The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism:

History

Pre-monarchic period

Monarchic period

United monarchy

Main article: Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Further information:

Divided monarchy

Return from captivity

Development of Rabbinic Judaism

Main articles: Origins of Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic Judaism, Origins of Christianity, and Split of early Christianity and Judaism

Sacred texts

Written Torah

Oral Torah

AcharonimRishonimGeonimSavoraimAmoraimTannaimZugot

Rabbinic literature

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. But the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (ספרות חז"ל; "Literature [of our] sages [of] blessed memory," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.

Mishnaic literature

The Mishnah and the Tosefta (compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds:

The Midrash

The midrash[2] is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah, as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Tanakh.[3] The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible or Mishnah.

Later works by category

Major codes of Jewish law

Halakha

Jewish thought, mysticism and ethics

Liturgy

Later rabbinic works by historical period

Works of the Geonim

The Geonim are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in Babylon (650 - 1250) :

Works of the Rishonim (the "early" rabbinical commentators)

The Rishonim are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000 - 1550), such as the following main examples:

Works of the Acharonim (the "later" rabbinical commentators)

The Acharonim are the rabbis from 1550 to the present day, such as the following main examples:

Meforshim

Meforshim is a Hebrew word meaning "(classical rabbinical) commentators" (or roughly meaning "exegetes"), and is used as a substitute for the correct word perushim which means "commentaries". In Judaism this term refers to commentaries on the Torah (five books of Moses), Tanakh, the Mishnah, the Talmud, responsa, even the siddur (Jewish prayerbook), and more.

Classic Torah and Talmud commentaries

Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by the following individuals:

Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.

Branches and denominations

Behavior and experience

Holy days and observances

Major

Minor

Fast days

Belief and doctrine

Law

Major legal codes and works

Examples of legal principles

Examples of Biblical punishments

Dietary laws and customs

Names of God

Main article: Names of God in Judaism

Mysticism and the esoteric

Religious articles and prayers

Conversion

Return to Judaism

Apostasy

Interactions with other religions and cultures

References

  1. ^ Miller 1986, p. 110.
  2. ^ "midrash". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 182, Moshe David Herr