The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism:
Main article: Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)
Kingdom of Judah
Kings of Judah
Kingdom of Israel
Kings of Israel
House of Shallum
House of Menahem
House of Pekah
House of Hoshea
Main articles: Origins of Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic Judaism, Origins of Christianity, and Split of early Christianity and Judaism
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. But the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (ספרות חז"ל; "Literature [of our] sages [of] blessed memory," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.
The Mishnah and the Tosefta (compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds:
The midrash is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah, as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Tanakh. The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible or Mishnah.
The Geonim are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in Babylon (650–1250) :
The Rishonim are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000–1550), such as the following main examples:
The Acharonim are the rabbis from 1550 to the present day, such as the following main examples:
Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by the following individuals:
Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.
Main article: Names of God in Judaism