the statute sanctioned only 4 ministries, in the first government appointed by Prince Wilhelm, there were more departments than anticipated.[7]

Incumbent Government

Main articles: Rama I Government, Rama II Government, and Rama III Government

Office Portrait Incumbent Term started
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë.svg

Prime Minister
Edi Rama (portret).jpg
Edi Rama
(born 1964)
Edi Rama2 (nënshkrim).svg
PS 15 September 2013 (2013-09-15)


13 September 2017 (2017-09-13)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

3,244 days

Zëvëndëskryeministri i Shqipërisë.svg

Deputy Prime Minister
Belinda Balluku
(born 1973)
Arben Ahmetaj (nënshkrim).svg
PS 25 July 2022 (2022-07-25)

7 days
Ministria për Europën dhe Punët e Jashtme.svg

Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs
Olta Xhaçka (portret).jpg
Olta Xhaçka
(born 1979)
Olta Xhaçka (nënshkrim).svg
PS 4 January 2021 (2021-01-04)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

574 days
Ministria e Mbrojtjes.svg

Minister of Defence
Niko Peleshi (portret).jpg
Niko Peleshi
(born 1970)
Niko Peleshi (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministria e Punëve të Brendshme.svg

Minister of Internal Affairs
Bledar Çuçi
(born 1970)
Bledi Çuçi (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 December 2020 (2020-12-18)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

591 days
Ministria e Financave.svg

Minister of Finances and Economy
Delina Ibrahimaj
(born 1983)
Delina Ibrahimaj (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministria e Infrastrukturës dhe Energjisë (2021).svg

Minister of Infrastructure and Energy
Belinda Balluku
(born 1973)
Belinda Balluku (nënshkrim).svg
PS 17 January 2019 (2019-01-17)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

1,292 days
Ministria e Arsimit, Sportit dhe Rinisë.svg

Minister of Education, Sports and Youth
Evis Kushi.jpg
Evis Kushi
(born 1975)
Evis Kushi (nënshkrim).svg
PS 15 September 2020 (2020-09-15)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

685 days
Ministria e Drejtësisë.svg

Minister of Justice
Ulsi Manja (portret).jpg
Ulsi Manja
(born 1973)
Ulsi Manja (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministria e Kulturës.svg

Minister of Culture
Elva Margariti
(born 1980)
Elva Margariti (nënshkrim).svg
PS 17 January 2019 (2019-01-17)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

1,292 days
Ministria e Bujqësisë dhe Zhvillimit Rural.svg

Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
Frida Krifca
(born 1978)
Frida Krifca (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministria e Shëndetësisë dhe Mbrojtjes Sociale.svg

Minister of Health and Social Protection
Ogerta Manastirliu (portret).jpg
Ogerta Manastirliu
(born 1980)
Ogerta Manastirliu (nënshkrim).svg
PS 13 September 2017 (2017-09-13)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

1,783 days
Ministër për Marrëdhëniet me Parlamentin.svg

Minister of State for Relations with Parliament
Elisa Spiropali
(born 1983)
Elisa Spiropali (nënshkrim).svg
PS 17 January 2019 (2019-01-17)
18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

1,292 days
Ministria e Turizmit dhe Mjedisit.svg

Minister of Tourism and Environment
Mirela Kumbaro-Furxhi (cropped).jpg
Mirela Kumbaro
(born 1966)
Mirela Kumbaro (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministër i Shtetit për Rininë dhe Fëmijët.svg

Minister of State for Youth and Children
Bora Muzhaqi
(born 1990)
Bora Muzhaqi (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministër i Shtetit për Standartet dhe Shërbimet.svg

Minister of State for Standards and Services
Milva Ekonomi (portret).jpg
Milva Ekonomi
(born 1962)
Milva Ekonomi (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days
Ministri për Mbrojtjen e Sipërmarrjes.svg

Minister of State for Entrepreneurs
Edona Bilali
(born 1989)
Edona Bilali (nënshkrim).svg
PS 18 September 2021 (2021-09-18)

317 days

Governments of Albania (1912–present)

No. Government Mandate Days
1st Provisional Government 4 December 1912 22 January 1914 414
International Control Commission 22 January 1914 17 March 1914 54
2nd Përmeti I Government 17 March 1914 3 September 1914 170
3rd Toptani Government 5 October 1914 27 January 1916 479
vacant 23 January 1916 30 October 1918 1011
4th Government of Durrës 25 December 1918 29 January 1920 400
5th Delvina Government 30 January 1920 14 November 1920 289
6th Vrioni I Government 19 November 1920 1 July 1921 224
7th Vrioni II Government 11 July 1921 11 October 1921 92
8th Sacred Union Government 16 October 1921 6 December 1921 51
9th Koculi Government 6 December 1921 6 December 1921 0[c]
10th Prishtina Government 7 December 1921 12 December 1921 5
11th Kosturi Government 12 December 1921 24 December 1921 12
12th Ypi Government 24 December 1921 2 December 1922 343
13th Zogu I Government 2 December 1922 25 February 1924 450
14th Vërlaci I Government 3 March 1924 27 May 1924 85
15th Vrioni III Government 30 May 1924 10 June 1924 11
16th Noli Government 16 June 1924 24 December 1924 191
17th Zogu II Government 6 January 1925 31 January 1925 25
18th Zogu III Government 1 February 1925 23 September 1925 234
19th Zogu IV Government 28 September 1925 10 February 1927 500
20th Zogu V Government 12 February 1927 20 October 1927 250
21st Zogu VI Government 24 October 1927 10 May 1928 199
22nd Zogu VII Government 11 May 1928 1 September 1928 113
23rd Kotta I Government 5 September 1928 5 March 1930 546
24th Evangjeli II Government 6 March 1930 11 April 1931 401
25th Evangjeli III Government 20 April 1931 7 December 1932 597
26th Evangjeli IV Government 11 January 1933 16 October 1935 1008
27th Frashëri Government 21 October 1935 7 November 1936 383
28th Kotta II Government 9 November 1936 7 April 1939 879
Interim Administrative Committee 8 April 1939 12 April 1939 4
29th Vërlaci II Government 12 April 1939 3 December 1941 966
30th Merlika-Kruja Government 3 December 1941 4 January 1943 397
31st Libohova I Government 18 January 1943 11 February 1943 24
32nd Bushati Government 12 February 1943 28 April 1943 75
33rd Libohova II Government 11 May 1943 12 September 1943 124
Interim Executive Committee 14 September 1943 4 November 1943 51
34th Mitrovica Government 5 November 1943 16 June 1944 224
35th Dine Government 18 July 1944 28 August 1944 41
36th Biçaku Government 6 September 1944 25 October 1944 49
37th Democratic Government of Albania[d] 23 October 1944 21 March 1946 514
38th Hoxha II Government 22 March 1946 4 July 1950 1565
39th Hoxha III Government 5 July 1950 19 July 1954 1475
40th Shehu I Government 20 July 1954 21 June 1958 1432
41st Shehu II Government 22 June 1958 16 July 1962 1485
42nd Shehu III Government 17 July 1962 13 September 1966 1519
43rd Shehu IV Government 14 September 1966 18 November 1970 1526
44th Shehu V Government 19 November 1970 28 October 1974 1439
45th Shehu VI Government 28 October 1974 26 December 1978 1520
46th Shehu VII Government 27 December 1978 18 December 1981 1087
47th Çarçani I Government 15 January 1982 23 November 1982 312
48th Çarçani II Government 23 November 1982 19 February 1987 1549
49th Çarçani III Government 20 February 1987 21 February 1991 1462
50th Nano I Government 22 February 1991 11 May 1991 78
51st Nano II Government 11 May 1991 12 June 1991 32
52nd Government of Stability 12 June 1991 6 December 1991 177
53rd Technical Government 18 December 1991 13 April 1992 117
54th Meksi I Government 13 April 1992 10 July 1996 1549
55th Meksi II Government 11 July 1996 1 March 1997 233
56th Government of National Reconciliation 12 March 1997 24 July 1997 134
57th Nano III Government 25 July 1997 28 September 1998 65
58th Majko I Government 2 October 1998 25 October 1999 392
59th Meta I Government 28 October 1999 6 September 2001 679
60th Meta II Government 6 September 2001 29 January 2002 145
61st Majko II Government 22 February 2002 25 July 2002 153
62nd Nano IV Government 29 July 2002 10 September 2005 1139
63rd Berisha I Government 11 September 2005 17 September 2009 1467
64th Berisha II Government 17 September 2009 15 September 2013 1459
65th Rama I Government 17 September 2013 13 September 2017 1457
66th Rama II Government 13 September 2017 18 September 2021 1466
67th Rama III Government 18 September 2021 Incumbent 317

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The composition of the Council of Ministers is approved following these constitutional steps:

    § Article.78: The majority of the Assembly proposes the new Prime Minister.

    § Article.96: The President of the Republic appoints by decree based on this proposal.
    § Article.97: The Assembly approves the presidential decree.

    § Article.99: The new Government swears before the president.

  2. ^ The full mandate of a cabinet is considered as such from the moment the prime minister swears the oath of office until the day of their resignation.
  3. ^ The government stayed in office for only 20 hours, wherein the evening of the same day resigned.
  4. ^ The quisling Biçaku Government served until October 25, 1944, while the first Hoxha Government, otherwise known as the "Democratic Government of Albania" (a precursor of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council) which was a provisional shadow government, started its term two days prior, on October 23.

References

  1. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2006). Historia e Shtetit Shqiptar 1912–2005. Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 955. ISBN 99943-799-3-3.
  2. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  3. ^ "Albania (03/99)". US Department of State. Retrieved 29 March 2015. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". ISBN 978-99943-56-22-5.
  5. ^ Evans, Malcolm D. (2008-01-03). Religious Liberty and International Law in Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-521-04761-6.
  6. ^ Gjevori, Elvin (2018-02-28). Democratisation and Institutional Reform in Albania. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-319-73071-4.
  7. ^ "Statuti Organik i Shqipërisë" (PDF). constitutions.albasio.eu. Retrieved 2021-12-10.