Russia, as the largest country in the world, has great ethnic diversity, is a multinational state, and is home to over 190 ethnic groups nationwide. According to the population census at the end of 2021, more than 147.1 million people lived in Russia, which is 4.3 million more than in the 2010 census, or 3.03%. At the same time, only 130.587 million census participants indicated their nationality. The top ten largest nations besides Russians included in descending order: Tatars, Chechens, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Avars, Armenians, Ukrainians, Dargins and Kazakhs. Population censuses in Russia allow citizens to report their nationality according not only to their ancestry, but also to self-identification.[1] The 83 (or 85) federal subjects which together constitute the Russian Federation include:

Ethnic groups of Russia, 1926–2021

1926-1979

Population counts and percentage from the 1926, 1939, 1959, and 1979 censuses
Ethnic
group[2]
Year
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Russians 71,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6%
Tatars 3,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6%
Chechens 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52%
Bashkir 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94%
Chuvashs 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23%
Avars 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32%
Armenians 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27%
Ukrainians 6,870,976 7.9% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7%
Dargins 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20%
Kazakhs 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38%
Kumyks 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16%
Kabardins 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23%
Ingush 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12%
Lezgins 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15%
Ossetians 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26%
Mordvins 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81%
Yakuts[a] 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24%
Azerbaijanis 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11%
Buryats[b] 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25%
Mari 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44%
Udmurts[c] 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50%
Tajiks 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01%
Uzbeks 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05%
Tuvans 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12%
Crimean Tatars 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 416 0.00% 2,852 0.00% 5,165 0.00%
Karachays 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09%
Belarusians 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77%
Germans 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58%
Kalmyks 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10%
Laks 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07%
Roma 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09%
Tabasarans 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05%
Komi[d] 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23%
Kyrgyz 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01%
Balkars 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04%
Turks[e] 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00%
Cherkess / Circassians[f] 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03%
Georgians 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07%
Adyghe[g] 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08%
Nogais 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04%
Koreans 86,799 0.09% 11,345 0.01% 91,445 0.08% 101,369 0.08% 97,649 0.07%
Altay 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04%
Jews 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51%
Moldovans 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07%
Khakas 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05%
Komi-Permyak[h] 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11%
Pontic Greeks [i] 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05%
Nenets[j] 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02%
Abazas 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02%
Turkmens 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02%
Evenks 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02%
Aghuls 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01%
Rutuls 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01%
Karelians 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10%
Khanty 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02%
Yazidis 1 0.00%
Kurds[k] 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00%
Poles 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07%
Evens 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01%
Chinese 8,739 0.01% 22,491 0.02% 19,097 0.02% 7,987 0.01% 5,743 0.00%
Arabs 466 0.00% 94 0.00% 649 0.00% 2,555 0.00% 2,339 0.00%
Chukchi[l] 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01%
Lithuanians 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05%
Tsakhurs 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00%
Mansi 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01%
Bulgarians 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02%
Nanais 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01%
Shors 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01%
Gagauz 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00%
Latvians 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05%
Abkhaz 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00%
Dolgans[m] 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00%
Finns 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04%
Vietnamese 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 781 0.00% 6,287 0.00% 661 0.00%
Estonians 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04%
Indians 17 0.00% 0 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,378 0.00% 181 0.00%
Koryaks 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01%
Nağaybäk 11196 0.01% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Veps 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01%
Assyrians 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01%
Soyots[n] 229 0.00%
Meskhetian Turks[o]
Nivkh 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00%
Talysh 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00%
Afghans 38 0.00% 190 0.00% 175 0.00% 561 0.00% 184 0.00%
Selkups 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00%
Dungans 6,009 0.01% 48 0.00% 169 0.00% 304 0.00% 1,159 0.00%
Itelmeni 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00%
Udis 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00%
Ulchs 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00%
Persians 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00%
Kumandins 6,335 0.01% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Teleuts 1,898 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Uygurs 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00%
Serbs 1,278 0.00% 2,373 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 815 0.00%
Hemshins 2 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Besermyan[p] 10,035 0.01%
Shapsugs[q]
Romanians 2,881 0.00% 2,682 0.00% 3,316 0.00% 4,093 0.00% 3,837 0.00%
Yukaghir 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00%
Inuit /Yupik 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00%
Kamchadals 4216 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Sami 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00%
Hungarians 3,882 0.00% 0 0.00% 4,175 0.00% 6,681 0.01% 4,313 0.00%
Italians 749 0.00% 713 0.00% 525 0.00% 889 0.00% 356 0.00%
French 1,338 0.00% 991 0.00% 535 0.00% 1,243 0.00% 305 0.00%
Udege[r] 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00%
Mongols 548 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,511 0.00% 3,759 0.00% 1,812 0.00%
Czechs 7,996 0.01% 7,526 0.01% 7,174 0.01% 6,073 0.00% 4,491 0.00%
Spanish 0 0.00% 2,290 0.00% 1,615 0.00% 2,631 0.00% 1,961 0.00%
British 517 0.00% 416 0.00% 312 0.00% 542 0.00% 115 0.00%
Americans 0 0.00% 457 0.00% 273 0.00% 785 0.00% 81 0.00%
Ket 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00%
Krymchaks 6,185 0.01% 0 0.00% 249 0.00% 389 0.00% 1,365 0.00%
Chuvans[s] 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00%
Karakalpaks 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00%
Izhorians 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00%
Tofalar 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00%
Cubans 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,175 0.00%
Nganasans[t] 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00%
Japanese 79 0.00% 922 0.00% 888 0.00% 1,141 0.00% 655 0.00%
Ruthenians 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Tats 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01%
Orochs[u] 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00%
Karaites 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00%
Negidals 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00%
Pamiris 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Pakistani 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Aleut 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00%
Chulyms 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Oroks[v] 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00%
Mountain Jews 15,612 0.02% 0 0.00% 19,352 0.02% 15,434 0.01% 6,509 0.00%
Taz[w]
Enets[x]
Slovaks 0 0.00% 513 0.00% 497 0.00% 758 0.00% 439 0.00%
Croats 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 174 0.00% 115 0.00%
Macedonians 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Slovenes 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Votes 705 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Bosnians 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Montenegrins 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Kereks[y]
Central Asian Jews 93 0.00% 0 0.00% 99 0.00% 91 0.00% 336 0.00%
Georgian Jews 82 0.00% 0 0.00% 109 0.00% 109 0.00% 130 0.00%
Central Asian Roma 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) 20,962 0.02%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) 11,824 0.01%
Other Ethnicity
Ethnicity not stated or stated No ethnicity

1989 - 2021

Population counts and percentage from the 1989, 2002, 2010, and 2021 censuses
Ethnic
group[3]
Year
1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census 2021 Census[4]
Number % Number % Number % Number % % (of those declared)
Russians 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 79.83% 111,016,896 77.71% 105,579,179 71.76% 80.85%
Tatars 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.83% 5,310,649 3.72% 4,713,669 3.2% 3.62%
Chechens 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 1,431,360 1.00% 1,674,854 1.14% 1.29%
Bashkir 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1,584,554 1.11% 1,571,879 1.07% 1.21%
Chuvashs 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1,435,872 1.01% 1,067,139 0.73% 0.83%
Avars 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 912,090 0.64% 1,012,074 0.69% 0.78%
Armenians 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 1,182,388 0.83% 946,172 0.64% 0.72%
Ukrainians 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.03% 1,927,888 1.35% 884,007 0.6% 0.68%
Dargins 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 589,386 0.41% 626,601 0.43% 0.49%
Kazakhs 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.45% 591,970 0.4% 0.45%
Kumyks 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 503,060 0.35% 565,830 0.38% 0.43%
Kabardins 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 516,826 0.36% 523,404 0.36% 0.41%
Ingush 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 444,833 0.31% 517,186 0.35% 0.40%
Lezgins 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.28% 473,722 0.33% 488,608 0.33% 0.37%
Ossetians 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 528,515 0.37% 485,646 0.33% 0.37%
Mordvins 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 744,237 0.52% 484,450 0.33% 0.37%
Yakuts 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 478,085 0.34% 478,409 0.33% 0.37%
Azerbaijanis 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 603,070 0.42% 474,576 0.32% 0.36%
Buryats[b] 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 461,389 0.32% 460,053 0.31% 0.35%
Mari 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 547,605 0.38% 423,803 0.29% 0.33%
Udmurts[c] 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.44% 552,299 0.39% 386,465 0.26% 0.29%
Tajiks 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.14% 350,236 0.24% 0.27%
Uzbeks 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.20% 323,278 0.22% 0.25%
Tuvans 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 263,934 0.19% 295,384 0.2% 0.23%
Crimean Tatars 21,275 0.01% 4,131 2,449 257,592 0.18% 0.20%
Karachays 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 218,403 0.15% 226,271 0.15% 0.17%
Belarusians 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 521,443 0.37% 208,046 0.14% 0.16%
Germans 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.41% 394,138 0.28% 195,256 0.13% 0.15%
Kalmyks 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 183,372 0.13% 179,547 0.12% 0.14%
Laks 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 178,630 0.13% 173,416 0.12% 0.14%
Roma 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 204,958 0.14% 173,400 0.12% 0.14%
Tabasarans 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 146,360 0.10% 151,466 0.1% 0.11%
Komi 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 228,235 0.16% 148,516 0.1% 0.11%
Kyrgyz 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.07% 137,780 0.09% 0.10%
Balkars 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 112,924 0.08% 125,044 0.08% 0.09%
Turks[e] 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 105,058 0.07% 116,705 0.08% 0.09%
Cherkess / Circassians 50,572 0.03% 60,517 73,184 114,697 0.08% 0.09%
Georgians 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 157,803 0.11% 112,765 0.08% 0.09%
Adyghe[f] 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 124,835 0.09% 111,471 0.08% 0.09%
Nogais 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 103,660 0.07% 109,042 0.07% 0.08%
Koreans 107,051 0.07% 148,556 0.10% 153,156 0.11% 87,819 0.06% 0.07%
Altay 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 89,773 0.05% 83,125 0.06% 0.07%
Jews 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 156,801 0.11% 82,644 0.06% 0.07%
Moldovans 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 156,400 0.11% 77,509 0.05% 0.06%
Khakas 78,500 0.05% 76,278 72,959 61,365 0.04% 0.05%
Komi-Permyak 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 94,456 0.07% 55,786 0.04% 0.05%
Pontic Greeks[i] 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 85,640 0.06% 53,972 0.04% 0.05%
Nenets 34,190 0.02% 41,302 44,640 49,646 0.03% 0.03%
Abazas 32,983 0.02% 37,942 43,341 41,793 0.03% 0.03%
Turkmens 39,739 0.03% 33,053 36,885 41,328 0.03% 0.03%
Evenks 29,901 0.02% 35,527 37,843 39,226 0.03% 0.03%
Aghuls 17,728 0.01% 28,297 34,160 34,576 0.02% 0.02%
Rutuls 19,503 0.01% 29,929 35,240 34,259 0.02% 0.02%
Karelians 124,921 0.08% 93,344 60,815 32,422 0.02% 0.02%
Khanty 22,283 0.02% 28,678 30,943 31,467 0.02% 0.02%
Yazidis 31,273 40,586 26,257 0.02% 0.02%
Kurds[k] 4,724 0.00% 19,607 23,232 24,657 0.01% 0.01%
Poles 94,594 0.06% 73,001 47,125 22,024 0.01% 0.01%
Evens 17,055 0.01% 19,071 22,383 19,913 0.01% 0.01%
Chinese 5,197 0.00% 34,577 28,943 19,644 0.01% 0.01%
Arabs 2,704 0.00% 10,811 9,583 16,329 0.01% 0.01%
Chukchi[l] 15,107 0.01% 15,767 15,908 16,200 0.01% 0.01%
Lithuanians 70,427 0.05% 45,569 31,377 13,230 0.01% 0.01%
Tsakhurs 6,492 0.00% 10,366 12,769 12,541 0.01% 0.01%
Mansi 8,279 0.01% 11,432 12,269 12,228 0.01% 0.01%
Bulgarians 32,785 0.02% 31,965 24,038 11,851 0.01% 0.01%
Nanais 11,883 0.01% 12,160 12,003 11,623 0.01% 0.01%
Shors 15,745 0.01% 13,975 12,888 10,507 0.01% 0.01%
Gagauz 10,051 0.01% 12,210 13,690 9,272 0.01% 0.01%
Latvians 46,829 0.03% 28,520 18,979 8,516 0.01% 0.01%
Abkhaz 7,239 0.00% 11,366 11,249 8,177 0.01% 0.01%
Dolgans 6,584 0.00% 7,261 7,885 8,157 0.01% 0.01%
Finns 47,102 0.03% 34,050 20,267 7,978 0.01% 0.01%
Vietnamese 2,142 0.00% 26,206 13,954 7,859 0.01% 0.01%
Estonians 46,390 0.03% 28,113 17,875 7,778 0.01% 0.01%
Indians 535 0.00% 4,980 4,058 7,667 0.01% 0.01%
Koryaks 8,942 0.01% 8,743 7,953 7,485 0.01% 0.01%
Nağaybäk 0 0.00% 9,600 8,148 5,719 0.00% 0.00%
Veps 12,142 0.01% 8,240 5,936 4,534 0.00% 0.00%
Assyrians 9,622 0.01% 13,649 11,084 4,421 0.00% 0.00%
Soyots[n] 2,769 3,608 4,368 0.00% 0.00%
Meskhetian Turks[o] 3,527 4,825 4,095 0.00% 0.00%
Nivkh 4,631 0.00% 5,162 4,652 3,842 0.00% 0.00%
Talysh 202 0.00% 2,548 2,529 3,595 0.00% 0.00%
Afghans 858 0.00% 9,800 5,350 3,536 0.00% 0.00%
Selkups 3,564 0.00% 4,249 3,649 3,458 0.00% 0.00%
Dungans 635 0.00% 801 1,651 3,028 0.00% 0.00%
Itelmeni 2,429 0.00% 3,180 3,193 2,596 0.00% 0.00%
Udis 1,102 0.00% 3,721 4,267 2,551 0.00% 0.00%
Ulchs 3,173 0.00% 2,913 2,765 2,472 0.00% 0.00%
Persians 2,572 0.00% 3,821 3,696 2,434 0.00% 0.00%
Kumandins 0 0.00% 3,114 2,892 2,408 0.00% 0.00%
Teleuts 0 0.00% 2,650 2,643 2,217 0.00% 0.00%
Uygurs 2,577 0.00% 2,867 3,696 2,217 0.00% 0.00%
Serbs 1,580 0.00% 4,156 3,510 2,151 0.00% 0.00%
Hemshins 0 0.00% 1,542 2,047 2,082 0.00% 0.00%
Besermyan[p] 3,122 2,201 2,036 0.00% 0.00%
Shapsugs[g] 3,231 3,882 1,914 0.00% 0.00%
Romanians 5,996 0.00% 5,308 3,201 1,850 0.00% 0.00%
Yukaghir 1,112 0.00% 1,509 1,603 1,802 0.00% 0.00%
Inuit /Yupik 1,704 0.00% 1,750 1,738 1,657 0.00% 0.00%
Kamchadals 0 0.00% 2,293 1,927 1,547 0.00% 0.00%
Sami 1,835 0.00% 1,991 1,771 1,530 0.00% 0.00%
Hungarians 5,742 0.00% 3,768 2,781 1,460 0.00% 0.00%
Italians 627 0.00% 862 1,370 1,460 0.00% 0.00%
French 352 0.00% 819 1,475 1,457 0.00% 0.00%
Udege[r] 1,902 0.00% 1,657 1,496 1,325 0.00% 0.00%
Mongols 2,117 0.00% 2,656 2,986 1,318 0.00% 0.00%
Czechs 4,375 0.00% 2,904 1,898 1,214 0.00% 0.00%
Spanish 2,054 0.00% 1,547 1,162 1,175 0.00% 0.00%
British 223 0.00% 529 950 1,167 0.00% 0.00%
Americans 185 0.00% 1,275 1,572 1,129 0.00% 0.00%
Ket 1,084 0.00% 1,494 1,219 1,088 0.00% 0.00%
Krymchaks 338 0.00% 157 90 954 0.00% 0.00%
Chuvans 1,087 1,002 900 0.00% 0.00%
Karakalpaks 6,155 0.00% 1,609 1,466 838 0.00% 0.00%
Izhorians 449 0.00% 327 266 781 0.00% 0.00%
Tofalar 722 0.00% 837 762 719 0.00% 0.00%
Cubans 1,566 0.00% 707 676 701 0.00% 0.00%
Nganasans[j] 1,262 0.00% 834 862 687 0.00% 0.00%
Japanese 591 0.00% 835 888 663 0.00% 0.00%
Ruthenians 0 0.00% 97 225 596 0.00% 0.00%
Tats 19,420 0.01% 2,303 1,585 575 0.00% 0.00%
Orochs 883 0.00% 686 596 527 0.00% 0.00%
Karaites 680 0.00% 366 205 500 0.00% 0.00%
Negidals 587 0.00% 567 513 481 0.00% 0.00%
Pamiris 0 0.00% 0 363 467 0.00% 0.00%
Pakistani 0 0.00% 0 507 410 0.00% 0.00%
Aleut 644 0.00% 540 482 397 0.00% 0.00%
Chulyms 0 0.00% 656 355 382 0.00% 0.00%
Oroks 179 0.00% 346 295 268 0.00% 0.00%
Mountain Jews 11,282 0.01% 3,394 762 266 0.00% 0.00%
Taz[w] 276 274 235 0.00% 0.00%
Enets 198 0.00% 237 227 201 0.00% 0.00%
Slovaks 711 0.00% 568 324 193 0.00% 0.00%
Croats 479 0.00% 0 304 177 0.00% 0.00%
Macedonians 0 0.00% 0 325 155 0.00% 0.00%
Slovenes 0 0.00% 0 1,008 108 0.00% 0.00%
Votes 0 0.00% 73 64 99 0.00% 0.00%
Bosnians 0 0.00% 0 256 98 0.00% 0.00%
Montenegrins 0 0.00% 0 181 85 0.00% 0.00%
Kereks[y] 8 4 23 0.00% 0.00%
Central Asian Jews 1,407 0.00% 54 32 18 0.00% 0.00%
Georgian Jews 1,172 0.00% 53 78 14 0.00% 0.00%
Central Asian Roma 0 0.00% 486 49 12 0.00% 0.00%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP)
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP)
Other Ethnicity 1,393,685 0.95% 1.08%
Ethnicity not stated or no ethnicity 17,136,960 11.64% -

Population pyramids

Future projections

The ethnic demographic mix of the Russian Federation is projected to change far into the future. The majority population, ethnic Russians, who have been in slight decline since the 1950's will decline further due to a below replacement fertility rate and population ageing.[5] In 2010, rough population projections from Ivan Beloborodov projecting to 2030 estimated that the percentage of Russians within the population would decrease to around 70 to 60% of the total population.[6]

Language and culture

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Although the constitution of Russia recognizes Russian as the official language, the individual republics may declare one or more official languages. Many of these subjects have at least two—Russian and the language of the "eponymous" nationality.[7] There is a minority language scene in most subjects of the country, with more than 1,350 newspapers and magazines, 300 TV channels and 250 radio stations in over 50 of these minority languages. Moreover, new legislation allows usage of minority languages in federal radio and TV broadcasting.[citation needed]

In 2007, there were 6,260 schools which provided teaching in 38 minority languages. Over 75 minority languages were taught as a discipline in 10,404 schools.[citation needed] The Ministers of Council of Europe has noted significant efforts to improve the supply of minority language textbooks and teachers, as well as a greater availability of minority language teaching. However, as Ministers has noted, there remain shortcomings in the access to education of a person(s) belonging to certain minorities.[citation needed]

There are more than 2,000 national minorities' public associations and 560 national cultural autonomies, however the Committee of Ministers has noted that in many regions, amount of state support for the preservation and development of minority cultures is still inadequate.[citation needed] There's a significant difference between "eponymous" ethnic groups and nationalities without their own national territory, as resources of the last are relatively limited.

Population of Russia by language family, 2021 census
(% of those who declared ethnicity)

  Slavic (81.72%)
  Turkic (8.64%)
  Caucasian (4.32%)
  Uralic (1.26%)
  Armenian (0.73%)
  Iranian (0.69%)
  Mongolic (0.49%)
  Other (2.15%)
Language family Population Percentage
Slavic

(Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Bulgarians, Serbs, Czechs, Rusyns, Slovaks, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, Bosnians, Montenegrins)

106,709,884 81.72%
Turkic

(Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Kazakhs, Kumyks, Yakuts, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Tuvans, Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Kyrgyz, Balkars, Turks, Nogais, Altai, Khakas, Turkmens, Shors, Gagauz, Dolgans, Nagaibak, Soyots, Meskhetian Turks, Kumandins, Uyghurs, Teleuts, Krymchaks, Karakalpaks, Tofalar, Crimean Karaites, Chulyms)

11,287,749 8.64%
Caucasian

(Chechens, Avars, Dargins, Kabardians, Ingush, Lezgins, Laks, Tabasarans, Cherkess, Georgians, Adyghe, Abazins, Aghuls, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, Abkhazians, Udis, Shapsugs)

5,642,353 4.32%
Uralic

Mordvins, Mari, Udmurts, Komi, Komi-Permyaks, Nenets, Karelians, Khanty, Mansi, Estonians, Finns, Vepsians, Selkups, Besermyan, Sami, Hungarians, Nganasan, Izhorians, Enets, Votians)

1,649,635 1.26%
Armenian

(Armenians, Hemshins)

948,254 0.73%
Iranian

(Ossetians, Tajiks, Yazidis, Kurds, Talysh, Afghans, Persians, Tat, Pamiris)

897,403 0.69%
Mongolic

(Buryats, Kalmyks, Mongols)

640,918 0.49%
Other 2,811,168 2.15%

Indigenous peoples

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Russia is also home to a particular category of minority peoples, i.e. small indigenous peoples of the North and Far East, who maintain very traditional lifestyles, often in a hazardous climatic environment, while adapting to the modern world. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia passed legislation to protect rights of these small northern indigenous peoples.[citation needed]

Gil-Robles has noted agreements between indigenous representatives and oil companies, which are to compensate potential damages on peoples habitats due to oil exploration. As Committee of Ministers of Council of Europe noted in 2007,[8] despite some initiatives for development, the social and economic situation of numerically small indigenous peoples was affected by recent legislative amendments at the federal level, removing some positive measures as regards their access to land and other natural resources.[9]

Maps

See also

Indigenous peoples:

References

  1. ^ "Результаты переписи населения 2021: буряты убывают, якуты возрастают". Золотая Орда — интернет-журнал (in Russian). Retrieved 2023-01-27.
  2. ^ Demoskop Weekly No 543-544 Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Demoskop Weekly No 543-544 Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  5. ^ Chausovsky, Eugene (2021-02-09). "The City of Kazan and Russia's Non-Slavic Future". New Lines Magazine. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  6. ^ "Какова будет численность русских в ближайшие 10—20 лет?". 2012-01-06. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  7. ^ "Definition of EPONYMOUS". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  8. ^ "ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES" (PDF).
  9. ^ Alexseev, Mikhail A. (2016). "Backing the USSR 2.0: Russia's ethnic minorities and expansionist ethnic Russian nationalism". In Kolstø, Pål; Blakkisrud, Helge (eds.). The New Russian Nationalism: Imperialism, Ethnicity and Authoritarianism 2000–2015. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 160–191. ISBN 978-1-4744-1042-7. JSTOR 10.3366/j.ctt1bh2kk5.13. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  1. ^ (including Dolgans 1939–1959)
  2. ^ a b (including Soyots 1939–1989)
  3. ^ a b (including Besermyan 1939–1989)
  4. ^ (including Komi-Permyak in 1939)
  5. ^ a b (including Meskhetian Turks from 1926–1989)
  6. ^ a b (in the Adyghe group from 1926–1939)
  7. ^ a b (including Shapsugs 1926–1989 and Cherkess 1926–1939)
  8. ^ (in Komi in 1939 census)
  9. ^ a b (includes Caucasus Greeks)
  10. ^ a b (including Enets, 1926–1979, and Nganasans, 1926–1939)
  11. ^ a b (including Yazidis 1939–1989)
  12. ^ a b (incl. Kereks 1926–1989 and Chuvans 1939–1979)
  13. ^ (in Yakuts 1939–1959)
  14. ^ a b (in Buryats 1939–1989)
  15. ^ a b (in Turks 1926–1989)
  16. ^ a b (in Udmurts 1939–1989)
  17. ^ (in Adyghe 1926–1989)
  18. ^ a b (including Taz 1926–1989)
  19. ^ (in Chukchi 1939–1979)
  20. ^ (in Nenets 1926–1939)
  21. ^ (incl. Oroks 1970–1979)
  22. ^ (in Orochs 1970–1979)
  23. ^ a b (in Udege 1926–1989)
  24. ^ (in Nenets 1926–1979)
  25. ^ a b (in Chukchi 1926–1989)