This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. (January 2015) This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (September 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Либерализм в России]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ru|Либерализм в России)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Liberalism in Russia" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Within Russian political parties, liberal parties advocate the expansion of political and civil freedoms and mostly oppose Vladimir Putin. In Russia, the term "liberal" can refer to wide range of politicians –( for reference check NCERT class 9 chapter socialism and Russian revolution) simultaneously to Thatcherism/Reaganomics-related pro-capitalism conservative politicians (they are related to 1990s shock therapy "liberal" reforms), to centre-right liberal politicians (as in European political spectrum) and to left-liberal politicians (as in the US political spectrum). The term "liberal democrats" is often used for members of the far-right nationalist part, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. There are Russian opposition and pro-government liberal political parties in Russia. Pro-government liberal politicians support Putin's policy in economics.

There are no liberal factions in Russian parliament at the moment. Centre-left liberalism was represented in the State Duma of Russian parliament by the Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (7.86% in 1993 election, 6.89% in 1995, 5.93% in 1999). Pro-government liberalism was represented by the Our Home – Russia (10.13% in 1995 election), the liberal political party founded by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Centre-right liberalism was represented by the pro-capitalist party Democratic Choice of Russia (15.51% in 1993) and its successor, the Union of Right Forces (8.52% in 1999 election).

The Yabloko and the Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party are members of Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party.[1] The Yabloko is also a member of Liberal International.

Liberalism in the Russian Federation

History

Liberalism emerged in Russia before the Russian Revolution and continued to develop among Constitutional Democrats such as Pavel Miliukov living in exile after 1917.[2] After the fall of communism, several new liberal parties were formed, but only one of them Yabloko (Yabloko – Rosiyskaya Demokraticheskaya Partiya, a member of Liberal International) succeeded in becoming a relevant force. This is a left-of-center liberal party. The Union of Right Forces (Soyuz Pravykh Sil, a member of International Democrat Union) is a right-of-center liberal party. It can also be seen as a democratic conservative market party. In this scheme, the party is not included as liberal, being considered a democratic conservative party, but it can also be called liberal because of its pro-free-market and anti-authoritarianism stances. The so-called Liberal Democratic Party of Russia is not at all "liberal" – it is a nationalist, right-wing, populist party.

Yabloko (1993–)

Main article: Yabloko

See also: Grigory Yavlinsky

The Yabloko is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party and Liberal International.

Pro-Chernomyrdin and regional party (1995–2000)

Main article: Our Home – Russia

See also: Viktor Chernomyrdin

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Democratic Choice of Russia (1993–1999)

Main article: Democratic Choice of Russia

See also: Yegor Gaidar

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)

The Democratic Choice of Russia was a centre-right liberal pro-capitalist political party.

Union of Right Forces (1999–2008)

Main article: Union of Right Forces

See also: Yegor Gaidar, Irina Khakamada, Boris Nemtsov, Anatoly Chubais, and Nikita Belykh

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)

The Union of Right Forces was a Russian centre-right liberal opposition political party.

Pro-Vladimir Putin liberal projects

Main articles: Civilian Power, Right Cause (political party in Russia), and Democratic Party of Russia

See also: Putin regime, Power vertical, and Media freedom in Russia

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Solidarnost wide movement (2008–)

Main article: Solidarnost

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)

Solidarnost is a liberal democratic political movement founded in 2008 by a number of well-known members of the liberal democratic opposition, including Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov and others from the Yabloko and former Union of Right Forces (which had just merged with two pro-Kremlin parties).

Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party (de facto 2010–)

Main articles: Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party, People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption", and Russian People's Democratic Union

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013)
2017 Russian protests, organized by Russia's liberal opposition
2017 Russian protests, organized by Russia's liberal opposition

People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" is a liberal democratic coalition founded in 2010 by opposition politicians Vladimir Ryzhkov, Boris Nemtsov, Mikhail Kasyanov and Vladimir Milov and their organisations Republican Party of Russia, Solidarnost, Russian People's Democratic Union and Democratic Choice. The RPR-PARNAS is a member of Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party.[1]

In 2012, the coalition merged into the officially registered Russian political party RPR-PARNAS (Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party).

The RPR-PARNAS is a centre-right liberal opposition political party and it represented in regional parliament in Yaroslavl Oblast.

Mikhail Prokhorov's party

Main article: Civic Platform (Russia)

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Russian Empire

Background

Mikhail Speransky is sometimes called the father of Russian liberalism. His ideas were discussed and elaborated by such 19th-century liberal republican radicals as Alexander Herzen, Boris Chicherin, and Konstantin Kavelin. Based on their ideals, various early 20th-century liberal parties evolved, the most important of them being the Constitutional-democratic Party, headed by Pavel Milyukov.

From Liberation Union to Constitutional Democratic Party

Union of October 17

Moderate Progressive Party

Party of Democratic Reform

From Party of Peaceful Renovation to Progressist Party

List of various liberal leaders

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2013-12-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2015). After October: Russian Liberalism as a 'Work in Progress,' 1919-1945. Kingston.