Crimean Karaites
къарайлар, karajlar
Karaite men in traditional garb, Crimea, 19th century.
Total population
 Ukraine (excluding Crimea)481[2][3]
 Russia (excluding Crimea)215[4]
Karaim, Crimean Tatar, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian
Karaite Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Krymchaks, Crimean Tatars, Urums, Turkic peoples

The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар, Qrımqaraylar, singular къарай, qaray; Trakai dialect: karajlar, singular karaj; Hebrew: קראי מזרח אירופה; Crimean Tatar: Qaraylar; Yiddish: קרימישע קאַראַיִמער, romanizedkrimishe karaimer), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnicity of Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the old Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimea. "Karaim" is a Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish and Lithuanian name for the community.


Cemetery near Feodosia (Crimea)
Former Karaim Kenesa in Kyiv

Turkic-speaking Karaite Jews (in the Crimean Tatar language, Qaraylar) have lived in Crimea for centuries. Most[8][9] modern scientists regard them as descendants of Karaite Jews who settled in Crimea and adopted a Kypchak language. Others[10][vague] view them as descendants of Khazar or Cuman, Kipchak converts to Karaite Judaism. Today, many Crimean Karaites reject ethnic Semitic origins theories and identify as descendants of the Khazars.[11] Some specialists in Khazar history question the Khazar theory of Karaim origins,[12][13] noting the following:

In 19th century Crimea, Karaites began to distinguish themselves from other Jewish groups, sending envoys to the czars to plead for exemptions from harsh anti-Jewish legislation. These entreaties were successful, in large part due to the tsars' wariness of the Talmud, and in 1863 Karaites were granted the same rights as their Christian and Tatar neighbors. Exempted from the Pale of Settlement, later they were considered non-Jews by Nazis. This left the community untouched by the Holocaust, unlike other Turkic-speaking Jews, like the Krymchak Jews that were almost wiped out.[18]

Miller says that Crimean Karaites did not start claiming a distinct identity apart from the Jewish people before the 19th century, and that such leaders as Avraham Firkovich and Sima Babovich encouraged this position to avoid the strong antisemitism of the period.[19]

From the time of the Golden Horde onward, Karaites were present in many towns and villages throughout Crimea and around the Black Sea. During the period of the Crimean Khanate, they had major communities in the towns of Çufut Qale, Sudak, Kefe, and Bakhchysarai.[citation needed]


Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania

According to Karaite tradition,[20] Grand Duke Vytautas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania relocated one branch of the Crimean Karaites to Lithuania ordering to build them a town, called today Trakai. There they continued to speak their own language. This legend originally referring to 1218 as the date of relocation contradicts the fact that the Lithuanian dialect of the Karaim language differs significantly from the Crimean one.[21] The Lithuanian Karaites settled primarily in Vilnius and Trakai, as well as in Biržai, Pasvalys, Naujamiestis and Upytė – smaller settlements throughout Lithuania proper.[citation needed]

The Lithuanian Karaites also settled in lands of modern Belarus and Ukraine, which were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Karaite communities emerged in Halych and Kukeziv (near Lviv) in Galicia, as well as in Lutsk and Derazhne in Volhynia.[22][23][24] Jews (Rabbinites and Karaites) in Lithuanian territory were granted a measure of autonomy under Michel Ezofovich Senior's[25] management. The Trakai Karaim refused to comply, citing differences in faith. Later all Jews, including Karaites,[26] were placed under the authority of the Rabbinite "Council of Four Lands" (Vaad)[27] and "Council of the Land of Lithuania" taxation (1580–1646). The Yiddish-speaking Rabbinites considered the Turkic-speaking Karaites to be apostates, and kept them in a subordinate and depressed position. The Karaites resented this treatment. In 1646, the Karaites obtained the expulsion of the Rabbinites from Trakai. Despite such tensions, in 1680, Rabbinite community leaders defended the Karaites of Shaty near Trakai against an accusation of blood libel. Representatives of both groups signed an agreement in 1714 to respect the mutual privileges and resolve disputes without involving the Gentile administration.[citation needed]

According to Crimean Karaite tradition, which developed in the 20th century interwar Poland[28] their forefathers were mainly farmers and members of the community who served in the military forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[29] as well as in the Crimean Khanate. But according to the historical documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the chief occupation of the Crimean Karaites was money lending.[30] They were granted special privileges, including exemption from the military service.[31] In the Crimean Khanate, the Karaites were repressed like other Jews, with prohibitions on behavior extended to riding horses.[32]

Some famous Karaim scholars in Lithuania included Isaac b. Abraham of Troki (1543–1598), Joseph ben Mordecai Malinovski, Zera ben Nathan of Trakai, Salomon ben Aharon of Trakai, Ezra ben Nissan (died in 1666) and Josiah ben Judah (died after 1658). Some of the Karaim became quite wealthy.[citation needed]

During the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Karaim suffered severely during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the wars between Russia and Commonwealth in the years 1654–1667. The many towns plundered and burnt included Derazhne and Trakai, where only 30 families were left in 1680. The destruction of the Karaite community in Derazhne in 1649 is described in a poem (both in Hebrew and Karaim) by a leader of the congregation, Hazzan Joseph ben Yeshuah HaMashbir.[33] Catholic missionaries worked to convert the local Karaim to Christianity, but were largely unsuccessful.

Russian Empire

Karaim kenesa in Trakai (modern day Lithuania).

19th century leaders of the Karaim, such as Sima Babovich and Avraham Firkovich, were driving forces behind a concerted effort to alter the status of the Karaite community in eyes of the Russian legal system. Firkovich in particular was adamant in his attempts to connect the Karaim with the Khazars, and has been accused of forging documents and inscriptions to back up his claims.[34]

Ultimately, the Tsarist government officially recognized the Karaim as being innocent of the death of Jesus. So they were exempt from many of the harsh restrictions placed on other Jews. They were, in essence, placed on equal legal footing with Crimean Tatars. The related Krymchak community, which was of similar ethnolinguistic background but which practiced rabbinical Judaism, continued to suffer under Tsarist anti-Jewish laws.[citation needed]

Solomon Krym (1864–1936), a Crimean Karaite agronomist, was elected in 1906 to the First Duma (1906–1907) as a Kadet (National Democratic Party). On November 16, 1918 he became the Prime Minister of a short-lived Crimean Russian liberal, anti-separatist and anti-Soviet government also supported by the German army.[35]

Since the incorporation of Crimea into the Russian Empire the main center of the Qarays is the city of Yevpatoria. Their status under Russian imperial rule bore beneficial fruits for the Karaites decades later.[citation needed]

During the Holocaust

In 1934, the heads of the Karaite community in Berlin asked the Nazi authorities to exempt Karaites from the anti-Semitic regulations based on their legal status as Russians in Russia. The Reich Agency for the Investigation of Families determined that, from the standpoint of German law, the Karaites were not to be considered Jews. The letter from the Reichsstelle für Sippenforschung (de) officially ruled:

The Karaite sect should not be considered a Jewish religious community within the meaning of paragraph 2, point 2 of the First Regulation to the Reich Citizenship Law. However, it cannot be established that Karaites in their entirety are of blood-related stock, for the racial categorization of an individual cannot be determined without … his personal ancestry and racial biological characteristics

— [36]

This ruling set the tone for how the Nazis dealt with the Karaite community in Eastern Europe. At the same time, the Nazis had serious reservations about the Karaites. SS Obergruppenfuhrer Gottlob Berger wrote on November 24, 1944:

"Their Mosaic religion is unwelcome. However, on grounds of race, language and religious dogma... Discrimination against the Karaites is unacceptable, in consideration of their racial kinsmen [Berger was here referring to the Crimean Tatars]. However, so as not to infringe the unified anti-Jewish orientation of the nations led by Germany, it is suggested that this small group be given the opportunity of a separate existence (for example, as a closed construction or labor battalion)..."

Despite having exempt status, groups of Karaites were massacred in the early phases of the war. German soldiers who came across Karaites in Russia during the invasion of Operation Barbarossa, unaware of their legal status under German law, attacked them; 200 were killed at Babi Yar alone. German allies such as Vichy France began to require the Karaites to register as Jews, but eventually granted them non-Jewish status after getting orders by Berlin.[37]

When interrogated, Ashkenazi rabbis in Crimea told the Germans that Karaites were not Jews, in an effort to spare the Karaite community the fate of their Rabbanite neighbors.[38] Many Karaites risked their lives to hide Jews, and in some cases claimed that Jews were members of their community. The Nazis impressed many Karaites into labor battalions.[39]

According to some sources, Nazi racial theory asserted that the Karaites of Crimea were actually Crimean Goths who'd adopted the Crimean Tatar language and their own distinct form of Judaism.[40]

Karaim cemetery in Warsaw, established in 1890.
Karaim cemetery in Trakai.
Karaim cemetery in Bakhchysarai, Crimea.

In Vilnius and Trakai, the Nazis forced Karaite Hakham Seraya Shapshal to produce a list of the members of the community. Though he did his best, not every Karaite was saved by Shapshal's list.


After the Soviet recapture of Crimea from Nazi forces in 1944, the Soviet authorities counted 6,357 remaining Karaites. Karaites were not subject to mass deportation, unlike the Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Armenians and others the Soviet authorities alleged had collaborated during the Nazi German occupation. Some individual Karaites were deported.[citation needed]

Assimilation and emigration greatly reduced the ranks of the Karaite community. A few thousand Karaites remain in Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Poland. Nowadays, the largest communities exist in Israel and the United States; however, these communities are almost entirely Egyptian in origin and ethnically and liturgically distinct from Crimean Karaites. There is also a community of fewer than 100 Karaites in Turkey.[41]

In the 1990s, about 500 Crimean Karaites, mainly from Ukraine, emigrated to Israel under the Law of Return.[42] The Israeli Chief Rabbinate has ruled that Karaites are Jews under Jewish law.[43]

Geographic distribution

Traditionally, Crimean Karaites had three major subdivisions, each of which maintained their own dialect of the Karaim dialect: the Crimean Karaites, the Galician Karaites, and the Lithuanian Karaites. Today, the distribution is different. The largest number is probably now in Israel; some other Crimean Karaites have left to America or elsewhere. These Karaites are mostly joining non-Crimean-Karaite communities.

According to Karaite tradition, all the Eastern European Karaite communities were derived from those in the Crimea,[44] but some modern historians doubt the Crimean origin of Lithuanian Karaites.[21][45] Nevertheless, this name, "Crimean Karaites" is used for the Turkic-speaking Karaites community supposed to have originated in Crimea, distinguishing it from the historically Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic-speaking Karaites of the Middle East.


In 2009, 231 people in Kazakhstan identified as Karaites. This was an unusual jump from the 28 Karaites recorded in 1999.


Kenesa in Vilnius

Karaite communities still exist in Lithuania, but have experienced a steep decline in numbers in recent decades. Historically, they lived mostly in Panevėžys and Trakai, but now most live in Vilnius, where they have a kenesa. There is also a kenesa in Trakai; the Panevėžys community has declined to only a handful of people and does not maintain a house of worship.

Within living memory, the community was many times larger than it is today. The 1979 census in the USSR showed 3,300 Karaim. Lithuanian Karaim Culture Community was founded in 1988. According to the Lithuanian Karaim website the Statistics Department of Lithuania carried out an ethno-statistic research entitled "Karaim in Lithuania" in 1997. It was decided to question all adult Karaim and mixed families, where one of the members is a Karaim. During the survey, for the beginning of 1997, there were 257 people of Karaim ethnicity, 32 of whom were children under 16. A similar survey was done in 2021, in honour of the 625th anniversary of Karaite settlement in Lithuania. This coincided with the 2021 national census.

In 2011, 423 individuals identified as Karaims in the Lithuanian census. By 2021, this had dropped to 192, a decline of around 55 percent in a single decade.[7]


In 2011, 346 people in Poland identified as Karaites.


Outside Russian-occupied Crimea (see Ukraine, below), there are 205 self-identifying Karaites as of 2021, nearly all of whom speak Russian as a first language. There are no significant concentrations; the largest community numbers over 60 people in Moscow.


Crimea was traditionally the centre of the Crimean Karaite population. In the Ukrainian census of 2010, just under 60 percent of Ukraine's Karaite population, 715 individuals, lived in Crimea, representing around 30 percent of the global population at the time. However, between the Russian invasion of 2014 and the Russian census of 2021, the population dropped to 295, a fall of almost 60 percent. The war of 2022 may have caused further disruption. This means that the Crimean population is no longer the largest, and is almost certainly smaller than the populations of mainland Ukraine, Poland, and Israel.

Outside Crimea, Karaites historically settled in Galicia, particularly in Halych and Lutsk. However, there is only one Karaite left in Halych today, and the kenesa was shut down in 1959 and eventually demolished. The Galician community had its own dialect of Karaim. The largest contemporary Karaite community is in Kyiv; smaller ones exist in other cities, including Kharkiv, which has a functioning kenesa, although the community numbers only about two dozen.[46] In the 2010 census, 481 Ukrainians identified as Karaites outside of Crimea. In 2021, the Ukrainian government unveiled a bill planned to grant Crimean Karaites and other minority groups official 'Indigenous' status.[47]


Until the 20th century, Karaite Judaism was the only religion of the Karaim,[48] During the Russian Civil War a significant number of Karaim emigrated to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary and then France and Germany.[49][50] Most of them converted to Christianity. The Karaim's modern national movement philanthropist M.S. Sarach was one of them.[51]

The Crimean Karaites' emancipation in the Russian Empire caused cultural assimilation followed by secularization. This process continued in the USSR when most of the kenesas were closed.[41]

In 1932 Star of David was removed from the Trakai Kenesa cupola by Shapshal's' order.[52] Some years later it was also removed from the iron gate.[53]

In 1928 secular Karaim philologist Seraya Shapshal was elected as Hacham of Polish and Lithuanian Karaim. Being a strong adopter of Russian orientalist V. Grigorjev's theory about the Khazarian origin of the Crimean Karaites, Shapshal developed the Karaim's religion and "historical dejudaization" doctrine.[54]

In the mid 1930s, he began to create a theory describing the Altai-Turkic origin of the Karaim and the pagan roots of Karaite religious teaching (worship of sacred oaks, polytheism, led by the god Tengri, the Sacrifice). Shapshal's doctrine is still a topic of critical research and public debate.

He made a number of other changes aimed at the Karaim's Turkification and at erasing the Karaite Jewish elements of their culture and language.[55][56] He issued an order canceling the teaching of Hebrew in Karaite schools and replaced the names of the Jewish holidays and months with Turkic equivalents (see the table below).

According to Shapshal, Crimean Karaites were pagans who adopted the law of Moses, but continued to adhere to their ancient Turkic beliefs. In addition, he claimed that the Karaites had revered Jesus and Mohammed as prophets for centuries. In the Post-Soviet period, Shapshal's theory was further developed in modern Karaylar publications[57] (e.g. "Crimean Karaite legends") and was officially adopted by the Crimean Karaim Association "Krymkaraylar" (Ассоциация крымских караимов “Крымкарайлар”) as the only correct view of the Karaim's past in 2000.[58]

The ideology of de-Judaization, pan-Turkism and the revival of Tengrism is imbued with the works of the contemporary leaders of the Karaites in Crimea. At the same time, some part of the people retained Jewish customs, several Karaite congregations have registered.[59]

Evolution of Crimean Karaite holiday names in the 20th century

Traditional Hebrew name (1915)[60][61] Secondary name Modern Turkic name[62] Turkic name translated to English.[63][64]
Pesach Hag ha-Machot (Unleavened bread festival) Tymbyl Chydžy Unleavened bread ("Tymbyl") festival
Omer Sefira (Counting of the Omer)
San Bašy Counting Beginning
Jarty San Counting Middle
Shavuot Hag Shavuot (Feast of Weeks) Aftalar Chydžy Feast of Weeks
The 9th of Tammuz Fast Chom Hareviyi (4th month fast) Burunhu Oruč First Fast
The 7th of Av Fast Chom Hahamishi (5th month fast) Ortančy Oruč Middle Fast
The 10th of Av Fast Nedava (sacrifice) Kurban Sacrifice
Rosh HaShana Yom Teru'ah (The blowing of horns day) Byrhy Kiuniu Horns Day
Yom Kippur literally "The Day of Atonement" Bošatlych Kiuniu The Day of Atonement
Fast of Gedalia Chom Hashviyi (7th month fast) Omitted
Sukkot literally "Tabernacles". The other name: "Hag Ha Asif" ("Harvest festival") Alačych Chydžy or Oraq Toyu Tabernacles festival or Harvest festival
Tenth of Tevet fast Chom Haasiri (10th month fast) Oruč Fast
Purim "Lots". Kynyš Three-cornered shaped sweet filled-pocket cookie.[65]
Was not considered a holiday Jyl Bašy The beginning of the Year


See also: Genetic studies on Jews

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)

Leon Kull and Kevin Alan Brook led the first scientific study of Crimean Karaites using genetic testing of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA and their results showed that the Crimean Karaites are indeed partially of Middle Eastern origin and closely related to other Jewish communities (Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews and Egyptian Karaite Jews), while finding that the Crimean Karaites possess a lower affinity to non-Jewish Turkic-speaking peoples of the region.[66][67]

The Karaites are characterized by the absence of a 'major' Y-chromosomal haplogroup. Haplogroups G2a-P15, J1-M267, J2-M172 together make up more than half of the Karaites’ gene pool. Next come haplogroups R1a-M198, C3, E1b, T and L.[68]



Karaim belongs to Kypchak sub-branch of the Turkic family and is closely related to Crimean Tatar, Armeno-Kipchak etc. Among the many different influences exerted on Karaim, those of Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian were the first to change the outlook of the Karaim lexicon. Later, due to considerable Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian influence, many Slavic and Baltic words entered the language of Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Russian Karaim. Hebrew remained in use for liturgical purposes. Following the Ottoman occupation of Crimea, Turkish was used for business and government purposes among Karaim living on the Crimean peninsula. Three different dialects developed: the Trakai dialect, used in Trakai and Vilnius (Lithuania), the Lutsk or Halych dialect spoken in Lutsk (until World War II), and Halych, and the Crimean dialect. The last forms the Eastern group, while Trakai and Halych Karaim belong to the Western group. Currently only small minority of Karaim can speak the Karaim language (72 Crimean dialect speakers,[2] 118 Trakai dialect speakers, and about 20 Halych dialect speakers).



The most famous Crimean Karaite food is Kybyn (Russian: Кибина pl. Кибины, Karaim: kybyn pl. kybynlar, Lithuanian: Kibinai). Kybynlar are half moon shaped pies of leavened dough with a stuffing of chopped beef or mutton, baked in dutch oven or baking sheet. Other meals common for Crimean Karaites and Tatars are Chiburekki, Pelmeni, Shishlik (These are most often made from mutton).[69]

Ceremony dishes, cooked for religious holidays and weddings are:

See also


  1. ^ Kizilov, M. (2008). The Karaites of Galicia : an ethnoreligious minority among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772-1945. Brill. ISBN 978-90-47-44288-2.
  2. ^ a b 1,196 Karaites in the Ukraine as a whole (including the Crimea) Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку УКРАИНА Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Ukraine (Russian language version)
  3. ^ Population in Autonomous Republic of the Crimea = 671, population in Sevastopol city council area = 44. 671+44 = 715. Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку, Автономная Республика Крым (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Autonomous Republic of the Crimea )
    Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку, Г.Севастополь (горсовет) (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Sevastopol city council)
  4. ^ a b "Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации согласно переписи населения 2021 года". Retrieved 2023-01-03.
  5. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna.Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011.
  6. ^ "UNdata | record view | Population by national and/or ethnic group, sex and urban/rural residence". Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  7. ^ a b "Gyventojų ir būstų surašymai - Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  8. ^ "The first direction that dominates present-day scientific circles says the Karaites are Jews both in the religious and the ethnic respect. Representatives of the second direction claim that ethnically Karaites are not Jewish but descendants of the Khazars, Polovets, and other Turkic nations. In the opinion of the followers of this theory, the Karaites have their own religion based upon ancient Turkic beliefs that have only indirect relation to Judaism." T.Schegoleva Karaites of Crimea: History and Present-Day Situation in Community
  9. ^ "The second avenue of approach, which, due to the specificity of the activities of Karaite community, is mostly supported by researchers in Eastern Europe, is related with the transformation of Karaite identity. Researchers tend to accept the theory of Karaite Khazarian origins, and apply it in their studies. Because of its limitations – the critical application of this approach to the Karaites history before the 20th c. is logically almost impossible – the Karaite studies are not sufficiently developed in this region. And in the last decades this approach attracts even less adherents – with an exception of more of descriptive nature, journalistic initiatives, which are supported by Lithuanian Karaite community. While the Khazarian approach is rather critically assessed by the academic community". Dovile Troskovaite. "Identity in Transition: The Case of Polish Karaites in the first half of the 20th century". University of Klaipeda (Lithuania), 2013, p. 210
  10. ^ See e.g Inscription in Khazarian Rovas script
  11. ^ Blady 2000, pp. 113–130.
  12. ^ Golden 2007a, p. 9
  13. ^ Brook 2006 pp. 110–111, 231.
  14. ^ Erdal, Marcel (1999). "The Khazar Language". In: Golden et al., 1999:75–107
  15. ^ "After the days of Bulan there arose one of his descendants, a king Obadiah by name, who reorganized the kingdom and established the Jewish religion properly and correctly. He built synagogues and yeshiva/yeshivot, brought in Jewish scholars, and rewarded them with gold and silver. ... They explained to him the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud and the order of divine services. The King was a man who revered and loved the Torah. He was one of the true servants of God. May the Divine Spirit give him rest!" Khazar Correspondence text
  16. ^ A. Harkavy, Altjudische Denkmaler aus der Krim, mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, SPb., 1876.
  17. ^ A. Fried, K. Landau, J. Cohen and E.Goldschmidt (1968). "Some genetic polymorphic characters of the Karaite community". Harefuiah, 75, 507–509.
  18. ^ "Somewhat Jewish, Fully Russian: Crimea Karaites Recall Past Glory". Haaretz. 2014-03-30. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  19. ^ Miller, Philip. Karaite Separatism in 19th Century Russia, pp xv–xvi, 3, 47
  20. ^ : "…ובשנת 1218 תתקע"ח לאלף החמשי וויטולט דוכוס הגדול של ליטא ערך מלחמה על הטטארים והשיג באי קרים ונלחם וישב שבי ויקח עמו מקירים 483 משפחות קראים ויוליכם לליטא ויצו לבנות להם עיר ויקרא אותה טראק החדשה ויתן להם כתב חרות ושדות ואדמה ויושיבם בעיר ההיא 330 משפחות...…"‎ ( "… At 1218 Witold, Grand Duke of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania made war against the Tatars, reached the Crimea island, fought, captured and took with him 483 Karaite families and led to Lithuania and ordered to build for them a town, called New Troki and gave them the freedom and the fields and the lands and settled in this town 330 families …") .Abraham Firkovich // The Hebrew Monuments of the Crimea, p. 252Wilna 1872 (ספר אבני זכרון המאסף רשימות המצבות על קברי בני ישראל בחצי האי קירים אשר אסף ורשם… כמהר״ר אברהם פירקאוויץ ירו׳ נר״ו.‎)
  21. ^ a b "Karaites of Crimea: History and Present-Day Situation in Community". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  22. ^ Nosonovsky, M.; Shabarovsky, V. (2005). "Караимская община XVI-XVIII веков в Деражном на Волыни". Vestnik EUM. 9: 31–52.
  23. ^ Shabarovsky, V.V. (2013). Караїми на Волині (Karaites in Volhynia, in Ukrainian). Lutsk: Tverdynya.
  24. ^ Shapira, Dan; Lasker, Daniel J. (2011). Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute and the Center for the Study of Polish Jewry and its Culture.
  25. ^ Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland – A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era – by Magda Teter
  26. ^ "He-Avar" ("Хе-Авар") Magazine, Petrograd, № 1, 1918
  27. ^ Jacob Mann, "Karaica", Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature, no. 11, Philadelphia, 1935; Jurgita Šiaučiūnaitė – Verbickienė, Žydai Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės visuomenėje: sambūvio aspektai, Vilnius, 2009; Idem, Ką rado Trakuose Žiliberas de Lanua, arba kas yra Trakų žydai, in Lietuvos istorijos studijos, no. 7, 1999.
  28. ^ Кизилов М. Ильяш Караимович и Тимофей Хмельницкий: кровная месть, которой не было, (М. Kizilov. Ilyash Karaimovich and Timofey Khmelnitsky: the blood feud that never took place) Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in publication Фальсификация исторических источников и конструирование этнократических мифов Archived 2013-01-27 at the Wayback Machine."Начиная приблизительно с межвоенного периода и вплоть до наших дней, караимские националисты стараются представить мирное караимское население Восточной Европы в роли "неустрашимых и храбрых воителей", что едва ли одобрили их богобоязненные исторические предки, которые были преимущественно торговцами и ремесленниками".
  29. ^ "Universitas Helsingiensis". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  30. ^ Древние привилегии литовско-волынских караимов, извлеченные из актов замка Луцкого 1791 г"Но вникнув в смысл привилегии Витольда замечаем, что в древние времена тамошние Караимы более всего занимались заимодавством; да, и по сие время зажиточные люди этого общества не оставляют этого прибыльного промысла; и отдавая свои капиталы в рост, в обеспечение их берут у своих должников в арендное содержание мельницы, корчмы, а чаще всего ссудят под заклад движимого имущества".
  31. ^ Древние привилегии литовско-волынских караимов, извлеченные из актов замка Луцкого 1791 г"В следствие того они били челом его Королевской милости, что издавна еще при Великом Князе Витольде и при Сигизмунде и при отце нашем Короле Казимире его милости, жиды [Троцкие] (i.e Karaite Jews) никогда на войну не хаживали и не посылали".
  32. ^ P. S. Pallas Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs (1799–1801)
  33. ^ Nosonovsky, M. (2011). "The Karaite Community in Derażne and its Leader Hazzan Joseph ben Yeshu'ah". Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations: 17–35.
  34. ^ Harkavy, Albert. "Altjudische Denkmaller aus der Krim mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, 1839–1872." In Memoires de l’Academie Imperiale de St.-Peterboug, VIIe Serie, 24, 1877; reprinted Wiesbaden, 1969.
  35. ^ Fisher, Alan W. (1978). The Crimean Tatars. Hoover Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8179-6662-1. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  36. ^ YIVO archives, Berlin Collection, Occ E, 3, Box 100, letter dated January 5, 1939.
  37. ^ Semi passim.
  38. ^ Blady 2000 pp. 125–126.
  39. ^ Green passim.
  40. ^ Wixman 1984 p. 94.
  41. ^ a b Kizilov, Mikhail. "Karaites and Karaism: Recent Developments". Religion and Democracy: An Axchange of Experiences between East and West. The CESNUR 2003 International Conference organized by CESNUR, Center for Religious Studies and Research at Vilnius University, and New Religions Research and Information Center. Vilnius, Lithuania, April 9–12, 2003. CESNUR.
  42. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. The Karaites of Galicia: An Ethnoreligious Minority Among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772—1945 (Studia Judaeoslavica, 2009)] 340
  43. ^ ביע אומר חלק ח, אבן העזר סימן י"ב; מכתב שפורסם אצל: מיכאל קורינאלדי, המעמד האישי של הקראים, ירושלים תשמ"ד, עמ' 139; הובא גם אצל: בני לאו, 'על משמרתי אעמודה להחזיר עטרה ליושנה', בתוך: מרדכי בר-און (עורך), אתגר הריבונות, Иерусалим 1999, 226
  44. ^ "The Karaite Encyclopedia by Nathan Schur (Frankfurt, 1995)". Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  45. ^ Ahiezer, G. and Shapira, D. 2001.'Karaites in Lithuania and in Volhynia-Galicia until the Eighteenth Century' [Hebrew]. Peamin 89: 19–60
  46. ^ Kravchenko, Kristy (26 December 2020). "Karaites of Ukraine. Who are they? • Ukraїner". Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  47. ^ Wilensky, David A. M. (17 June 2021). "Ukraine honors Karaite Jews as 'indigenous,' and Putin is furious". J. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  48. ^ Катехизис, основы Караимского закона. Руководство по обучению Закону-Божию Караимского юношества. — СПб., 1890.
  49. ^ Album "Archive of the Dmitri Penbeck’s family" – compiled by V. Penbek — Simferopol-Slippery Rock, 2004. — C. 24
  50. ^ Кропотов В. С. Военные традиции крымских караимов — Симферополь, 2004. — C. 75
  51. ^ "Сарач, Михаил (Марк) Семёнович - Виртуальный караимский музей". December 19, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  52. ^ "...its cupola was originally surmounted by a shield of David, but the removal of this emblem was ordered some ten years ago by the local hakham [i.e. Szapszał] as smacking too much of traditional Judaism. The offending symbol, however, still remains on the iron gate, from which it could hardly be removed without causing a conspicuous blemish...”Published in : ISRAEL COHEN, Vilna, Philadelphia 1943, pp. 463–464
  53. ^ Seraphim, Peter Heinz. Das Judentum im Osteuropäischen Raum, 1938 "...126. Das Wappen der Karaimen am Eingang zu ihrer "Kenessa" in Troki bei Wilna..."
  54. ^ Roman Freund, Karaites and Dejudaization (Acta Universitas Stockholmiensis. 1991. – №30).
  55. ^ М. Кизилов, Новые материалы к биографии Шапшала// Материалы девятой международной конференции по иудаике (2002), с. 255—273.
  56. ^ E.g compare the Trakai kenassa gate in 1932 [1] and today File:Trakai Kenesa.JPG
  57. ^ "A. Malgin. Евреи или тюрки. Новые элементы в идентичности караимов и крымчаков в современном Крыму [Jews or Turks. New elements in the identity of the Karaites and Krypchaks in modern Crimea] (2002)". Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
  58. ^ "Попытки приписать крымским караимам чуждые этнос и религию, смешение этнических крымских караимов с караимами по религии, искажение истории — оскорбляют национальные чувства и создают предпосылки для национальных и религиозных конфликтов." ("Attempts to attribute the Crimean Karaites alien ethnicity and religion, mixing ethnic Crimean Karaites with the Karaites on religion, the distortion of history – offend the national feelings and create the conditions for national and religious conflicts") Караи (крымские караимы). История, культура, святыни (in Russian). — Симферополь, 2000.
  59. ^ Moroz, Eugeny (2004). "От иудаизма к тенгрианству. Ещё раз о духовных поисках современных крымчаков и крымских караимов»" [From Judaism to Tengrism. Once again about the spiritual quest of the contemporary Krymchaks and Crimean Karaites]. Народ Книги в мире книг [People of the Book in the world of books] (in Russian) (52): 1–6.
  60. ^ КАРАИМСКИЙ КАТИХИЗИС ВКРАТЦЕ/ Сост. М. Я. Фиркович. — Мелитополь:1915г( Karaite Catechism briefly/ M.J Firchovich. – Melitopol 1915 )
  61. ^ THE BRIEF CATECHISM -THE INSTRUCTIONS for basic education of karaite children in the Law of God and the brief history of karaism //Y B. Shamash(Translation from Russian of КРАТКИЙ КАТИХИЗИС/ Сост. Я. Б. ШАМАШ)
  62. ^ Lithuanian Karaim Calendar('ch' pronounced as IPA /x/) Archived 2008-03-28 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Караимско-русско-польский словарь / Н. А. Баскаков, А. Зайончковский, С. Ш. Шапшал, 1974,
  64. ^ "Караимские праздники". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  65. ^ "Народы России - Национальная кухня крымских караимов (караев)". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  66. ^ Kevin Alan Brook; Leon Kull; Adam J. Levin (July 9, 2020) [August 28, 2013]. "The Genetic Signatures of East European Karaites". Jewish Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries.
  67. ^ Brook, Kevin Alan (29 July 2014). "The Genetics of Crimean Karaites". Karadeniz Araştırmaları. 11 (42): 69–84. doi:10.12787/KARAM859. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  68. ^ Агджоян Анастасия Торосовна. "Генофонд коренных Крыма по маркерам Y-хромосомы, мтДНК и полногеномных панелей аутосомных SNP"
  69. ^ "Virtual Karaim Museum". Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
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  71. ^ a b "Календарь". Retrieved 14 April 2016.