Russia, as the largest country in the world, has great ethnic diversity, is a multinational state, and is home to over 190 ethnic groups nationwide. However, demographically; ethnic Russians dominate the country's population. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities. The 83 (or 85) federal subjects which together constitute the Russian Federation include:

Ethnic groups of Russia, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group[1]
Language
family
Main
area
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %, Number % of total population % of those who declared ethnicity Number % of total population % of those who declared ethnicity
Russians Slavic European Russia 71,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6% 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 79.83% 80.6% 111,016,896 77.71% 80.9%
Tatars Turkic European Russia 3,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6% 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.83% 3.9% 5,310,649 3.72% 3.9%
Ukrainians[2] Slavic European Russia 6,870,976 7.9% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7% 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.03% 2.0% 1,927,888 1.35% 1.4%
Bashkir Turkic European Russia 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94% 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1.16% 1,584,554 1.11% 1.15%
Chuvashs Turkic European Russia 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23% 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1.14% 1,435,872 1.01% 1.05%
Chechens Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52% 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 0.95% 1,431,360 1.00% 1.04%
Armenians Indo-European Caucasus 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27% 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 0.79% 1,182,388 0.83% 0.86%
Avars Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32% 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 0.57% 912,090 0.64% 0.66%
Mordvins Uralic European Russia 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81% 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 0.59% 744,237 0.52% 0.54%
Kazakhs Turkic Southern 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 0.46% 647,732 0.45% 0.47%
Azerbaijanis Turkic Caucasus 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11% 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 0.43% 603,070 0.42% 0.44%
Dargins Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20% 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 0.35% 589,386 0.41% 0.43%
Udmurts (incl. Besermyan 1939–1989) Uralic European Russia 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50% 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.44% 0.45% 552,299 0.39% 0.40%
Mari Uralic European Russia 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44% 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 0.42% 547,605 0.38% 0.40%
Ossetians Iranian Caucasus 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26% 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 0.36% 528,515 0.37% 0.38%
Belarusians Slavic European Russia 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77% 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 0.56% 521,443 0.37% 0.38%
Kabardins Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23% 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 0.36% 516,826 0.36% 0.38%
Kumyks Turkic Caucasus 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16% 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 0.29% 503,060 0.35% 0.37%
Yakuts (icl. Dolgans 1939–1959) Turkic Far East 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24% 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 0.31% 478,085 0.34% 0.35%
Lezgians Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15% 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.28% 0.29% 473,722 0.33% 0.34%
Buryats (incl. Soyots 1939–1989) Mongolic Siberia 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25% 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 0.31% 461,389 0.32% 0.34%
Ingush Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12% 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 0.29% 444,833 0.31% 0.32%
Germans Germanic European Russia 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58% 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.41% 0.42% 394,138 0.28% 0.29%
Uzbeks Turkic Moscow 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 0.09% 289,862 0.20% 0.21%
Tuvans Turkic Siberia 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12% 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 0.17% 263,934 0.19% 0.19%
Komi (incl. Komi-Permyak 1939) Uralic European Russia 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23% 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 0.20% 228,235 0.16% 0.17%
Karachays Turkic Caucasus 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09% 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 0.13% 218,403 0.15% 0.16%
Roma Indo-Aryan European Russia 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09% 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 0.13% 204,958 0.14% 0.15%
Tajiks Iranian Saint Petersburg 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 0.08% 200,666 0.14% 0.15%
Kalmyks Mongolic Caucasus 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10% 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 0.12% 183,372 0.13% 0.13%
Laks Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07% 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 0.11% 178,630 0.13% 0.13%
Georgians South Caucasian Caucasus 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07% 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 0.14% 157,803 0.11% 0.11%
Jews Semitic European Russia 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51% 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 0.16% 156,801 0.11% 0.11%
Moldovans Romance European Russia 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07% 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 0.12% 156,400 0.11% 0.11%
Koreans Koreanic Far East 86,799 0.09% 11,345 0.01% 91,445 0.08% 101,369 0.08% 97,649 0.07% 107,051 0.07% 148,556 0.10% 0.10% 153,156 0.11% 0.11%
Tabasarans Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05% 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 0.09% 146,360 0.10% 0.11%
Adyghe (incl. Shapsugs 1926–1989 and Cherkess 1926–1939) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08% 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 0.09% 124,835 0.09% 0.09%
Balkars Turkic Caucasus 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04% 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 0.08% 112,924 0.08% 0.08%
Turks (incl. Meskhetian Turks 1926–1989) Turkic Caucasus 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00% 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 0.06% 105,058 0.07% 0.08%
Nogais Turkic Caucasus 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04% 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 0.06% 103,660 0.07% 0.08%
Kyrgyz Turkic Moscow 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 0.02% 103,422 0.07% 0.08%
Komi-Permyak (in Komi 1939) Uralic European Russia 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11% 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 0.09% 94,456 0.07% 0.07%
Altay Turkic Siberia 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04% 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 0.05% 89,773 0.05% 0.06%
Pontic Greeks (including Caucasus Greeks) Hellenic Caucasus 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05% 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 0.07% 85,640 0.06% 0.06%
Cherkess (in Adyghe 1926–1939) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03% 50,572 0.03% 60,517 0.04% 73,184 0.05%
Khakas Turkic Siberia 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05% 78,500 0.05% 76,278 0.05% 72,959 0.05%
Karelians Uralic European Russia 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10% 124,921 0.08% 93,344 0.06% 60,815 0.04%
Poles Slavic European Russia 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07% 94,594 0.06% 73,001 0.05% 47,125 0.03%
Nenets (incl. Enets 1926–1979 and Nganasans 1926–1939) Uralic Siberia 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02% 34,190 0.02% 41,302 0.03% 44,640 0.03%
Abazas Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02% 32,983 0.02% 37,942 0.03% 43,341 0.03%
Yazidis Iranian Caucasus 1 0.00% 31,273 0.02% 40,586 0.03%
Evenks Tungusic Far East 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02% 29,901 0.02% 35,527 0.02% 37,843 0.03%
Turkmens Turkic Caucasus 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
Rutuls Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01% 19,503 0.01% 29,929 0.02% 35,240 0.03%
Aghuls Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01% 17,728 0.01% 28,297 0.02% 34,160 0.02%
Lithuanians Baltic European Russia 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05% 70,427 0.05% 45,569 0.03% 31,377 0.02%
Khanty Uralic Urals 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02% 22,283 0.02% 28,678 0.02% 30,943 0.02%
Chinese Sino-Tibetan Far East 8,739 0.01% 22,491 0.02% 19,097 0.02% 7,987 0.01% 5,743 0.00% 5,197 0.00% 34,577 0.02% 28,943 0.02%
Bulgarians Slavic European Russia 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02% 32,785 0.02% 31,965 0.02% 24,038 0.02%
Kurds (incl. Yazidis 1939–1989) Iranian Caucasus 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00% 4,724 0.00% 19,607 0.01% 23,232 0.01%
Evens Tungusic Far East 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01% 17,055 0.01% 19,071 0.01% 22,383 0.02%
Finns Uralic European Russia 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04% 47,102 0.03% 34,050 0.02% 20,267 0.01%
Latvians Baltic European Russia 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05% 46,829 0.03% 28,520 0.02% 18,979 0.01%
Estonians Uralic European Russia 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04% 46,390 0.03% 28,113 0.02% 17,875 0.01%
Chukchi (incl. Kereks 1926–1989 and Chuvans 1939–1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01% 15,107 0.01% 15,767 0.01% 15,908 0.01%
Vietnamese Austro-Asiatic Moscow 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 781 0.00% 6,287 0.00% 661 0.00% 2,142 0.00% 26,206 0.02% 13,954 0.01%
Gagauz Turkic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00% 10,051 0.01% 12,210 0.01% 13,690 0.01%
Shors Turkic Siberia 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01% 15,745 0.01% 13,975 0.01% 12,888 0.01%
Tsakhurs Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00% 6,492 0.00% 10,366 0.01% 12,769 0.01%
Mansi Uralic Urals 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01% 8,279 0.01% 11,432 0.01% 12,269 0.01%
Nanais Tungusic Far East 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01% 11,883 0.01% 12,160 0.01% 12,003 0.01%
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00% 7,239 0.00% 11,366 0.01% 11,249 0.01%
Assyrians Semitic Caucasus 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01% 9,622 0.01% 13,649 0.01% 11,084 0.01%
Arabs Semitic Caucasus 466 0.00% 94 0.00% 649 0.00% 2,555 0.00% 2,339 0.00% 2,704 0.00% 10,811 0.01% 9,583 0.01%
Nağaybäk Turkic Urals 11196 0.01% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 9,600 0.01% 8,148 0.01%
Koryaks Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01% 8,942 0.01% 8,743 0.01% 7,953 0.01%
Dolgans (in Yakuts 1939–1959) Turkic Siberia 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00% 6,584 0.00% 7,261 0.01% 7,885 0.01%
Veps Uralic Northwest 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01% 12,142 0.01% 8,240 0.01% 5,936 0.00%
Afghans Iranian Moscow 38 0.00% 190 0.00% 175 0.00% 561 0.00% 184 0.00% 858 0.00% 9,800 0.01% 5,350 0.00%
Meskhetian Turks (in Turks 1926–1989) Turkic Caucasus 3,527 0.00% 4,825 0.00%
Nivkh Nivkh Far East 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00% 4,631 0.00% 5,162 0.00% 4,652 0.00%
Udis Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,102 0.00% 3,721 0.00% 4,267 0.00%
Indians Indo-Aryan European Russia 17 0.00% 0 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,378 0.00% 181 0.00% 535 0.00% 4,980 0.00% 4,058 0.00%
Shapsugs (in Adyghe 1926–1989) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 3,231 0.00% 3,882 0.00%
Persians Iranian Caucasus 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00% 2,572 0.00% 3,821 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Uygurs Turkic Siberia 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Selkups Uralic Siberia 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00% 3,564 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,649 0.00%
Soyots (in Buryats 1939–1989) Mongolic Siberia 229 0.00% 2,769 0.00% 3,608 0.00%
Serbs Slavic European Russia 1,278 0.00% 2,373 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 815 0.00% 1,580 0.00% 4,156 0.00% 3,510 0.00%
Romanians Romance European Russia 2,881 0.00% 2,682 0.00% 3,316 0.00% 4,093 0.00% 3,837 0.00% 5,996 0.00% 5,308 0.00% 3,201 0.00%
Itelmeni Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00% 2,429 0.00% 3,180 0.00% 3,193 0.00%
Mongols Mongolic Siberia 548 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,511 0.00% 3,759 0.00% 1,812 0.00% 2,117 0.00% 2,656 0.00% 2,986 0.00%
Kumandins Turkic Siberia 6,335 0.01% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,114 0.00% 2,892 0.00%
Hungarians Uralic European Russia 3,882 0.00% 0 0.00% 4,175 0.00% 6,681 0.01% 4,313 0.00% 5,742 0.00% 3,768 0.00% 2,781 0.00%
Ulchs Tungusic Far East 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00% 3,173 0.00% 2,913 0.00% 2,765 0.00%
Teleuts Turkic Siberia 1,898 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 2,650 0.00% 2,643 0.00%
Talysh Iranian Caucasus 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00% 202 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 2,529 0.00%
Crimean Tatars Turkic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 416 0.00% 2,852 0.00% 5,165 0.00% 21,275 0.01% 4,131 0.00% 2,449 0.00%
Besermyan (in Udmurts 1939–1989) Uralic European Russia 10,035 0.01% 3,122 0.00% 2,201 0.00%
Hemshins Indo-European Caucasus 2 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,542 0.00% 2,047 0.00%
Kamchadals Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 4216 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 2,293 0.00% 1,927 0.00%
Czechs Slavic European Russia 7,996 0.01% 7,526 0.01% 7,174 0.01% 6,073 0.00% 4,491 0.00% 4,375 0.00% 2,904 0.00% 1,898 0.00%
Sami Uralic European Russia 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00% 1,835 0.00% 1,991 0.00% 1,771 0.00%
Dungans Sino-Tibetan Siberia 6,009 0.01% 48 0.00% 169 0.00% 304 0.00% 1,159 0.00% 635 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,651 0.00%
Eskimo Eskimo–Aleut Far East 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00% 1,704 0.00% 1,750 0.00% 1,738 0.00%
Yukaghir Yukaghir Far East 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,112 0.00% 1,509 0.00% 1,603 0.00%
Tats Iranian Caucasus 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01% 19,420 0.01% 2,303 0.00% 1,585 0.00%
Americans Germanic European Russia 0 0.00% 457 0.00% 273 0.00% 785 0.00% 81 0.00% 185 0.00% 1,275 0.00% 1,572 0.00%
Udege (incl. Taz 1926–1989) Tungusic Far East 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 1,902 0.00% 1,657 0.00% 1,496 0.00%
French Romance European Russia 1,338 0.00% 991 0.00% 535 0.00% 1,243 0.00% 305 0.00% 352 0.00% 819 0.00% 1,475 0.00%
Karakalpaks Turkic Volga 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%
Italians Romance European Russia 749 0.00% 713 0.00% 525 0.00% 889 0.00% 356 0.00% 627 0.00% 862 0.00% 1,370 0.00%
Ket Yeniseian Siberia 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00% 1,084 0.00% 1,494 0.00% 1,219 0.00%
Spanish Romance European Russia 0 0.00% 2,290 0.00% 1,615 0.00% 2,631 0.00% 1,961 0.00% 2,054 0.00% 1,547 0.00% 1,162 0.00%
Slovenes Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,008 0.00%
Chuvans (in Chukchi 1939–1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00% 1,087 0.00% 1,002 0.00%
British Germanic European Russia 517 0.00% 416 0.00% 312 0.00% 542 0.00% 115 0.00% 223 0.00% 529 0.00% 950 0.00%
Japanese Japonic Far East 79 0.00% 922 0.00% 888 0.00% 1,141 0.00% 655 0.00% 591 0.00% 835 0.00% 888 0.00%
Nganasans (in Nenets 1926–1939) Uralic Siberia 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00% 1,262 0.00% 834 0.00% 862 0.00%
Mountain Jews Semitic Caucasus 15,612 0.02% 0 0.00% 19,352 0.02% 15,434 0.01% 6,509 0.00% 11,282 0.01% 3,394 0.00% 762 0.00%
Tofas Turkic Siberia 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00% 722 0.00% 837 0.00% 762 0.00%
Cubans Romance European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,175 0.00% 1,566 0.00% 707 0.00% 676 0.00%
Orochs (incl. Oroks 1970–1979) Tungusic Far East 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00% 883 0.00% 686 0.00% 596 0.00%
Negidals Tungusic Far East 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00% 587 0.00% 567 0.00% 513 0.00%
Pakistani Indo-Aryan European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 507 0.00%
Aleut Eskimo–Aleut Far East 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00% 644 0.00% 540 0.00% 482 0.00%
Pamiris Iranian European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 363 0.00%
Chulyms Turkic Siberia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 656 0.00% 355 0.00%
Macedonians Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 325 0.00%
Slovaks Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 513 0.00% 497 0.00% 758 0.00% 439 0.00% 711 0.00% 568 0.00% 324 0.00%
Croats Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 174 0.00% 115 0.00% 479 0.00% 0 0.00% 304 0.00%
Oroks (in Orochs 1970–1979) Tungusic Far East 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00% 179 0.00% 346 0.00% 295 0.00%
Taz (in Udege 1926–1989) Sino-Tibetan Far East 276 0.00% 274 0.00%
Izhorians Uralic European Russia 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00% 449 0.00% 327 0.00% 266 0.00%
Bosnians Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 256 0.00%
Enets (in Nenets 1926–1979) Uralic Siberia 198 0.00% 237 0.00% 227 0.00%
Ruthenians Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 97 0.00% 225 0.00%
Karaites Turkic European Russia 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00% 680 0.00% 366 0.00% 205 0.00%
Montenegrins Slavic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 181 0.00%
Krymchaks Turkic European Russia 6,185 0.01% 0 0.00% 249 0.00% 389 0.00% 1,365 0.00% 338 0.00% 157 0.00% 90 0.00%
Georgian Jews South Caucasian Caucasus 82 0.00% 0 0.00% 109 0.00% 109 0.00% 130 0.00% 1,172 0.00% 53 0.00% 78 0.00%
Votes Uralic European Russia 705 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 73 0.00% 64 0.00%
Central Asian Rroma Indo-Aryan European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 486 0.00% 49 0.00%
Central Asian Jews Semitic, Turkic, Iranian European Russia 93 0.00% 0 0.00% 99 0.00% 91 0.00% 336 0.00% 1,407 0.00% 54 0.00% 32 0.00%
Kereks (in Chukchi 1926–1989) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Far East 8 0.00% 4 0.00%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) Caucasus 20,962 0.02%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) Siberia 11,824 0.01%

Ethnic groups in Russia (2010)[3]

  Russians (77.7%)
  Turkic peoples (8.42%)
  Finnic peoples (1.59%)
  Ukrainians (1.35%)
  Others (2.09%)
  No answer (3.94%)

Future projections

The ethnic demographic mix of the Russian Federation is projected to change far into the future. The majority population, ethnic Russians, who have been in slight decline since the 1950's will decline further due to a below replacement fertility rate and population ageing.[4] In 2010, rough population projections from Ivan Beloborodov projecting to 2030 estimated that the percentage of Russians within the population would decrease to around 70 to 60% of the total population.[5]

Language and culture

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Although the constitution of Russia recognizes Russian as the official language, the individual republics may declare one or more official languages. Many of these subjects have at least two—Russian and the language of the "eponymous" nationality.[6] There is a minority language scene in most subjects of the country, with more than 1,350 newspapers and magazines, 300 TV channels and 250 radio stations in over 50 of these minority languages. Moreover, new legislation allows usage of minority languages in federal radio and TV broadcasting.[citation needed]

In 2007, there were 6,260 schools which provided teaching in 38 minority languages. Over 75 minority languages were taught as a discipline in 10,404 schools.[citation needed] The Ministers of Council of Europe has noted significant efforts to improve the supply of minority language textbooks and teachers, as well as a greater availability of minority language teaching. However, as Ministers has noted, there remain shortcomings in the access to education of a person(s) belonging to certain minorities.[citation needed]

There are more than 2,000 national minorities' public associations and 560 national cultural autonomies, however the Committee of Ministers has noted that in many regions, amount of state support for the preservation and development of minority cultures is still inadequate.[citation needed] There's a significant difference between "eponymous" ethnic groups and nationalities without their own national territory, as resources of the last are relatively limited.

Indigenous peoples

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Russia is also home to a particular category of minority peoples, i.e. small indigenous peoples of the North and Far East, who maintain very traditional lifestyles, often in a hazardous climatic environment, while adapting to the modern world. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia passed legislation to protect rights of these small northern indigenous peoples.[citation needed]

Gil-Robles has noted agreements between indigenous representatives and oil companies, which are to compensate potential damages on peoples habitats due to oil exploration. As Committee of Ministers of Council of Europe noted in 2007,[7] despite some initiatives for development, the social and economic situation of numerically small indigenous peoples was affected by recent legislative amendments at the federal level, removing some positive measures as regards their access to land and other natural resources.[8]

Maps

See also

Indigenous peoples:

References

  1. ^ Demoskop Weekly No 543-544 Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Численность, удельный вес и половой состав украинского населения России, 1926–2010 гг. / Завьялов А. В. Социальная адаптация украинских иммигрантов : монография / А. В. Завьялов. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2017. – 179 с.
  3. ^ "Национальный состав населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  4. ^ Chausovsky, Eugene (2021-02-09). "The City of Kazan and Russia's Non-Slavic Future". New Lines Magazine. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  5. ^ "Какова будет численность русских в ближайшие 10—20 лет?". 2012-01-06. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  6. ^ "Definition of EPONYMOUS". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  7. ^ "ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES" (PDF).
  8. ^ Alexseev, Mikhail A. (2016). "Backing the USSR 2.0". In Kolstø, Pål; Blakkisrud, Helge (eds.). Backing the USSR 2.0: Russia's ethnic minorities and expansionist ethnic Russian nationalism. The New Russian Nationalism. Imperialism, Ethnicity and Authoritarianism 2000–2015. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 160–191. ISBN 978-1-4744-1042-7. JSTOR 10.3366/j.ctt1bh2kk5.13. Retrieved 2022-05-20.