Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Symbols of the three largest Abrahamic religions: the star and crescent used to represent Islam,[n 1] the Christian cross, and the Jewish Star of David.
Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Symbols of the three largest Abrahamic religions: the star and crescent used to represent Islam,[n 1] the Christian cross, and the Jewish Star of David.

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to as Abrahamism, are a group of monotheistic religions that claim to worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith. The group is named after the prophet and patriarch Abraham,[2][3] who is mentioned in the scriptures including the Quran, Tanakh, Bible, and Aqdas.[3][4]

Jewish tradition claims Twelve Tribes of Israel descend from Abraham's son Isaac and grandson Jacob; Islamic tradition claims that twelve Arab tribes descend from Abraham's son Ishmael; Bahá'í tradition claims descend from Abraham's wife Keturah.[2][5][6] After a century of archaeological investigation, no evidence has been found for these historical patriarchs.[7] Most scholars believe the story of Abraham originated in the 6th century BCE, and that the Book of Genesis does not represent historical events.[7]

Israelite religion derives from the Ancient Canaanite religion of the Bronze Age, and became monotheistic in the Iron Age, around 6th century BCE.[8] It survives in two modern forms: Judaism and Samaritanism. Christianity split from Judaism in the 1st century CE,[2] and spread widely after being adopted as the state religion by the Roman Empire in the 4th century. Islam was founded in the 7th century CE, and was soon spread by the Umayyad Empire.[2][9] Bahá'í Faith was founded in the 19th century.

Today the Abrahamic religions are one of the largest major divisions in comparative religion (along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions).[10] Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are the Abrahamic religions with the greatest numbers of adherents.[11][12][13] Abrahamic religions with fewer adherents include the Baháʼí Faith,[3] Druzism[3][14] (sometimes considered a school of Ismaili Islam), Samaritanism,[3] and Rastafari.[3][15][16]

Etymology

The Catholic scholar of Islam Louis Massignon stated that the phrase "Abrahamic religion" means that all these religions come from one spiritual source.[11] The modern term comes from the plural form of a Quranic reference to dīn Ibrāhīm, 'religion of Ibrahim', the Arabic form of Abraham's name.[17]

God's promise at Genesis 15:4-8 regarding Abraham's heirs became paradigmatic for Jews, who speak of him as "our father Abraham" (Avraham Avinu). With the emergence of Christianity, Paul the Apostle, in Romans 4:11-12, likewise referred to him as "father of all" those who have faith, circumcised or uncircumcised. Islam likewise conceived itself as the religion of Abraham.[18] All the major Abrahamic religions claim a direct lineage to Abraham:

Adam Dodds argues that the term "Abrahamic faiths", while helpful, can be misleading, as it conveys an unspecified historical and theological commonality that is problematic on closer examination. While there is a commonality among the religions, in large measure their shared ancestry is peripheral to their respective foundational beliefs and thus conceals crucial differences.[21] For example, the common Christian beliefs of Incarnation, Trinity, and the resurrection of Jesus are not accepted by Judaism or Islam (see for example Islamic view of Jesus' death). There are key beliefs in both Islam and Judaism that are not shared by most of Christianity (such as abstinence from pork), and key beliefs of Islam, Christianity, and the Baháʼí Faith not shared by Judaism (such as the prophetic and Messianic position of Jesus, respectively).[22]

Challenges to the term

The appropriateness of grouping Judaism, Christianity, and Islam by the terms "Abrahamic religions" or "Abrahamic traditions" has been challenged.

In 2012, Alan L. Berger, Professor of Judaic Studies at Florida Atlantic University,[23] in his Preface to Trialogue and Terror: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam after 9/11 wrote that there are "commonalities", but "there are essential differences between the Abrahamic traditions" both "historical and theological". Although "Judaism birthed both Christianity and Islam", the "three monotheistic faiths went their separate ways". The three faiths "understand the role of Abraham" in "differing ways", and the relationships between Judaism and Christianity and between Judaism and Islam are "uneven". Also, the three traditions are "demographically unbalanced and ideologically diverse".[24][third-party source needed]

Also in 2012, Aaron W. Hughes published a book about the category Abrahamic religions as an example of "abuses of history." He said that only recently the category "Abrahamic religions" has come into use and that it is a "vague referent." It is "largely a theological neologism" and "an artificial and imprecise" term. Combining the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions into this one category might serve the purpose of encouraging "interfaith trialogue", but it is not true to the "historical record". Abrahamic religions are "an ahistorical category". There are "certain family resemblances" among these three religions, but the "amorphous" term "Abrahamic religions" prevents an understanding of the "complex nature" of the interactions among them. Furthermore, the three religions do not share the same story of Abraham. For these and other reasons, Hughes argued that the term should not be used, at least in academic circles.[25][third-party source needed]

Religions

Judaism

Main article: History of Judaism

Further information: God in Judaism

A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll

One of Judaism's primary texts is the Tanakh, an account of the Israelites' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. One of his great-grandsons was Judah, from whom the religion ultimately gets its name. The Israelites were initially a number of tribes who lived in the Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah.

After being conquered and exiled, some members of the Kingdom of Judah eventually returned to Israel. They later formed an independent state under the Hasmonean dynasty in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of the Roman Empire, which also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants. From the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews wrote the Talmud, a lengthy work of legal rulings and Biblical exegesis which, along with the Tanakh, is a key text of Judaism.

Christianity

Main article: History of Christianity

Further information: God in Christianity

Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible (and sometimes, depending on denomination, traditions)
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible (and sometimes, depending on denomination, traditions)

Christianity began in the 1st century as a sect within Judaism initially led by Jesus. His followers viewed him as the Messiah, as in the Confession of Peter; after his crucifixion and death they came to view him as God incarnate,[26] who was resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead and create an eternal Kingdom of God. Within a few decades the new movement split from Judaism. Christian teaching is based on the Old and New Testaments of the Bible.

After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace vis a vis the Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire in 380, but has been split into various churches from its beginning. An attempt was made by the Byzantine Empire to unify Christendom, but this formally failed with the East–West Schism of 1054. In the 16th century, the birth and growth of Protestantism during the Reformation further split Christianity into many denominations.

Mormonism

Main article: Mormonism

Further information: God in Mormonism, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and History of the Latter Day Saint movement

Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City, Utah
Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City, Utah

Mormonism is a religious movement that arose within American Protestantism[27] during the Second Great Awakening in the United States (early 19th century)[28][29][30][31] and that led to the formation of the community of believers called Mormons, and to the existence of numerous Latter Day Saint denominations. Its history is characterized by intense controversy and persecution in reaction to some of the movement's doctrines and practices and their relationship to mainstream Christianity (see Mormonism and Nicene Christianity). Opinions differ among scholars of religion on whether to categorize The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints as a separate branch of Christianity or as the "fourth Abrahamic religion" (alongside Judaism, Christianity, and Islam).[30][32] The beliefs of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints are characterized by a unique understanding of the Godhead, emphasis on family life, belief in continuing revelation, desire for order, respect for authority, and missionary work. Its members place high importance on families and traditional gender roles,[33] observe strict dietary prohibitions on alcohol, tobacco, coffee, and tea, and promote education and a vigorous work ethic.

In his 1838 personal history, Joseph Smith wrote that he had seen two personages in the spring of 1820. In 1843, Smith stated that these personages, God the Father and Jesus Christ, had separate, tangible bodies.[34]
In his 1838 personal history, Joseph Smith wrote that he had seen two personages in the spring of 1820. In 1843, Smith stated that these personages, God the Father and Jesus Christ, had separate, tangible bodies.[34]

The founder of the Latter Day Saint movement was Joseph Smith, who was raised in the burned-over district of New York State, and claimed that, in response to prayer, he saw God the Father and Jesus Christ, as well as angels and other visions.[28][30] This eventually led him to what he said is a restoration of Christianity that, he claimed, was lost after the early Christian apostles were killed. In addition, several early Mormon leaders made marked doctrinal and leadership contributions to the movement, including Oliver Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, and Brigham Young. The early church that originated with Joseph Smith in the 1820s shared strong similarities with some elements of 19th-century Protestant Christianity,[28][30][35] although the early Mormons had already undergone the development of their own distinct doctrine.[36] Mormons believe that God, through Smith and his successors, restored various doctrines and practices that were lost from the original Christianity taught by Jesus Christ.[28] For example, Smith, as a result of his "First Vision", primarily rejected the Nicene doctrine of the Trinity and instead taught that God the Father, his son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are three distinct "personages".[34][36][37][38]

In Upstate New York in 1823, Joseph Smith claimed to have had a vision in which the Angel Moroni told him about engraved golden plates buried in a nearby hill.[29][39] According to Smith, he received subsequent instruction from Moroni and, four years later, excavated the plates and translated them from "reformed Egyptian" into English; the resultant Book of Mormon–so called after an ancient American prophet who, according to Smith, had compiled the text recorded on the golden plates–recounts the history of a tribe of Israelites, led by the prophet Lehi, who migrated from Jerusalem to the Americas in the 7th century BCE.[29][39] There they multiplied and split into four peoples: Jaredites, Nephites, Lamanites, and Mulekites. The virtuous Nephites, who prospered for a time, were eventually exterminated by the hostile Lamanites.[39] In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints's belief, these Israelite tribes who migrated to the Americas centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ are considered to be among the ancestors of pre-Columbian Native Americans.[29][39] Other revealed writings, including Smith's translation of Egyptian scrolls that he declared to be the Book of Abraham, were incorporated into the Pearl of Great Price.[30] The Doctrine and Covenants contains Smith's ongoing revelations through 1844.[30]

Islam

Main article: History of Islam

Further information: God in Islam and Sects of Islam

The tomb of Abraham, a cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
The tomb of Abraham, a cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.

Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran. Although it considers Muhammad to be the Seal of the prophets, Islam teaches that every prophet preached Islam, as the word Islam literally means submission to God, the main concept preached by all Abrahamic prophets. The teachings of the Quran are believed by Muslims to be the direct and final revelation and words of Allah (i.e. The God in classical Arabic). Islam, like Christianity, is a universal religion (i.e. membership is open to anyone). Like Judaism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called tawhid, or "strict" monotheism.[40]

Other Abrahamic religions

Historically, the Abrahamic religions have been considered to be Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.[3] Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three.[3] The other, similar religions were seen as either too new to judge as being truly in the same class, or too small to be of significance to the category.

However, some of the restrictions of Abrahamic to these three is due only to tradition in historical classification. Therefore, restricting the category to these three religions has come under criticism.[41] The religions listed below here claim Abrahamic classification, either by the religions themselves, or by scholars who study them.

Baháʼí Faith

Main article: Baháʼí Faith

Further information: Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, God in the Baháʼí Faith, and History of the Baháʼí Faith

Nine-point star of the Baháʼí Faith
Nine-point star of the Baháʼí Faith
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921.[42]
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921.[42]

The Baháʼí Faith, which dates to the late 19th century, is a new religious movement that has sometimes been listed as Abrahamic by scholarly sources in various fields.[43][44][45][46] The Baháʼí writings describe a monotheistic, personal, inaccessible, omniscient, omnipresent, imperishable, and almighty God who is the creator of all things in the universe.[47][48] The existence of God and the universe is thought to be eternal, without a beginning or end.[49]

Though transcendent and inaccessible directly,[50] God is nevertheless seen as conscious of the creation,[50] with a will and purpose that is expressed through messengers recognized in the Baháʼí Faith as the Manifestations of God[48] (all the Jewish prophets, Zoroaster, Krishna, Gautama Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb, and ultimately Baháʼu'lláh).[50] The purpose of the creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator,[51] through such methods as prayer, reflection, and being of service to humankind.[52] God communicates his will and purpose to humanity through his intermediaries, the prophets and messengers who have founded World's religions from the beginning of humankind up to the present day,[53][50] and will continue to do so in the future.[50]

Bahá'u'lláh (1817–1892), the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, affirms the highest religious station of a Manifestation of God for Abraham and generally for prophets mentioned among the other Abrahamic religions alongside some of non-Abrahamic religions as well,[50][54] and has claimed a lineage of descent from Abraham through Keturah and Sarah.[15][55][56] Additionally, Baháʼís cite that Bahá'u'lláh lost a son, Mírzá Mihdí.[57] Bahá'u'lláh, then in prison, eulogized his son and connected the subsequent easing of restrictions to his son's dying prayer and compared it to the intended sacrifice of Abraham's son.[58]

The Baháʼí Faith also shares many of the same commonalities of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.[54][59][60] The religion emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God,[50][61][62][63] the station of the founders of the major religions as Manifestations of God come with revelation[50][62][64][65] as a series of interventions by God in human history that has been progressive, and each preparing the way for the next.[50][45] There is no definitive list of Manifestations of God, but Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to several personages as Manifestations; they include individuals generally not recognized by other Abrahamic religions—Krishna, Zoroaster, and Gautama Buddha[50][66]—and general statements go further to other cultures.[67]

Druze Faith

Main article: Druze

Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin.

The Druze Faith or Druzism is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of high Islamic figures like Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle.[68][69] Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts.[70] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet.[71][72][73][74][75]

The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith.[76] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's Ismailism,[77] Gnosticism,[78][79] Neoplatonism,[78][79] Pythagoreanism,[80][81] Christianity,[78][79] Hinduism[82][81] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness.[81] The Druze follow theophany,[83] and believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul.[84] At the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (Al Aaqal Al Kulli).[85] In the Druze faith, Jesus is considered one of God's important prophets.[86][87]

The Druze Faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili Shia Islam. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims,[88][89][90][91][92][excessive citations] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.[93]

Rastafari

Main article: Rastafari

Further information: History of Rastafari

Rastas often claim the flag of Ethiopia as was used during Haile Selassie's reign. It combines the conquering lion of Judah, symbol of the Ethiopian monarchy, with green, gold, and red.
Rastas often claim the flag of Ethiopia as was used during Haile Selassie's reign. It combines the conquering lion of Judah, symbol of the Ethiopian monarchy, with green, gold, and red.
Coronation of Haile Selassie as Negus ("King") of Abyssinia in 1928. He would be crowned again in 1930 as Neguse Negest ("King of Kings").
Coronation of Haile Selassie as Negus ("King") of Abyssinia in 1928. He would be crowned again in 1930 as Neguse Negest ("King of Kings").

The heterogenous Rastafari movement, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, which originated in Jamaica is classified by some scholars as an international socio-religious movement, and by others as a separate Abrahamic religion.[94] Classified as both a new religious movement and social movement, it developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.[94] It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.[94]

Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual.[94] The former Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is given central importance; many Rastas regard him as the returned Messiah, the incarnation of Jah on Earth, and as the Second Coming of Christ.[94] Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon".[94] Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in either Ethiopia or Africa more widely, referring to this continent as the Promised Land of "Zion".[94] Other interpretations shift focus on to the adoption of an Afrocentric attitude while living outside of Africa. Rastas refer to their practices as "livity".[94] Communal meetings are known as "groundations", and are typified by music, chanting, discussions, and the smoking of cannabis, the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties.[94] Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living 'naturally', adhering to ital dietary requirements, allowing their hair to form into dreadlocks, and following patriarchal gender roles.[94]

Rastafari originated among impoverished and socially disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities.[94] Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant British colonial culture.[94] It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey. The movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that the crowning of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the 1950s, Rastafari's counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Bob Marley.

The Rasta movement is organised on a largely cellular basis. There are several denominations, or "Mansions of Rastafari", the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi, Bobo Ashanti, Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel, each of which offers different interpretations of Rasta belief. There are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas across the world; the largest population is in Jamaica although communities can be found in most of the world's major population centres.

Samaritanism

Main article: Samaritanism

Further information: Samaritans

Samaritan High Priest with the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
Samaritan High Priest with the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920

Samaritanism is based on some of the same books used as the basis of Judaism but differs from the latter. Samaritan religious works include the Samaritan version of the Torah, the Memar Markah, the Samaritan liturgy, and Samaritan law codes and biblical commentaries; scholars have various theories concerning the actual relationships between these three texts. The Samaritan Pentateuch first became known to the Western world in 1631, proving the first example of the Samaritan alphabet and sparking an intense theological debate regarding its relative age versus the Masoretic Text.[95]

The Samaritans are Descendants of Israel, being descended from farmers among the Israelite Tribes, part of whom were never exiled by the Assyrians or the Babylonians during the period of the destruction of the First Jewish Commonwealth. Their maternal lineages, however, derive from the Small Nations (those who came from Cuthah and others) who were exiled to Samaria by the Assyrians and intermixed with their paternal Israelite ancestors. The alien minority who remained in the land, adopted the Israelite religion (Samaritanism, the sister Israelite religion to Judaism) in the course of time, after the destruction of the First Temple. A portion of the Samaritans exiled by the Assyrians, were later repatriated by the prophet Jeremiah in the days of the Judean king Josiah.[96]

The Babylonians, who followed the Assyrians as the dominant entity in the Fertile Crescent, exiled many Samaritans but skipped over a significant part of the Samaritan population. By the time they arrived in Samaria, the Babylonians found many alien elements in the land of Israel. Consequently, they did not undertake a thorough ethnic cleansing expulsion from Samaria, since the Assyrians had led many areas to be viewed as places whose indigenous population had already been replaced by aliens and needed no further expulsion.[96]

Later, when the exiled Israelites (now known as Jews) returned from the Babylonian exile under prophets Ezra and Nehemiah, they misidentified the Israelites who had stayed behind (now known as Samaritans) as foreigners. The reason for the misidentification was because the deportations had led the exiled Israelites and the Israelites who remained behind to develop in different ways. The Babylonian captivity had a number of serious effects on the exiled Israelites (Jews), their religion (Judaism) and their culture. Included among the most obvious of these changes was replacing the original Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (see also Samaritan script) with what is in fact a stylised form of the Aramaic alphabet (now commonly called the "Hebrew alphabet" because it is the normative form in which Hebrew is written due to Jewish numeric superiority), changes in the fundamental practices and customs of the Jewish religion, the culmination of Biblical prophecy (in the Jewish prophet Ezekiel), the compilation of not only of the Talmud and Halakha (Jewish religious law, absent in Samaritanism) but also the incorporation of Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings) as a part of the cannon together with the Torah (in Samaritanism, only the Torah is canonical, see Samaritan Torah), and the emergence of scribes and sages as Jewish leaders (see Ezra and the Pharisees). These resulting differences in religious practices between returnees and those who remained in Israel led to a schism in the Israelites, and whenceforth the creation of separate Samaritan and Jewish entities.[96] Over the centuries, Judaism and world Jewry have come to the acceptance that the Samaritans are indeed descendants of Israelites.

The Islamic conquest of Palestine in the first half of the 7th century, and the subsequent Arab rule, marked the beginning of the phase of decline and erosion of Samaritan identity, even more detrimentally than the extreme toll on Jewish identity. The passing of the aforementioned al-Hakem Edict in 1021, along with another notable forced conversion to Islam imposed at the hands of the rebel Ibn Firasa, decreased their numbers significantly, such that they decreased from more than a million in Roman times to just 712 people today.[96]

For those who maintained a Samaritan identity and religious association into modern times, they too, like their Palestinian counterparts who had additionally adopted Christianity and later Islam, were nevertheless thoroughly Arabized in language and culture. After the establishment of modern Israel, Samaritans living in what became the State of Israel replaced Palestinian Arabic with modern Hebrew as their day to day language (although Samaritan Hebrew had always been maintained as the liturgical language, along with liturgical Samaritan Aramaic and liturgical Samaritan Arabic).

Origins and history

See also: Ancient Canaanite religion, Yahweh, Origins of Judaism, and Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia influenced some religious texts, particularly the Hebrew Bible and the Book of Genesis. Abraham is said to have originated in Mesopotamia.[97]

Judaism regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob,[n 2] a grandson of Abraham. It has a strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text as elucidated in the Oral Torah. In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism developed a small number of branches, of which the most significant are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

Christianity began as a sect of Judaism[n 3] in the Mediterranean Basin[n 4] of the first century CE and evolved into a separate religion—Christianity—with distinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, considered by almost all denominations to be God the Son, one person of the Trinity. (See God in Christianity.[n 5]) The Christian biblical canons are usually held to be the ultimate authority, alongside sacred tradition in some denominations (such as the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church). Over many centuries, Christianity divided into three main branches (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant), dozens of significant denominations, and hundreds of smaller ones.

Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula[n 6] in the 7th century CE with a strictly unitary view of God.[n 7] Muslims hold the Quran to be the ultimate authority, as revealed and elucidated through the teachings and practices[n 8] of a central, but not divine, prophet, Muhammad. The Islamic faith considers all prophets and messengers from Adam through the final messenger (Muhammad) to carry the same Islamic monotheistic principles. Soon after its founding, Islam split into two main branches (Sunni and Shia Islam), each of which now has a number of denominations.

The Baháʼí Faith began within the context of Shia Islam in 19th-century Persia, after a merchant named Siyyid 'Alí Muḥammad Shírází claimed divine revelation and took on the title of the Báb, or "the Gate". The Bab's ministry proclaimed the imminent advent of "He whom God shall make manifest", who Baháʼís accept as Bahá'u'lláh. Baháʼís revere the Torah, Gospels and the Quran, and the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and 'Abdu’l-Bahá' are considered the central texts of the faith. A vast majority of adherents are unified under a single denomination.[98]

Lesser-known Abrahamic religions, originally offshoots of Shia Islam, include Bábism[n 9] and the Druze faith.[99]

Common aspects

All Abrahamic religions accept the tradition that God revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham.[100] All are monotheistic, and conceive God to be a transcendent creator and the source of moral law.[101] Their religious texts feature many of the same figures, histories, and places, although they often present them with different roles, perspectives, and meanings.[102] Believers who agree on these similarities and the common Abrahamic origin tend to also be more positive towards other Abrahamic groups.[103]

In the three main Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam), the individual, God, and the universe are highly separate from each other. The Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, paternal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. One seeks salvation or transcendence not by contemplating the natural world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God (such as obedience with God's wishes or his law) and see divine revelation as outside of self, nature, and custom.

Monotheism

Main article: God in Abrahamic religions

All Abrahamic religions claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, although one known by different names.[100] Each of these religions preaches that God creates, is one, rules, reveals, loves, judges, punishes, and forgives.[21][104] However, although Christianity does not profess to believe in three gods—but rather in three persons, or hypostases, united in one essence—the Trinitarian doctrine, a fundamental of faith for the vast majority of Christian denominations,[105][106] conflicts with Jewish and Muslim concepts of monotheism. Since the conception of a divine Trinity is not amenable to tawhid, the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam regards Christianity as variously polytheistic.[107]

Christianity and Islam both revere Jesus (Arabic: Isa or Yasu among Muslims and Arab Christians respectively) but with vastly differing conceptions:

However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God (known as shirk in Islam and as shituf in Judaism), is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Judaism.[citation needed]

Theological continuity

See also: Messianism

All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine will through inspired revelation. They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically and that one day God will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment.[citation needed] Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have a teleological view on history, unlike the static or cyclic view on it found in other cultures[109] (the latter being common in Indian religions).

Scripture

See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Development of the Christian biblical canon, and History of the Quran

All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through revelation to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture.

Ethical orientation

See also: Ethical monotheism

An ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God and to Divine Law.

Eschatological world view

An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come.[110]

Importance of Jerusalem

Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem

Further information: Jerusalem in Judaism, Jerusalem in Christianity, and Jerusalem in Islam

Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Its origins can be dated to 1004 BCE[111] when according to Biblical tradition David established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son Solomon built the First Temple on Mount Moriah.[112] Since the Hebrew Bible relates that Isaac's sacrifice took place there, Mount Moriah's importance for Jews predates even these prominent events. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple (the Third Temple) on mount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal. Jerusalem has served as the only capital for the five Jewish states that have existed in Israel since 1400 BCE (the United Kingdom of Israel, the Kingdom of Judah, Yehud Medinata, the Hasmonean Kingdom, and modern Israel). It has been majority Jewish since about 1852 and continues through today.[113][114]

Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian presence there since.[115] William R. Kenan, Jr., professor of the history of Christianity at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, writes that from the middle of the 4th century to the Islamic conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the Roman province of Palestine was a Christian nation with Jerusalem its principal city.[115] According to the New Testament, Jerusalem was the city Jesus was brought to as a child to be presented at the temple[Luke 2:22] and for the feast of the Passover.[Luke 2:41] He preached and healed in Jerusalem, unceremoniously drove the money changers in disarray from the temple there, held the Last Supper in an "upper room" (traditionally the Cenacle) there the night before he was crucified on the cross and was arrested in Gethsemane. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha, his burial nearby (traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there.

Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina. The Al-Aqsa Mosque, which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba, but toward Jerusalem (this was the qibla for 13 years): the qibla was switched to Kaaba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba (Quran, Al-Baqarah 2:144–150). Another reason for its significance is its connection with the Miʿrāj,[116] where, according to traditional Muslim, Muhammad ascended through the Seven heavens on a winged mule named Buraq, guided by the Archangel Gabriel, beginning from the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount, in modern times under the Dome of the Rock.[117][118]

Significance of Abraham

Main articles: Covenant of the pieces, Abraham § Christianity, and Abraham in Islam

An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)[Genesis 15]
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)[Genesis 15]

Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs.[43]

For Jews, Abraham is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you."[Gen. 12:2] With Abraham, God entered into "an everlasting covenant throughout the ages to be God to you and to your offspring to come".[Gen. 17:7] It is this covenant that makes Abraham and his descendants children of the covenant. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham.[citation needed]

Abraham is primarily a revered ancestor or patriarch (referred to as Avraham Avinu (אברהם אבינו in Hebrew) "Abraham our father") to whom God made several promises: chiefly, that he would have numberless descendants, who would receive the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land"). According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post-Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah.[119][120]

Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith, and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus. For Christians, Abraham is a spiritual forebear as well as/rather than a direct ancestor depending on the individual's interpretation of Paul the Apostle,[Rom. 4:9–12] with the Abrahamic covenant "reinterpreted so as to be defined by faith in Christ rather than biological descent" or both by faith as well as a direct ancestor; in any case, the emphasis is placed on faith being the only requirement for the Abrahamic Covenant to apply[121] (see also New Covenant and supersessionism). In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith,[Heb. 11:8–10][non-primary source needed] and his obedience to God by offering Isaac is seen as a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son Jesus.[Rom. 8:32][122]

Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than (as in supersessionism), being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus. They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile (before he was circumcised) "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. 15:6] (cf. Rom. 4:3, James 2:23), "those who have faith are children of Abraham" [Gal. 3:7] (see also John 8:39). This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham.[Rom. 4:20] [Gal. 4:9][123] However, with regards to Rom. 4:20[124] and Gal. 4:9[125], in both cases he refers to these spiritual descendants as the "sons of God"[Gal. 4:26] rather than "children of Abraham".[126]

For Muslims, Abraham is a prophet, the "messenger of God" who stands in the line from Adam to Muhammad, to whom God gave revelations,[Quran 4:163], who "raised the foundations of the House" (i.e., the Kaaba)[Quran 2:127] with his first son, Isma'il, a symbol of which is every mosque.[127] Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first in a genealogy for Muhammad. Islam considers Abraham to be "one of the first Muslims" (Surah 3)—the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost, and the community of those faithful to God,[128] thus being referred to as ابونا ابراهيم or "Our Father Abraham", as well as Ibrahim al-Hanif or "Abraham the Monotheist". Also, the same as Judaism, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.[129]

Differences

God

Main articles: God in Abrahamic religions, God in Judaism, God in Christianity, God in Islam, and God in the Baháʼí Faith

Further information: Yahweh, Tetragrammaton, El (deity), Elohim, Names of God in Judaism, Names of God in Christianity, and Names of God in Islam

The Abrahamic God is the conception of God that remains a common feature of all Abrahamic religions.[130] The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the creator of the universe.[130] God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence, and omnipresence.[130] Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent, but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures. God in Abrahamic religions is always referred to as masculine only.[130]

The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.

In Jewish theology, God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God of Israel is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered Israel from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the 613 Mitzvot at Mount Sinai as described in the Torah.

The national god of the Israelites has a proper name, written YHWH (Hebrew: יְהֹוָה, Modern: Yehovah, Tiberian: Yəhōwāh) in the Hebrew Bible. The name YHWH is a combination of the future, present, and past tense of the verb "howa" (Hebrew: הוה‎) meaning "to be" and translated literally means "The self-existent One". A further explanation of the name was given to Moses when YHWH stated Eheye Asher Eheye (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה‎) "I will be that I will be", the name relates to God as God truly is, God's revealed essence, which transcends the universe. It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim, relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".

The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.

In Christian theology, God is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent (involved in the world).[131][132] Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early[n 10] creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus.

Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381.[133][134] Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith.[135][136] Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways.[137]

The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things".[138] In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted.[139] As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible (e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the Father is in Heaven), others based on theological reasoning.[140][141]

The word God written in Arabic
The word God written in Arabic

calligraphy

In Islamic theology, God (Arabic: اللهAllāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.[142] Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd)[143] unique (wāḥid) and inherently One (aḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent.[144] According to Islamic teachings, God exists without place[145] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[146] God, as referenced in the Quran, is the only God.[147][148] Islamic tradition also describes the 99 names of God. These 99 names describe attributes of God, including Most Merciful, The Just, The Peace and Blessing, and the Guardian.

Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. This belief is summed up in chapter 112 of the Quran titled Al-Ikhlas, which states "Say, he is Allah (who is) one, Allah is the Eternal, the Absolute. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent".[Quran 112:1]

Scriptures

Main articles: Tanakh, Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, Quran, and Hadith

All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being.

The sacred scriptures of Judaism are the Tanakh, a Hebrew acronym standing for Torah (Law or Teachings), Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings). These are complemented by and supplemented with various (originally oral) traditions: Midrash, the Mishnah, the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings. The Tanakh (or Hebrew Bible) was composed between 1,400 BCE, and 400 BCE by Jewish prophets, kings, and priests.

The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the 300,000+ stylized letters that make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use; hence the skills of a Torah scribe are specialist skills, and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.

A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.

The sacred scriptures of most Christian groups are the Old Testament and the New Testament. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional materials.

The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus (the Four Gospels), as well as several other writings (the epistles) and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired, and together comprise the Christian Bible.

The vast majority of Christian faiths (including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism) recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, the English King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times.

The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders (see canon law). Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding (sola scriptura).

9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum

Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising 114 Suras ("chapters of the Qur'an"). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran (and mainstream Muslim belief), the verses of the Quran were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions. These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Muhammad, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire.

The Quran mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus, among others (see also: Prophets of Islam). The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God (through Gabriel) to Muhammad and codified in the Quran.

Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Quran as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.[149]

Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Quran is complemented by the Hadith, a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: genuine (sahih), fair (hasan) or weak (da'if).[150]

By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims.

Shi'a Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead.[151] They are known collectively as The Four Books.

The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad (sira) form the Sunnah, an authoritative supplement to the Quran. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (Faqīh) provide another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition (see Fiqh.)

The Quran contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" (see Suras 2:130,135; 3:95; 6:123,161; 12:38; 16:123; 22:78). In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura 2:135, for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (to salvation)." Say thou (O Muslims): "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God." ' In the Quran, Abraham is declared to have been a Muslim (a hanif, more accurately a "primordial monotheist"), not a Jew nor a Christian (Sura 3:67).

Eschatology

Main articles: Eschatology, Jewish eschatology, Christian eschatology, and Islamic eschatology

In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come.

Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus (to complete his life and die) and the coming of Mahdi (Sunnis in his first incarnation, Twelver Shia as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi).

Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul, which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly on the Day of Judgement. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions.[citation needed]

Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the Next World") are quite diverse. This can be attributed to an almost non-existent tradition of souls/spirits in the Hebrew Bible (a possible exception being the Witch of Endor), resulting in a focus on the present life rather than future reward.

Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead (Heaven, Hell, Limbo, Purgatory) or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism, the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist.

In Islam, God is said to be "Most Compassionate and Most Merciful" (Quran 1:2, as well as the start of all Suras but one). However, God is also "Most Just"; Islam prescribes a literal Hell for those who disobey God and commit gross sin. Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels.

Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels, with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah (martyrs).

Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk (i.e. associating God in any way, such as claiming that He is equal with anything or denying Him), this is not pardonable—he or she will stay forever in Hell.

Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity.[152]

Worship and religious rites

Main article: Christian worship

Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities—Shabbat, Sabbath, or jumu'ah; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh.

Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah, and facing in the direction of Jerusalem's Temple Mount. Other practices include circumcision, dietary laws, Shabbat, Passover, Torah study, Tefillin, purity and others. Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law.

Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services.

All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year (an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year). All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one.

Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments, which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion, and may also include Confirmation, Confession, Last Rites and Holy Orders.

Catholic worship practice is governed by documents, including (in the largest, Western, Latin Church) the Roman Missal. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional (see Adiaphora), particularly since the Protestant Reformation.

The followers of Islam (Muslims) are to observe the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily (salat) towards the direction (qibla) of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving (Zakah), a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required (i.e. proceeds from renting space), and increases to 50% on "unearned wealth" such as treasure-finding, and to 100% on wealth that is considered haram, as part of attempting to make atonement for the sin, such as that gained through financial interest (riba).

Fasting (sawm) during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan, is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health (as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim physician" is required to agree), that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting. In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed.

Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj (e.g. if making Hajj would put stress on one's financial situation, but would not end up in homelessness or starvation, it is still required). During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the "stoning of the devil" at Mina.

At the end of the Hajj, the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels, are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut, to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael (contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice) with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts off ihram and the hajj is complete.[citation needed]

Circumcision

See also: Circumcision in the Bible, Brit Milah, Khatna, Circumcision controversy in early Christianity, and History of male circumcision

Judaism commands that males be circumcised when they are 8 days old, as does the Sunnah in Islam.

Western Christianity replaced the custom of male circumcision with the ritual of baptism[153] a ceremony which varies according to the doctrine of the denomination, but it generally includes immersion, aspersion, or anointment with water. The Early Church (Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem) decided that Gentile Christians are not required to undergo circumcision. The Council of Florence in the 15th century[154] prohibited it. Paragraph #2297 of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral.[155][156] By the 21st century, the Catholic Church had adopted a neutral position on the practice, as long as it is not practised as an initiation ritual. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.[157][158][159] The New Testament chapter Acts 15 records that Christianity did not require circumcision. The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision,[160] and in 1442 it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence.[161] Coptic Christians practice circumcision as a rite of passage.[162] The Eritrean Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church calls for circumcision, with near-universal prevalence among Orthodox men in Ethiopia.[163]

Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian countries such as the United States,[164] and the Philippines, Australia,[165] and Canada, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya, and many other African Christian countries,[166][167][168] Circumcision is near universal in the Christian countries of Oceania. Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Eritrean Orthodoxy still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage.[162][169] Male circumcision is also widely practiced among Christians from South Korea, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and North Africa. (See also aposthia.)

Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah, or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation.[170]

Dietary restrictions

Main articles: kashrut, halal, and ital

See also: Apostolic Decree

Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam.[171]

With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions.[172]

The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days.[173] The law of abstinence requires a Catholic from 14 years of age until death to abstain from eating meat on Fridays in honor of the Passion of Jesus on Good Friday. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops obtained the permission of the Holy See for Catholics in the U.S. to substitute a penitential, or even a charitable, practice of their own choosing.[174] Eastern Rite Catholics have their own penitential practices as specified by the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) embraces numerous Old Testament rules and regulations such as tithing, Sabbath observance, and Jewish food laws. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures".[Leviticus 11:1–47] among others[175]

In the Christian Bible, the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree[Acts 15:19–21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele, who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show." He also writes that "as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third, in 731, forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days."[176]

Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on Acts 15:19–21.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea. While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat.[177]

Sabbath observance

See also: Biblical Sabbath, Shabbat, Christian Sabbath, and Jumu'ah

Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition.

Proselytism

Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws, a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud, were given by God[178] as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah"—that is, all of humanity.[179][180] It is believed that as much as ten percent of the Roman Empire followed Judaism either as fully ritually obligated Jews or the simpler rituals required of non-Jewish members of that faith.[181]

Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. In the U.S., as of 2003 28% of married Jews were married to non-Jews.[182] See also Conversion to Judaism.

The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)

Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegations are the conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews and Eastern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews and Muslims during the time of the Spanish Inquisition, where they were offered the choice of exile, conversion or death; and of the Aztecs by Hernán Cortés. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation, especially in England and Ireland (see recusancy and Popish plot).

Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). According to Pope Paul VI, "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in faith must be free: no one, therefore, is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith against his own will."[183] The Roman Catholic Church has declared that Catholics should fight anti-Semitism.[184]

Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī, plural du‘āt. A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam through a dialogical process and may be categorized in some cases as the Islamic equivalent of a missionary, as one who invites people to the faith, to the prayer, or to Islamic life.

Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah.

In Islamic theology, the purpose of Da‘wah is to invite people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, to understand the commandments of God as expressed in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet, as well as to inform them about Muhammad. Da‘wah produces converts to Islam, which in turn grows the size of the Muslim Ummah, or community of Muslims.

Dialogue between Abrahamic religions

Main article: Interfaith dialogue

This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions.

Amir Hussain
In 2003, a book called Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism contains a chapter by Amir Hussain on "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue" which he shows how interfaith dialogue has been an integral part of Islam from its beginning. From his "first revelation" for the rest of his life, Muhammad was "engaged in interfaith dialogue." Islam would not have spread without "interfaith dialogue."[185]

Hussain gives an early example of "the importance of pluralism and interfaith dialogue" to Islam. When some of Muhammad's followers suffered "physical persecution" in Mecca, he sent them to Abyssinia, a Christian nation, where they were "welcomed and accepted" by the Christian king. Another example is Córdoba, Andalusia in Muslim Spain, in the ninth and tenth centuries. Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world". In Córdoba, "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city." Thus, there is "a history of Muslims, Jews, Christians, and other religious traditions living together in a pluralistic society."[186]

Turning to the present, Hussain says that one of the challenges which Muslims face now is the conflicting passages in the Qur̀an some of which support interfaith "bridge-building," but other passages of it can be used to "justify mutual exclusion." [187]

Trialogue
The 2007 book Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue starkly states the importance of interfaith dialogue: "We human beings today face a stark choice: dialogue or death!"[188] The Trialogue book gives four reasons why the three Abrahamic religions should engage in dialogue:[189]

1. They "come from the same Hebraic roots and claim Abraham as their originating ancestor."
2. "All three traditions are religions of ethical monotheism."
3. They "are all historical religions."
4. All three are "religions of revelation."

Pope Benedict XVI
In 2010, Pope Benedict XVI spoke about "Interreligious dialogue." He said that "the Church's universal nature and vocation require that she engage in dialogue with the members of other religions." For the Abrahamic religions, this "dialogue is based on the spiritual and historical bonds uniting Christians to Jews and Muslims." It is dialogue "grounded in the sacred Scriptures" and "defined in the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium and in the Declaration on the Church's Relation to Non-Christian Religions Nostra Aetate. The Pope concluded with a prayer: "May Jews, Christians and Muslims . . . give the beautiful witness of serenity and concord between the children of Abraham."[190]

Learned Ignorance
In the 2011 book Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims, the three editors address the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue; its purpose?":

The Interfaith Amigos
In 2011, TED broadcast a 10-minute program about "Breaking the Taboos of Interfaith Dialogue" with Rabbi Ted Falcon (Jewish), Pastor Don Mackenzie (Christian), and Imam Jamal Rahman (Muslim) collectively known as The Interfaith Amigos See their TED program by clicking here.

Divisive matters should be addressed
In 2012, a PhD thesis Dialogue Between Christians, Jews and Muslims argues that "the paramount need is for barriers against non-defensive dialogue conversations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims to be dismantled to facilitate the development of common understandings on matters that are deeply divisive." As of 2012, the thesis says that this has not been done.[194]

Cardinal Koch
In 2015, Cardinal Kurt Koch, the President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, an organization that is "responsible for the Church's dialogue with the Jewish people," was interviewed. He noted that the Church is already engaging in "bilateral talks with Jewish and Muslim religious leaders" but stated that it is too early for the Church to host "trialogue" talks with representatives of the three Abrahamic religions. Yet, Koch added, "we hope that we can go in this [direction] in the future."[195]

Omid Safi
In 2016, a 26-minute interview with Professor Omid Safi, a Muslim and Director of the Duke Islamic Studies Center, was posted on YouTube.com. In it, Safi stated that he has spent his life trying to combine "love and tenderness" which are the "essence of being human" with "social justice."[196]

Demographics

Worldwide percentage of adherents by Abrahamic religion, as of 2015[197]

  Christianity (31.2%)
  Islam (24.1%)
  Judaism (0.18%)
  Baháʼí Faith (0.07%)
  Non-Abrahamic religions (45.45%)

Christianity is the largest Abrahamic religion with about 2.3 billion adherents, constituting about 31.1% of the world's population.[198] Islam is the second largest Abrahamic religion, as well as the fastest-growing Abrahamic religion.[198][199] It has about 1.9 billion adherents, called Muslims, which constitute about 24.1% of the world's population. The third largest Abrahamic religion is Judaism with about 14.1 million adherents, called Jews.[198] The Baháʼí Faith has about 7 million adherents, making it the fourth largest Abrahamic religion.[200]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The majority of religious Islamic publications claim that the crescent is rejected "by many Muslim scholars".[1]
  2. ^ Jacob is also called Israel, a name the Bible states he was given by God.
  3. ^ cf. Christianity in the 1st century, History of early Christianity, Judaizers, Paul the Apostle and Jewish Christianity, and Split of early Christianity and Judaism.
  4. ^ With several centers, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Thessaloniki and Corinth, Antioch, and later spread outwards, eventually having two main centers in the empire, one for the Western Church and one for the Eastern Church in Rome and Constantinople respectively by the 5th century CE
  5. ^ Triune God is also called the "Holy Trinity"
  6. ^ Islam arose specifically in Tihamah city of Mecca and Hejaz city of Medina of Arabia
  7. ^ The monotheistic view of God in Islam is called tawhid which is essentially the same as the conception of God in Judaism
  8. ^ Teachings and practices of Muhammad are collectively known as the sunnah, similar to the Judaic concepts of oral law and exegesis, or talmud and midrash
  9. ^ Historically, the Baháʼí Faith arose in 19th-century Persia, in the context of Shia Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Baháʼí Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which arose from a Muslim context but also recognizes other traditions. The Baháʼí Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.
  10. ^ Perhaps even pre-Pauline creeds.

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Many Muslim scholars reject using the crescent moon as a symbol of Islam. Historically, the faith of Islam had no symbol, and many Muslims refuse to accept it." Fiaz Fazli, Crescent magazine, Srinagar, September 2009, p. 42.
  2. ^ a b c d e Bremer, Thomas S. (2015). "Abrahamic religions". Formed From This Soil: An Introduction to the Diverse History of Religion in America. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-4051-8927-9. LCCN 2014030507. S2CID 127980793.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Abulafia, Anna Sapir (23 September 2019). "The Abrahamic religions". www.bl.uk. London: British Library. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  4. ^ "Philosophy of Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  5. ^ a b Hatcher & Martin 1998, pp. 130–31.
  6. ^ a b Able, John (2011). Apocalypse Secrets: Baha'i Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. McLean, Virginia: John Able Books Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-9702847-5-4.
  7. ^ a b Dever, William G. (2001). "Getting at the "History behind the History"". What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel. Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, U.K.: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 97–102. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3. OCLC 46394298.
  8. ^ Atzmon, G.; Hao, L.; Pe'er, I.; et al. (June 2010). "Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics. Cell Press on behalf of the American Society of Human Genetics. 86 (6): 850–859. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015. PMC 3032072. PMID 20560205. [1] Archived 30 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Israelite religion has its origins in Canaanite religions of the Bronze Age, it became distinct from other Canaanite religions in Iron Age I due to a focus on the monolatristic worship of Yahweh. Judaism likely became fully monotheistic in the 6th century BCE (Iron Age II).[2] Archived 30 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ See:
    • Louis Jacobs (1995), p. 272
    • Turner (2005), p. 16
  10. ^ C.J. Adams Classification of religions: Geographical. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007 Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 15 May 2013
  11. ^ a b Massignon 1949, pp. 20–23
  12. ^ Smith 1998, p. 276
  13. ^ Derrida 2002, p. 3
  14. ^ Obeid, Anis (2006). The Druze & Their Faith in Tawhid. Syracuse University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8156-5257-1.
  15. ^ a b "Abrahamic Religion". Christianity: Details about... Christianity Guide. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
  16. ^ * "Why 'Abrahamic'?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  17. ^ Guy G.Stroumsa, The Making of the Abrahamic Religions in Late Antiquity, ISBN 978-0-191-05913-1 Oxford University Press 2015 p.7
  18. ^ a b Jon D. Levenson, Inheriting Abraham: The Legacy of the Patriarch in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Princeton University Press, 2014 ISBN 978-0-691-16355-0 ch.1 & pp.3, 6, 178-179
  19. ^ Scherman, pp. 34–35.
  20. ^ Saheeh al-Bukharee, Book 55, hadith no. 584; Book 56, hadith no. 710
  21. ^ a b Dodds, Adam (July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and Discontinuity in Christian and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly. 81 (3): 230–253. doi:10.1163/27725472-08103003.
  22. ^ Greenstreet, p. 95.
  23. ^ "Dr. Alan L. Berger". Florida Atlantic University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  24. ^ Alan L. Berger, ed., Trialogue and Terror: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam after 9/11 (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2012), xiii.
  25. ^ Hughes, Aaron W. (2012). Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–4, 7–8, 17, 32. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199934645.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-993464-5. S2CID 157815976.
  26. ^ Pavlac, Brian A (2010). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities. Chapter 6.
  27. ^ Noll, Mark A. (2002). "The High Tide of Protestantism, 1830-1865". The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity. Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-8028-4948-9. LCCN 2001040537.
  28. ^ a b c d Hughes, Richard T. (2001). "Soaring with the Gods: Early Mormons and the Eclipse of Religious Pluralism". In Eliason, Eric A. (ed.). Mormons and Mormonism: An Introduction to an American World Religion. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 23–46. ISBN 0-252-02609-8. S2CID 142892455.
  29. ^ a b c d Givens, Terryl L. (2003) [2002]. ""A Seer Shall the Lord My God Raise Up": The Prophet and the Plates". By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture that Launched a New World Religion. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 8–42. doi:10.1093/019513818X.003.0002. ISBN 9780195138184. OCLC 1028168787. S2CID 159734267.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Mason, Patrick Q. (3 September 2015). "Mormonism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.75. ISBN 9780199340378. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  31. ^ Charles, Carter (2016). "Mormonism in America: Itinerary to Allegiance from Joseph Smith to Mitt Romney". In Hunt, Stephen J. (ed.). Handbook of Global Contemporary Christianity: Movements, Institutions, and Allegiance. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. 12. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 441–460. doi:10.1163/9789004310780_022. ISBN 978-90-04-26539-4. ISSN 1874-6691.
  32. ^ Shipps, Jan (2001). "Is Mormonism Christian? Reflections on a Complicated Question". In Eliason, Eric A. (ed.). Mormons and Mormonism: An Introduction to an American World Religion. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 76–98. ISBN 0-252-02609-8. S2CID 142892455.
  33. ^ Sandstrom, Aleksandra; Alper, Becka A. (30 September 2016). "6 facts about U.S. Mormons". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  34. ^ a b Robinson, Stephen E.; Burgon, Glade L.; Turner, Rodney; Largey, Dennis L. (1992), "God the Father", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 548–552, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, retrieved 7 May 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
  35. ^ Turner, John G. (2016). The Mormon Jesus: A Biography. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780674737433.
  36. ^ a b Davies, Douglas J. (2003). "Divine–human transformations". An Introduction to Mormonism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65–90. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511610028.004. ISBN 9780511610028. OCLC 438764483. S2CID 146238056.
  37. ^ Dahl, Paul E. (1992), "Godhead", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 552–553, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, retrieved 7 May 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
  38. ^ Smith, Joseph Fielding (1956). Doctrines of Salvation. Bookcraft. p. 1:38.
  39. ^ a b c d Stark, Rodney (2005). "The Basis of Mormon Success". In Neilson, Reid L. (ed.). The Rise of Mormonism. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 114–116. doi:10.7312/star13634-006. ISBN 9780231136341. LCCN 2005045464. OCLC 800910267. S2CID 99224315.
  40. ^ Religions » Islam » Islam at a glance Archived 21 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, 5 August 2009.
  41. ^
  42. ^ Bausani, Alessandro; MacEoin, Denis (14 July 2011) [15 December 1982]. "ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ". Encyclopædia Iranica. I/1. New York: Columbia University. pp. 102–104. doi:10.1163/2330-4804_EIRO_COM_4280. ISSN 2330-4804. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  43. ^ a b "Why 'Abrahamic'?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  44. ^ Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (29 August 2008). "Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related forms of Intolerance, follow-up and implementation of the Durhan Declaration and Programme of Action" (PDF). Human Rights Council; Ninth session; Agenda item 9. United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
  45. ^ a b Lawson, Todd (13 December 2012). Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney, Christopher (eds.). "Baha'i Religious History". Journal of Religious History. 36 (4): 463–470. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2012.01224.x. ISSN 1467-9809. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013 – via Baháʼí Library Online.
  46. ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger (ed.). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-8239-1505-7.
  47. ^ Hatcher, William S.; Martin, J. Douglas (1985). The Baháʼí Faith. San Francisco: Harper & Row. p. 74. ISBN 0-06-065441-4 – via Archive.org.
  48. ^ a b Smith 2008, p. 106.
  49. ^ Britannica (1992). "The Baháʼí Faith". In Daphne Daume; Louise Watson (eds.). Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 0-85229-486-7.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cole 2012, pp. 438–446.
  51. ^ Smith 2008, p. 111.
  52. ^ Hatcher, John S. (2005). "Unveiling the Hurí of Love". The Journal of Baháʼí Studies. 15: –38. Retrieved 16 October 2020 – via Bahá'í Library Online.
  53. ^ Smith 2008, pp. 107–108.
  54. ^ a b May, Dann J (December 1993). The Baháʼí Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism (Thesis). University of North Texas, Denton, Texas. p. 102. OCLC 31313812. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2010 – via Baháʼí Library Online.
  55. ^ Hatcher, W.S.; Martin, J.D. (1998). The Baháʼí Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette, Illinois: US Baháʼí Publishing Trust. ISBN 978-0-87743-264-7.
  56. ^ Flow, Christian B.; Nolan, Rachel B. (16 November 2006). "Go Forth From Your Country" (PDF). The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  57. ^ Ma'ani, Baharieh Rouhani (2008). Leaves of the Twin Divine Trees. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-85398-533-4.
  58. ^ Taherzadeh, A. (1984). "The Death of The Purest Branch". The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 3: 'Akka, The Early Years 1868–77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 204–220. ISBN 978-0-85398-144-2. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  59. ^ Stockman, Robert H. (2006). Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (eds.). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 185–218. ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1.
  60. ^ Buck, Christopher (1999). Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Baháʼí Faith. State University of New York Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-7914-4061-2 – via Google Books.
  61. ^ "Baháʼí Faith". Britannica Micropaedia. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. p. 797. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9.
  62. ^ a b Smith 2008, p. 106
  63. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois: US Baháʼí Publishing Trust. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-87743-020-9. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  64. ^ Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Baháʼí Writings". Études Baháʼí Studies. monograph 9: 1–38. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2010 – via Baháʼí Library Online.
  65. ^ Smith 2008, pp. 111–112
  66. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Manifestations of God". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 231. ISBN 1-85168-184-1 – via Internet Archive.
  67. ^ See for example the affirmations granted Baháʼí Faith and Native Americans such as in Buck, Christopher (1996). "Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism". Baháʼí Studies Review: 97–132. Retrieved 5 October 2020 – via Baháʼí Library Online.
    and in the indigenous culture in Papua New Guinea see Were, Graeme (2005). "Thinking through images:Kastom and the coming of the Baha'is (sic) to Northern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 11 (4): 659–676. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00256.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  68. ^ Léo-Paul Dana (1 January 2010). Entrepreneurship and Religion. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-84980-632-9.
  69. ^ Terri Morrison; Wayne A. Conaway (24 July 2006). Kiss, Bow, Or Shake Hands: The Bestselling Guide to Doing Business in More Than 60 Countries (illustrated ed.). Adams Media. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-59337-368-9.
  70. ^ Hendrix, Scott; Okeja, Uchenna, eds. (2018). The World's Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 11. ISBN 978-1440841385.
  71. ^ Corduan, Winfried (2013). Neighboring Faiths: A Christian Introduction to World Religions. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8308-7197-1.
  72. ^ Mackey, Sandra (2009). Mirror of the Arab World: Lebanon in Conflict. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-393-33374-9.
  73. ^ Lev, David (25 October 2010). "MK Kara: Druze are Descended from Jews". Israel National News. Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  74. ^ Blumberg, Arnold (1985). Zion Before Zionism: 1838–1880. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8156-2336-6.
  75. ^ Rosenfeld, Judy (1952). Ticket to Israel: An Informative Guide. p. 290.
  76. ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). The Druzes: a new study of their history, faith, and society. BRILL. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-90-04-09705-6. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014.
  77. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2 December 2013). A History of Shi'i Islam. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-524-9.
  78. ^ a b c Quilliam, Neil (1999). Syria and the New World Order. Michigan University press. p. 42. ISBN 9780863722493.
  79. ^ a b c The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1992. p. 237. ISBN 9780852295533. Druze religious beliefs developed out of Isma'ill teachings. Various Jewish, Christian, Gnostic, Neoplatonic, and Iranian elements, however, are combined under a doctrine of strict monotheism.
  80. ^ Rosenthal, Donna (2003). The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. Simon and Schuster. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-684-86972-8.
  81. ^ a b c Kapur, Kamlesh (2010). History of Ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-207-4910-8.
  82. ^ The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land Archived 20 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Donna Rosenthal, Simon and Schuster, 2003, p. 296
  83. ^ Swayd, SDSU, Dr. Samy, Druze Spirituality and Asceticism, Eial, archived from the original (an abridged rough draft; RTF) on 5 October 2006
  84. ^ Nisan 2002, p. 95.
  85. ^ "Druze". druze.org.au. 2015. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016.
  86. ^ Hitti, Philip K. (1928). The Origins of the Druze People and Religion: With Extracts from Their Sacred Writings. Library of Alexandria. p. 37. ISBN 9781465546623.
  87. ^ Dana, Nissim (2008). The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Michigan University press. p. 17. ISBN 9781903900369.
  88. ^ Pintak, Lawrence (2019). America & Islam: Soundbites, Suicide Bombs and the Road to Donald Trump. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9781788315593.
  89. ^ Jonas, Margaret (2011). The Templar Spirit: The Esoteric Inspiration, Rituals and Beliefs of the Knights Templar. Temple Lodge Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781906999254. [Druze] often they are not regarded as being Muslim at all, nor do all the Druze consider themselves as Muslim
  90. ^ "Are the Druze People Arabs or Muslims? Deciphering Who They Are". Arab America. Arab America. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  91. ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
  92. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634. While they appear parallel to those of normative Islam, in the Druze religion they are different in meaning and interpretation. The religion is consider distinct from the Ismaili as well as from other Muslims belief and practice... Most Druze consider themselves fully assimilated in American society and do not necessarily identify as Muslims..
  93. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780030525964. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above.
  94. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chryssides, George D. (2001) [1999]. "Independent New Religions: Rastafarianism". Exploring New Religions. Issues in Contemporary Religion. London and New York: Continuum International. pp. 269–277. ISBN 9780826459596. OCLC 436090427. S2CID 143265918.
  95. ^ Florentin, Moshe (2005). Late Samaritan Hebrew: A Linguistic Analysis Of Its Different Types. Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics. 43. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-13841-4. ISSN 0081-8461.
  96. ^ a b c d Brother shall not lift his sword against Brother, Tsvi Misinai, Liad publishing, 2007, pp. 32–33
  97. ^ Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to life in ancient Mesopotamia (Paperback ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0195183641.
  98. ^ "The Baháʼí Faith – The website of the worldwide Baháʼí community". Bahai.org. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015. the religions of the world come from the same Source and are in essence successive chapters of one religion from God
  99. ^ * Dolbee, Sandi (27 March 2003). "Faith, Hope and Understand: Teenagers Questions and learn about each other's Faiths". The San Diego Union–Tribune. p. E.1. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  100. ^ a b Peters, Francis E.; Esposito, John L. (2006). The children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12769-9.
  101. ^ "Religion: Three Religions – One God". Global Connections of the Middle East. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2002. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  102. ^ Kunst, J. R.; Thomsen, L. (2014). "Prodigal sons: Dual Abrahamic categorization mediates the detrimental effects of religious fundamentalism on Christian-Muslim relations". The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 25 (4): 1–14. doi:10.1080/10508619.2014.937965. hdl:10852/43723. S2CID 53625066.
  103. ^ Kunst, J.; Thomsen, L.; Sam, D. (2014). "Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians". European Journal of Social Psychology. 44 (4): 337–348. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2014.
  104. ^ Dodds, Adam. "The Abrahamic faiths? Continuity and discontinuity in Christian and Islamic doctrine" (PDF). The Divine Conspiracy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2017.
  105. ^ "The Trinity". BBC. July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018.
  106. ^ Perman, Matt (January 2006). "What Is the Doctrine of the Trinity?". desiring God. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018.
  107. ^ Hoover, Jon. "Islamic Monotheism and the Trinity" (PDF). University of Waterloo. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 January 2013.
  108. ^ Uri Rubin, Prophets and Prophethood, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
  109. ^ Samuel P. Huntington: Der Kampf der Kulturen. Die Neugestaltung der Weltpolitik im 21. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt 1997, p. 337.
  110. ^ Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Archived 21 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973–74. The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
  111. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (12 May 2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 541. ISBN 9781851098422. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  112. ^ Steven Fine (2011). The Temple of Jerusalem: From Moses to the Messiah: In Honor of Professor Louis H. Feldman. BRILL. pp. 302–303. ISBN 978-9004192539. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  113. ^ Morgenstern, Arie; Translated by Joel A. Linsider (2006). "Epilogue: Emergence of a Jewish Majority in Jerusalem". Hastening redemption: Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel. US: Oxford University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-19-530578-4.
  114. ^ Lapidoth, Ruth; Moshe Hirsch (1994). The Jerusalem question and its resolution: selected documents. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-7923-2893-3.
  115. ^ a b Wilken, Robert L. "From Time Immemorial? Dwellers in the Holy Land." Christian Century, 30 July – 6 August 1986, p. 678.
  116. ^ "Mi'raj – Islam". Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
  117. ^ "Jerusalem (Britannica)" Archived 21 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Jerusalem(Britannica)
  118. ^ "Al-Aqsa Mosque – mosque, Jerusalem". Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
  119. ^ Shultz, Joseph P. "Two Views of the Patriarchs", in Nahum Norbert Glatzer, Michael A. Fishbane, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (eds.) (1975). Texts and Responses: Studies presented to Nahum N. Glatzer on the occasion of his 70th birthday by his students. Brill Publishers. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9789004039803
  120. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1973). "The Jew". The Aryeh Kaplan Reader. Mesorah Publications. p. 161. ISBN 9780899061733
  121. ^ Blasi, Turcotte, Duhaime, p. 592.
  122. ^ MacArthur, John (1996). "The Hymn of Security". The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: Romans. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 978-0-8254-1522-7.
  123. ^ "So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith." "In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God's children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham's offspring." (Rom. 9:8)
  124. ^ Rom. 4:20, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
  125. ^ Gal. 4:9, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
  126. ^ Bickerman, p. 188cf.
  127. ^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford companion to world mythology. US: Oxford University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
  128. ^ Fischer, Michael M. J.; Mehdi Abedi (1990). Debating Muslims: cultural dialogues in postmodernity and tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 163–166. ISBN 978-0-299-12434-2.
  129. ^ Hawting, Gerald R. (2006). The development of Islamic ritual; Volume 26 of The formation of the classical Islamic world. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. xviii, xix, xx, xxiii. ISBN 978-0-86078-712-9.
  130. ^ a b c d Christiano, Kevin J.; Kivisto, Peter; Swatos, Jr., William H., eds. (2015) [2002]. "Excursus on the History of Religions". Sociology of Religion: Contemporary Developments (3rd ed.). Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press. pp. 254–255. ISBN 978-1-4422-1691-4. LCCN 2001035412. S2CID 154932078.
  131. ^ Basic Christian Doctrine by John H. Leith (1 January 1992) ISBN 0664251927 pages 55–56
  132. ^ Introducing Christian Doctrine (2nd Edition) by Millard J. Erickson (1 April 2001) ISBN 0801022509 pages 87–88
  133. ^ Prestige G.L. Fathers and Heretics SPCK:1963, p. 29
  134. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black:1965, p. 280
  135. ^ Mercer Dictionary of the Bible edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0865543739 page 935
  136. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p. 115
  137. ^ Theology: The Basics by Alister E. McGrath (21 September 2011) ISBN 0470656751 pages 117–120
  138. ^ Irenaeus of Lyons by Eric Francis Osborn (26 November 2001) ISBN 0521800064 pages 27–29
  139. ^ Global Dictionary of Theology by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (10 October 2008) ISBN 0830824545 pages 352–353
  140. ^ Christian Doctrine by Shirley C. Guthrie (1 July 1994) ISBN 0664253687 pages 111 and 100
  141. ^ Hirschberger, Johannes. Historia de la Filosofía I, Barcelona: Herder 1977, p. 403
  142. ^ Gerhard Böwering God and his Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Quran.com, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 22
  143. ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 88
  144. ^ "Allah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  145. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, "Islam", p. 3
  146. ^ Quran 6:103
  147. ^ Quran 29:46
  148. ^ F. E. Peters, Islam, p. 4, Princeton University Press, 2003
  149. ^ Baker, Mona; Saldanha, Gabriela (2008). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-415-36930-5.
  150. ^ ʻUthmān ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ al-Shahrazūrī; Eerik Dickinson (2006). An Introduction to the Science of Hadith: Kitab Ma'rifat Anwa' 'ilm Al-hadith. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85964-158-3.
  151. ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shiʻi Islam: the history and doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. Yale University Press. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  152. ^ al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (1994). Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller). Amana Publications. pp. 995–1002. ISBN 978-0-915957-72-9.
  153. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Baptism Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine: "According to rabbinical teachings, which dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, next to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be fulfilled by a proselyte to Judaism (Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab. 135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d). Circumcision, however, was much more important, and, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems", 1898, p. 70). But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices had ceased, Baptism remained the sole condition for initiation into religious life. The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of hands, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews at the ordination of a rabbi. Anointing with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary condition".
  154. ^ "Ecumenical Council of Florence (1438–1445)" Archived 16 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. The Circumcision Reference Library. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  155. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church: Article 5—The Fifth commandment Archived 29 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  156. ^ Dietzen, John. "The Morality of Circumcision" Archived 10 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine, The Circumcision Reference Library. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  157. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: The Catholic Church and Circumcision". www.catholicdoors.com. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  158. ^ "Should Catholics circumcise their sons? – Catholic Answers". Catholic.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  159. ^ "The Catechism forbids deliberate mutilation, so why is non-therapeutic circumcision allowed?". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  160. ^ Slosar, J. P.; O'Brien, D. (2003). "The Ethics of Neonatal Male Circumcision: A Catholic Perspective". American Journal of Bioethics. 3 (2): 62–64. doi:10.1162/152651603766436306. PMID 12859824. S2CID 38064474.
  161. ^ Eugenius IV, Pope (1990) [1442]. "Ecumenical Council of Florence (1438–1445): Session 11—4 February 1442; Bull of union with the Copts". In Norman P. Tanner (ed.). Decrees of the ecumenical councils. 2 volumes (in Greek and Latin). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-490-2. LCCN 90003209. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2007. it denounces all who after that time observe circumcision
  162. ^ a b "Circumcision". Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  163. ^ Adams, Gregory; Adams, Kristina (2012). "Circumcision in the Early Christian Church: The Controversy That Shaped a Continent". In Bolnick, David A.; Koyle, Martin; Yosha, Assaf (eds.). Surgical Guide to Circumcision. London: Springer. pp. 291–298. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-2858-8_26. ISBN 978-1-4471-2857-1. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  164. ^ Ray, Mary G. "82% of the World's Men are Intact", Mothers Against Circumcision, 1997.
  165. ^ Richters, J.; Smith, A. M.; de Visser, R. O.; Grulich, A. E.; Rissel, C. E. (August 2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS. 17 (8): 547–54. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903. S2CID 24396989.
  166. ^ Williams, B. G.; et al. (2006). "The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa". PLOS Med. 3 (7): e262. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030262. PMC 1489185. PMID 16822094.
  167. ^ "Questions and answers: NIAID-sponsored adult male circumcision trials in Kenya and Uganda". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. December 2006. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010.
  168. ^ "Circumcision amongst the Dogon". The Non-European Components of European Patrimony (NECEP) Database. 2006. Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
  169. ^ Van Doorn-Harder, Nelly (2006). "Christianity: Coptic Christianity". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 1. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
  170. ^ Australia, Muslim Information Service of. "Male Circumcision in Islam". Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  171. ^ "Halal & Healthy: Is Kosher Halal" Archived 23 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, SoundVision.com—Islamic information & products. 5 August 2009.
  172. ^ Schuchmann, Jennifer. "Does God Care What We Eat?", Today's Christian, January/February 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  173. ^ Canon 1250, 1983. The 1983 Code of Canon Law specifies the obligations of Latin Rite Catholic.
  174. ^ "Fasting and Abstinence" Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Catholic Online. 6 August 2009.
  175. ^ "Fundamental Beliefs" Archived 10 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine, No. 22. Christian Behavior. Seventh-Day Adventist Church website. 6 August 2009.
  176. ^ Schaff, Philip. "Canon II of The Council of Gangra". The Seven Ecumenical Councils. 6 August 2009. Commentary on Canon II of Gangra Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  177. ^ "Doctrine and Covenants 89". churchofjesuschrist.org.
  178. ^ According to Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, Entry Ben Noah, page 349), most medieval authorities consider that all seven commandments were given to Adam, although Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) considers the dietary law to have been given to Noah.
  179. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, introduction) states that after the giving of the Torah, the Jewish people were no longer in the category of the sons of Noah; however, Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) indicates that the seven laws are also part of the Torah, and the Talmud (Bavli, Sanhedrin 59a, see also Tosafot ad. loc.) states that Jews are obligated in all things that Gentiles are obligated in, albeit with some differences in the details.
  180. ^ Compare Genesis 9:4–6.
  181. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. (1981) [1978]. Spectrum–Times Atlas van de Wereldgeschiedenis [The Times Atlas of World History]. Het Spectrum. pp. 102–103. (in Dutch)
  182. ^ Kornbluth, Doron. Why marry Jewish?. Southfield, MI: Targum Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-56871-250-5
  183. ^ Pope Paul VI. "Declaration on Religious Freedom" Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 7 December 1965.
  184. ^ Pullella, Philip (10 December 2015). "Vatican says Catholics should not try to convert Jews, should fight anti-semitism". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  185. ^ Amir Hussain, "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue," in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 252–253 (Oneworld Publications, 2003).
  186. ^ Amir Hussain, "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue," in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 253–254 (Oneworld Publications, 2003).
  187. ^ Amir Hussain, "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue," in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi, 254 (Oneworld Publications, 2003).
  188. ^ Leonard Swidler, Khalid Duran, Reuven Firestone, Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue (Twenty-Third Publications, 2007), 1, 7.
  189. ^ Leonard Swidler, Khalid Duran, Reuven Firestone, Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue (Twenty-Third Publications, 2007), 38.
  190. ^ "Ecclesia in Medio Oriente: Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation on the Church in the Middle East: Communion and Witness (14 September 2012) – BENEDICT XVI". Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  191. ^ James L. Heft, Reuven Firestone, and Omid Safi, Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims (Oxford University Press, USA, 2011), 301–302.
  192. ^ James L. Heft, Reuven Firestone, and Omid Safi, editors, Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims (Oxford University Press, USA, 2011), 305.
  193. ^ James L. Heft, Reuven Firestone, and Omid Safi, editors, Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims (Oxford University Press, USA, 2011), 308.
  194. ^ "Ian Rex Fry, Dialogue Between Christians, Jews and Muslims (PhD Thesis, 2012), 37, 333. Retrieved July 3, 2016" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  195. ^ "Cardinal Koch: Trialogue among Catholics, Jews, Muslims?". Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  196. ^ Parmida Mostafavi (19 April 2016). "Interview with Professor Omid Safi [Eng Subs]". YouTube. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  197. ^ Hackett, Conrad; Mcclendon, David (2015). "Christians remain world's largest religious group, but they are declining in Europe". Pew Research Center.
  198. ^ a b c "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  199. ^ "The Future of Global Muslim Population: Projections from 2010 to 2013" Accessed July 2013.
  200. ^ Association of Religion Data Archives 2010.

Sources

Further reading

This further reading section may contain inappropriate or excessive suggestions that may not follow Wikipedia's guidelines. Please ensure that only a reasonable number of balanced, topical, reliable, and notable further reading suggestions are given; removing less relevant or redundant publications with the same point of view where appropriate. Consider utilising appropriate texts as inline sources or creating a separate bibliography article. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)