Religious believers in Japan (CIA World Factbook)[3]
Other religions
Total adherents exceeds 100% because many Japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism.[4]
A ritual at the Takachiho-gawara, the sacred ground of the descent to earth of Ninigi-no-Mikoto (the grandson of goddess Amaterasu)
The Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in temple in Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture

Religion in Japan is manifested primarily in Shinto and in Buddhism, the two main faiths, which Japanese people often practice simultaneously. According to estimates, as many as 80% of the populace follow Shinto rituals to some degree, worshiping ancestors and spirits at domestic altars and public shrines. An almost equally high number is reported[6] as Buddhist. Syncretic combinations of both, known generally as shinbutsu-shūgō, are common; they represented Japan's dominant religion before the rise of State Shinto in the 19th century.[7]

The Japanese concept of religion differs significantly from that of Western culture. Spirituality and worship are highly eclectic; rites and practices, often associated with well-being and worldly benefits, are of primary concern, while doctrines and beliefs garner minor attention.[8] Religious affiliation is an alien notion. Although the vast majority of Japanese citizens follow Shinto, only some 3% identify as Shinto in surveys, because the term is understood to imply membership of organized Shinto sects.[9][10] Some identify as "without religion" (無宗教, mushūkyō), yet this does not signify rejection or apathy towards faith. The mushūkyō is a specified identity, which is used mostly to affirm regular, "normal" religiosity while rejecting affiliation with distinct movements perceived as foreign or extreme.[11][12]

Main religions


Main article: Shinto

See also: Association of Shinto Shrines

Shinto (神道, Shintō), also kami-no-michi,[a] is the indigenous religion of Japan and of most of the people of Japan.[14] George Williams classifies Shinto as an action-centered religion;[15] it focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently in order to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient roots.[16] The written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki first recorded and codified Shinto practices in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and of mythology.[17] Shinto in the 21st century is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami),[18] suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, and applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual dating from around the time of the Nara (710–794) and Heian (794–1185) periods.[17]

Takabe-jinja in Minamibōsō, Chiba, an example of the native shinmei-zukuri style
Haiden of the Izanagi-jinja in Suita, Osaka
Tenman-gū in Nagaokakyō, Kyoto
Shrine of Hachiman in Ube, Yamaguchi

The Japanese adopted the word Shinto ("way of the gods"), originally as Shindo,[19] from the written Chinese Shendao (Chinese: 神道; pinyin: shén dào),[20][b] combining two kanji: shin (), meaning "spirit" or kami; and (), meaning a philosophical path or study (from the Chinese word dào).[17][20] The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo dates from the second half of the 6th century.[19] Kami are defined in English as "spirits", "essences" or "gods", referring to the energy generating the phenomena.[21] Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, trees, rivers, animals, places, and even people can be said to possess the nature of kami.[21] Kami and people are not separate; they exist within the same world and share its interrelated complexity.[17]

Shinto is the largest religion in Japan, practiced by nearly 80% of the population, yet only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys.[18] This is due to the fact that "Shinto" has different meanings in Japan: most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to Shinto organisations,[9] and since there are no formal rituals to become a member of folk "Shinto", "Shinto membership" is often estimated counting those who join organised Shinto sects.[10] Shinto has 100,000 shrines[18] and 78,890 priests in the country.[22]

Shinto sects and new religions

Main shrine of Shinriism (神理教, Shinrikyō) in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture
Headquarters of Ennoism (円応教, En'nōkyō) in Hyōgo Prefecture

Main article: Shinto sects and schools

Further information: Japanese new religions

Profound changes occurred in Japanese society in the 20th century (especially after World War II), including rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.[23] Traditional religions, challenged by the transformation, underwent a reshaping themselves,[23] and principles of religious freedom articulated by the 1947 constitution[24] provided space for the proliferation of new religious movements.[22]

New sects of Shinto, as well as movements claiming a thoroughly independent status, and also new forms of Buddhist lay societies, provided ways of aggregation for people uprooted from traditional families and village institutions.[25] While traditional Shinto has a residential and hereditary basis, and a person participates in the worship activities devoted to the local tutelary deity or ancestor – occasionally asking for specific healing or blessing services or participating in pilgrimages – in the new religions individuals formed groups without regard to kinship or territorial origins, and such groups required a voluntary decision to join.[26] These new religions also provided cohesion through a unified doctrine and practice shared by the nationwide community.[26]

The officially recognized new religions number in the hundreds, and total membership reportedly numbers in the tens of millions.[27]: 234–235  The largest new religion, Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect founded in 1930, gathers around 4 million members. Scholars in Japan have estimated that between 10% and 20% of the population belongs to the new religions,[22] although more realistic estimates put the number at well below the 10% mark.[22] As of 2007 there are 223,831 priests and leaders of the new religions in Japan, three times the number of traditional Shinto priests.[22]

Many of these new religions derive from Shinto, retain the fundamental characters of Shinto, and often identify themselves as forms of Shinto. These include Tenrikyo, Konkokyo, Omotokyo, Shinrikyo, Shinreikyo, Sekai Shindokyo, Zenrinkyo and others. Others are independent new religions, including Aum Shinrikyo, Mahikari movements, the Church of Perfect Liberty, Seicho-no-Ie, the Church of World Messianity, and others.


Main article: Buddhism in Japan

Buddhism (仏教, Bukkyō) first arrived in Japan in the 6th century, introduced in the year 538 or 552[28] from the kingdom of Baekje in Korea.[28] The Baekje king sent the Japanese emperor a picture of the Buddha and some sutras. After overcoming brief yet violent oppositions by conservative forces, it was accepted by the Japanese court in 587.[28] The Yamato state ruled over clans (uji) centered around the worship of ancestral nature deities.[29] It was also a period of intense immigration from Korea,[30] horse riders from northeast Asia,[28] as well as cultural influence from China,[31] which had been unified under the Sui dynasty becoming the crucial power on the mainland.[30] Buddhism functioned to affirm the state's power and mold its position in the broader culture of East Asia.[29] Japanese aristocrats set about building Buddhist temples in the capital at Nara.[29] However, the government's vast investment in spreading Buddhism during the Nara period (646-794) led to corruption, and led to reformation period and a shift in focus from Nara to the new capital of Heian (now Kyoto).[32]

Tōshōdai-ji, an early Buddhist temple in Nara
Myoudou-ji, a Jodo Shin temple with distinctive architectural style
Monju-in, a Shingon temple in Matsuyama, Ehime
Inner hall of Hyakumanben chion-ji a Jodo temple in Kyoto

The six Buddhist sects initially established in Nara are today together known as "Nara Buddhism" and are relatively small. When the capital moved to Heian, more forms of Buddhism arrived from China, including the still-popular Shingon Buddhism, an esoteric form of Buddhism similar to Tibet's Vajrayana Buddhism, and Tendai, a monastic conservative form known better by its Chinese name, Tiantai.

When the shogunate took power in the 12th century and the administrative capital moved to Kamakura, more forms of Buddhism arrived. The most culturally influential was Zen, which focused on meditation and attaining enlightenment in this life. Two schools of Zen were established, Rinzai and Sōtō; a third, Ōbaku, formed in 1661.

With the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and its accompanying centralisation of imperial power and modernisation of the state, Shinto was made the state religion. An order of elimination of mutual influence of Shinto and Buddhism was also enacted, followed by a movement to thoroughly eradicate Buddhism from Japan.

Today, the most popular school in Japan is Pure Land Buddhism, which arrived in the form of independent schools in the Kamakura period, although elements of it were practiced in Japan for centuries beforehand. It emphasizes the role of Amitabha Buddha and promises that reciting the phrase "Namu Amida Butsu" will result in being taken by Amitabha upon death to the "Western Paradise" or "Pure Land", where Buddhahood is more easily attained. Pure Land attracted members from all of the different classes, from farmers and merchants to noblemen and samurai clans, such as the Tokugawa clan. There are two primary branches of Pure Land Buddhism today: Jōdo-shū, which focuses on repeating the phrase many times as taught by Honen, and Jōdo Shinshū, which claims that only saying the phrase once with a pure heart is necessary, as taught by Shinran. Two smaller schools of Pure Land Buddhism exist as well, those of Ji-shu and Yuzu Nembutsu, although these are significantly smaller than their larger counterparts.

Another prevalent form of Buddhism is Nichiren Buddhism, which was established by the 13th century monk Nichiren who underlined the importance of the Lotus Sutra. The main representatives of Nichiren Buddhism include sects such as Nichiren Shū and Nichiren Shōshū, and lay organisations like Risshō Kōsei Kai and Soka Gakkai—a denomination whose political wing forms the Komeito, Japan's third largest political party. Common to most lineages of Nichiren Buddhism is the chanting of Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō (or Nam Myoho Renge Kyo) and the Gohonzon inscribed by Nichiren.

As of 2018, there were 355,000+ Buddhist monks, priests and leaders in Japan,[33] an increase of over 40,000 compared to 2000.[34]

Minor religions


St. Andrew's Cathedral in Tokyo, of the Japanese Anglican Church
Grace Church, a Reformed church in Tokyo

Main article: Christianity in Japan

See also: Catholicism in Japan, Orthodoxy in Japan, Protestantism in Japan, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Japan

In 2022, there were 1.9 million[35] Christians in Japan,[36] most of them living in the western part of the country, where missionaries' activities were greatest during the 16th century.

Christianity (キリスト教 Kirisutokyō), in the form of Catholicism (カトリック教 Katorikkukyō), was introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549.[37] In that year, the three Jesuits Francis Xavier, Cosme de Torres and Juan Fernández, landed in Kagoshima, in Kyushu, on 15 August.[37] Portuguese traders were active in Kagoshima since 1543,[37] welcomed by local daimyōs because they imported gunpowder. Anjirō, a Japanese convert, helped the Jesuits understanding Japanese culture and translating the first Japanese catechism.[38]

These missionaries were successful in converting large numbers of people in Kyushu, including peasants, former Buddhist monks, and members of the warrior class.[39] In 1559, a mission to the capital, Kyoto, was started.[39] By the following year there were nine churches, and the Christian community grew steadily in the 1560s.[39] By 1569 there were 30,000 Christians and 40 churches.[39] Following the conversion of some lords in Kyushu, mass baptisms of the local populations occurred, and in the 1570s the number of Christians rose rapidly to 100,000.[39]

Near the end of the 16th century, Franciscan missionaries arrived in Kyoto, despite a ban issued by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1597, Hideyoshi proclaimed a more serious edict and executed 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki as a warning. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors enforced the prohibition of Christianity with several further edicts, especially after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s. Many Christians continued to practice in secret. However, more importantly, the discourses on Christianity became the property of the state during the Tokugawa period. The state leveraged its power over to declare Christians enemies of the state in order to create and maintain a legally enforceable identity for Japanese subjects. As such, Christian identities or icons became the exclusive property of the Japanese state.[40] Although often discussed as a "foreign" or "minority" religion, Christianity has played a key sociopolitical role in the lives of Japanese subjects and citizens for hundreds of years.[41]

In 1873, following the Meiji Restoration, the ban was rescinded, freedom of religion was promulgated, and Protestant missionaries (プロテスタント Purotesutanto or 新教 Shinkyō, "renewed teaching") began to proselytise in Japan, intensifying their activities after World War II, yet they were never as successful as in Korea.

Nagasaki Prefecture had the highest percentage of Christians in 1996 (about 5.1%).[42] As of 2007 there were 32,036 Christian priests and pastors in Japan.[22] According to a poll conducted by the Gallup Organization in 2006, Christianity had increased significantly in Japan, particularly among youth, and a high number of teens were becoming Christians.[43][44][45]

Throughout the latest century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity (including Western style weddings, Valentine's Day and Christmas) have become popular among many of the Japanese. For example, 60–70% of weddings performed in Japan are Christian-style.[46] Christianity and Christian culture has a generally positive image in Japan.[47][48][49]


Tokyo Mosque, built in Ottoman style

Main article: Islam in Japan

Islam (イスラム教 Isuramukyō) in Japan is mostly represented by small immigrant communities from other parts of Asia. In 2008, Keiko Sakurai estimated that 80–90% of the Muslims in Japan were foreign-born migrants primarily from Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Iran.[50] It has been estimated that the Muslim immigrant population amounts to 10,000–50,000 people, while the "estimated number of Japanese Muslims ranges from thousands to tens of thousands".[51]

Bahá'í Faith

Main article: Bahá'í Faith in Japan

The Bahá'í Faith (バハーイー教 Bahāiikyō) in Japan began after a few mentions of the country by 'Abdu'l-Bahá first in 1875.[52] The first Japanese convert was Kanichi Yamamoto (山本寛一), who lived in Honolulu, and accepted the faith in 1902; the second convert was Saichiro Fujita (藤田左弌郎). The first Bahá'í convert on Japanese soil was Kikutaro Fukuta (福田菊太郎) in 1915.[53] Almost a century later, the Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 15,700 Bahá'ís in 2005.[54]


Main articles: History of the Jews in Japan and Jewish settlement in Imperial Japan

Judaism (ユダヤ教 Yudayakyō) in Japan is practiced by about 2,000 Jews living in the country.[55] With the opening of Japan to the external world in 1853 and the end of Japan's sakoku foreign policy, some Jews immigrated to Japan from abroad, with the first recorded Jewish settlers arriving at Yokohama in 1861. The Jewish population continued to grow into the 1950s, fueled by immigration from Europe and the Middle East, with Tokyo and Kobe forming the largest communities.

During World War II, some European Jews fleeing the Holocaust found refuge in Japan. These mainly Polish Jews received a so-called Curaçao visa from the Dutch consul in Kaunas, Jan Zwartendijk.[56] This allowed one Japanese diplomat, Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul to Lithuania, to issue Japanese transit visa. In doing so, both Zwartendijk and Sugihara disregarded orders and helped more than 6,000 Jews escape the Nazis. After World War II, a large portion of Japan's Jewish population emigrated, many going to what would become Israel. Some of those who remained married locals and were assimilated into Japanese society.

There are community centres serving Jews in Tokyo[57] and Kobe.[58] The Chabad-Lubavitch organization has two centers in Tokyo.[59]

In September 2015, Japan nominated a Chief Rabbi for the first time, the head of Tokyo's Chabad House, Rabbi Binyamin Edrei.[60]


Main article: Hinduism in Japan

Depiction of Hindu deity Krishna playing the flute in a temple constructed in 752 CE on the order of Emperor Shomu, Todai-ji Temple, Great Buddha Hall in Nara, Japan

Hinduism (ヒンドゥー教 Hindūkyō or 印度教 Indokyō) in Japan is practiced by a small number of people, mostly migrants from China, India, Nepal, and Bali.[citation needed] Nevertheless, Hindu culture have had a significant but indirect role in Japanese culture, through the spread of Buddhism and the fascination of ancient world about Bharatvarsha. Four of the Japanese "Seven Gods of Fortune" originated as Hindu deities, including Benzaiten (Sarasvati), Bishamon (Vaiśravaṇa or Kubera), Daikoku (Mahakala/Shiva), and Kisshoutennyo (Laxmi). Various Hindu deities, including the aforementioned, are worshipped in Shingon Buddhism. This denomination and all other forms of Tantric Buddhism have multiple sources in common with Tantric Hinduism.

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, there were 25,597 Hindus in Japan in 2020.[61]


Main article: Sikhism in Japan

Sikhism (シク教 Sikukyō) is presently a minority religion in Japan mainly followed by families migrated from India.


Main article: Jainism in Japan

Jainism (ジャイナ教 Jainakyō) is a minority religion in Japan. As of 2009, there were three Jain temples in the country.[62]

Other religions of East Asia

Happy Science was founded in 1986 by Ryuho Okawa. This Japanese religion has been very active in its political ventures to re-militarize Japan.

Ryukyuan religion

Harimizu utaki (Harimizu Shrine), a Ryukyuan shrine in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture

Main article: Ryukyuan religion

The Ryukyuan religion is the indigenous belief system of the people of Okinawa and the other Ryukyu Islands. While specific legends and traditions may vary slightly from place to place and island to island, the Ryukyuan religion is generally characterized by ancestor worship (more accurately termed "ancestor respect") and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world. Some of its beliefs, such as those concerning genius loci spirits and many other beings classified between gods and humans, are indicative of its ancient animistic roots, as is its concern with mabui (まぶい), or life essence.

One of its most ancient features is the belief onarigami (おなり神), the spiritual superiority of women derived from the goddess Amamikyu, which allowed for the development of a class of noro (priestesses) cult and yuta (female media). This differs from Japanese Shinto, where men are seen as the embodiment of purity. Ryukyuan religion has been influenced by Japanese Shinto and Buddhism, and various Chinese religions. It includes sects and reformed movements such as Ijun or Ijunism (Ryukyuan: いじゅん Ijun; Japanese: 違順教 Ijunkyō), founded in the 1970s.

Ainu folk religion

Main article: Ainu religion

The Ainu religion Ainu no shūkyō (アイヌの宗教) is the indigenous belief system of the Ainu people of Hokkaido and parts of Far Eastern Russia. It is an animistic religion centered around the belief that Kamuy (spirits or gods) live in everything.

Chinese folk religion

Main article: Chinese folk religion

Temple of Guandi (關帝廟; Japanese: Kanteibyō, Chinese: Guāndìmiào) in Yokohama

Most Chinese people in Japan practice the Chinese folk religion (Chinese: 中国民间宗教 or 中国民间信仰; pinyin: Zhōngguó mínjiān zōngjiào or Zhōngguó mínjiān xìnyǎng; Japanese: 中国の民俗宗教; rōmaji: Chūgoku no minzoku shūkyō), also known as Shenism (Chinese: 神教; pinyin: Shénjiào; Japanese pronunciation: Shinkyō), that is very similar to Japanese Shinto.

The Chinese folk religion consists in the worship of the ethnic Chinese gods and ancestors, shen (神 "gods", "spirits", "awarenesses", "consciousnesses", "archetypes"; literally "expressions", the energies that generate things and make them thrive), which can be nature deities, city deities or tutelary deities of other human agglomerations, national deities, cultural heroes and demigods, ancestors and progenitors of kinships. Holy narratives regarding some of these gods are codified into the body of Chinese mythology.


Seitenkyū (聖天宮; Chinese: Shèngtiāngōng, "Temple of the Holy Heaven"), a Taoist temple in Sakado, Saitama

Main article: Taoism in Japan

Taoism (道教 Dōkyō) was introduced from China between the 7th and 8th centuries, and influenced in varying degrees the Japanese indigenous spirituality. Taoist practices were absorbed into Shinto, and Taoism was the source of the esoteric and mystical religions of Onmyōdō, Shugendō and Kōshin.

Taoism, being an indigenous religion in China, shares some roots with Shinto, although Taoism is more hermetic while Shinto is more shamanic. Taoism's influence in Japan has been less profound than that of Japanese Neo-Confucianism. Today, institutional Chinese Taoism is present in the country in the form of some temples; the Seitenkyū was founded in 1995.


Kōshibyō (孔子廟, "Temple of Confucius") of the Ashikaga Gakko, the oldest Confucian school in Japan

Main article: Edo Neo-Confucianism

Confucianism (儒教 Jukyō) was introduced from Korea during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598),[63] and developed into an elite religion, yet having a profound influence on the fabric of Japanese society overall during the Edo period. The Confucian philosophy can be characterized as humanistic and rationalistic, with the belief that the universe could be understood through human reason, corresponding to the universal reason (li), and thus it is up to man to create a harmonious relationship between the universe (天 Ten) and the individual.[64] The rationalism of Neo-Confucianism was in contrast to the mysticism of Zen Buddhism in Japan. Unlike the Buddhists, the Neo-Confucians believed that reality existed, and could be understood by mankind, even if the interpretations of reality were slightly different depending on the school of Neo-Confucianism.[64]

The social aspects of the philosophy are hierarchical with a focus on filial piety. This created a Confucian social stratification in Edo society that previously had not existed, dividing Japanese society into four main classes: samurai, farmers, artisans and merchants.[65] The samurai were especially avid readers and teachers of Confucian thought in Japan, establishing many Confucian academies.

Neo-Confucianism also introduced elements of ethnocentrism into Japan. As the Chinese and Korean Neo-Confucians had regarded their own culture as the center of the world, the Japanese Neo-Confucians developed a similar national pride.[64] This national pride would later evolve into the philosophical school of Kokugaku, which would later challenge Neo-Confucianism, and its perceived foreign Chinese and Korean origins, as the dominant philosophy of Japan.

Religious practices and holidays

Most Japanese participate in rituals and customs derived from several religious traditions. Life cycle events are often marked by visits to a Shinto shrine and Buddhist temples. The birth of a new baby is celebrated with a formal shrine or temple visit at the age of about one month, as are the third, fifth, and seventh birthdays (Shichi-Go-San) and the official beginning of adulthood at age twenty (Seijin shiki). The vast majority of Japanese wedding ceremonies have been Christian for at least the last three and half decades.[66] Shinto weddings and secular weddings that follow a "western-style" format are also popular but much less so and a small fraction (usually less than one percent) of weddings are Buddhist.[66]

Japanese funerals are usually performed by Buddhist priests, and Buddhist rites are also common on death day anniversaries of deceased family members. 91% of Japanese funerals take place according to Buddhist traditions.

There are two categories of holidays in Japan: matsuri (temple fairs), which are largely of Shinto origin (some are Buddhist like Hanamatsuri) and relate to the cultivation of rice and the spiritual well-being of the local community; and nenjyū gyōji (annual feasts), which are largely of Chinese or Buddhist origin. During the Heian period, the matsuri were organized into a formal calendar, and other festivals were added. Very few matsuri or annual feasts are national holidays, but they are included in the national calendar of annual events. Most matsuri are local events and follow local traditions. They may be sponsored by schools, towns, or other groups but are most often associated with Shinto shrines.

Some of the holidays are secular in nature, but the two most significant for the majority of Japanese—New Year's Day and Obon—involve visits to Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples and only Buddhist temples for later. The New Year's holiday (January 1–3) is marked by the practice of numerous customs and the consumption of special foods. Visiting Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples to pray for family blessings in the coming year, dressing in a kimono, hanging special decorations, eating noodles on New Year's Eve, and playing a poetry card game are among these practices. During Obon, bon (spirit altars) are set up in front of Buddhist family altars, which, along with ancestral graves, are cleaned in anticipation of the return of the spirits. People living away from their family homes return for visits with relatives. Celebrations include folk dancing and prayers at Buddhist temples as well as family rituals in the home.

Religion and law

See also: Freedom of religion in Japan

In early Japanese history, the ruling class was responsible for performing propitiatory rituals, which later came to be identified as Shinto, and for the introduction and support of Buddhism. Later, religious organization was used by regimes for political purposes; for instance, the Tokugawa government required each family to be registered as a member of a Buddhist temple. In the early 19th century, the government required that each family belong to a shrine instead, and in the early 20th century, this was supplemented with the concept of a divine right to rule bestowed on the emperor. The Meiji Constitution reads: "Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief".

Article 20 of the 1947 Constitution states: "Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority. No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious act, celebration, rite or practice. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity". This change in constitutional rights provided mechanisms for limiting state educational initiatives designed to promote Shinto beliefs in schools and freed the populace from mandatory participation in Shinto rites.[67]

In postwar years, the issue of the separation of Shinto and state arose in the Self-Defense Force Apotheosis Case. In 1973, Nakaya Takafumi, a member of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces and husband of Nakaya Yasuko, died in a traffic accident.[68] Despite Yasuko's refusal to provide relevant documents for her husband's enshrinement at the Yamaguchi prefectural National-Protecting Shrine, the prefectural Veterans’ Association requested the information from the Self-Defense Forces and completed the enshrinement.[68] As a result, in 1973, Yasuko sued the Yamaguchi Prefectural Branch of the Self-Defense Forces, on the grounds that the ceremony of apotheosis violated her religious rights as a Christian.[68]

Although Yasuko won the case at two lower courts, the ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court of Japan on June 1, 1988, based on the precedent established by the Tsu City Shinto Groundbreaking Ceremony Case. First, the Supreme Court ruled that because the Veterans’ Association—which was not an organ of the state—had acted alone when arranging the ceremony of apotheosis, no violation of Article 20 had occurred.[69] Second, the Supreme Court held that the Self-Defense Forces' provision of Takafumi's documents to the Veterans’ Association did not constitute a religious activity prohibited by Article 20, because neither the intention nor the effects of its action harmed or patronized any religion.[70]

Third, the Supreme Court adopted a narrow interpretation of individual religious rights, by ruling that violation of individual rights to religion did not occur unless the state or its organs coerced individuals to perform some religious activity or limited their religious freedom.[71] On June 2, 1988, a report by the Los Angeles Times described the Japanese Supreme Court's decision as “a major setback for advocates of stronger separation of religion and state in Japan.”[72] On June 7, 1988, an article published in the New York Times expressed concern that the Japanese Supreme Court's decision was likely to encourage the resurgence of State Shinto and nationalism.[73] Because the prefectural National-Protecting Shrines perform the same ceremony of apotheosis as the Yasukuni Shrine does, the significance of this case also lies in its implications for the constitutionality of state patronage of and official visits to the Yasukuni Shrine.[69]

In 2023, the country was scored 4 out of 4 for religious freedom.[74]

Opposition to organised religion

In the early 1990s, Shichihei Yamamoto argued that Japan has shown greater tolerance towards irreligion than the West.[75]

Comments against religion by notable figures

Anti-religious organisations

The Japan Militant Atheists Alliance (Nihon Sentoteki Mushinronsha Domei, also known as Senmu) was founded in September 1931 by a group of antireligious people. The alliance opposed the idea of kokutai, the nation's founding myth, the presence of religion in public education, and the practice of State Shinto. Their greatest opposition was towards the imperial system of Japan.[82]

Two months later, in November 1931, socialist Toshihiko Sakai and Communist Takatsu Seido created the Japan Anti-religion Alliance (Nihon Hanshukyo Domei). They opposed "contributions to religious organizations, prayers for practical benefits (kito), preaching in factories, and the religious organizations of all stripes" and viewed religion as a tool used by the upper class to suppress laborers and farmers.[82]


According to the annual statistical research on religion in 2015 by the Agency for Culture Affairs, Government of Japan, followers of Shintoism make up 70.4% of the total population, followers of Buddhism make up 69.8% of the population, followers of Christianity make up 1.5% of the population, and followers of other religions make up 6.9%. The Japanese National Character Survey of 2013 showed 72.0% of Japanese had no personal faith and the Japanese General Social Survey of 2015 showed 69.6% did not follow any religion.[83]

According to surveys carried out in 2006[84] and 2008,[85] less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organized religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions, and from fewer than 1%[86][87][88] to 2.3% are Christians.[note 1]

Organised religions in Japan
Religion 1984[89] 1996[90] 2008[85]
Japanese Buddhism 27% 29.5% 34%
Shinto sects 3% 1% 3%
Christianity 2% 2% 1%
Organised religious affiliation in Japan by prefecture (1996)[90]
Prefecture Tendai or Shingon Jōdo or Shin Zen Nichiren Soka Gakkai Other Buddhist schools Buddhism overall Shinto sects Christianity None
Hokkaido ~3% 13.3% 8.2% 3.2% ~2% ~2% ~31.7% ~2% ~1% ~65.3%
Aomori Prefecture ~1% 10.3% 5.6% 3.4% ~2% ~3% ~25.3% ~2% ~1% ~71.7%
Iwate Prefecture ~2% 6.1% 12.8% ~0 ~2% ~3% ~25.9% ~0 ~1% ~73.1%
Miyagi Prefecture ~3% 4.8% 9.5% ~2% ~2% ~2% ~23.3% ~0 ~1% ~75.7%
Akita Prefecture ~0 6.9% 9.5% ~3% ~2% ~2% ~21.4% ~3% ~0 ~75.6%
Yamagata Prefecture ~4% 5.6% 8.5% ~3% ~3% 3.4% ~27.5% ~2% ~1% ~69.5%
Fukushima Prefecture 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% ~0 ~3% ~3% ~21.2% ~0 ~0 ~78.8%
Ibaraki Prefecture 7.1% 4.1% ~2% ~2% ~3% ~2% ~20.2% ~1% ~1% ~77.8%
Tochigi Prefecture 6% 3.1% ~3% ~3% 3.1% ~2% ~20.2% ~0 ~1 ~78.8%
Gunma Prefecture 6.6% 3.6% 5.8% ~3% ~3% ~2% ~24% ~1% ~2% ~73%
Saitama Prefecture 5.8% 5.2% ~3% ~2% 3.3% ~1% ~20.3% ~0 ~2% ~77.7%
Chiba Prefecture 3.8% 4.5% ~1% 3.3% ~3% ~1% ~16.6% ~0 ~1% ~82.4%
Tokyo 3.4% 8.3% ~2% 3.3% 4% ~2% ~23% ~1% 3.4% ~72.6%
Kanagawa Prefecture ~3% 5.5% 3.7% 3.7% 3.5% ~2% ~21.4% ~1% ~3% ~74.6%
Niigata Prefecture 3.2% 10.6% 4.9% ~1% ~2% ~2% ~23.7% ~1% ~1% ~74.3%
Toyama Prefecture ~2% 41.3% ~1% ~2% ~1% ~1% ~48.3% ~0 ~0 ~51.7%
Ishikawa Prefecture ~2 36.2% ~1% ~1% ~0 ~3% ~43.2% ~1% ~1% ~54.8%
Fukui Prefecture ~2% 41.4% 5.5% 3.9% ~1% ~3% ~56.8% ~1% ~0 ~42.2%
Yamanashi Prefecture ~1% 4.5% 6.2% 8.9% ~3% ~3% ~26.6% ~1% ~1% ~71.4%
Nagano Prefecture 3.5% 11.8% 7.6% ~2% ~3% ~2% ~29.9% ~1% ~1% ~68.1%
Gifu Prefecture ~3% 23.2% 6.8% ~1% ~3% ~1% ~38.1% ~1% ~1% ~59.9%
Shizuoka Prefecture ~1% 6.2% 9.4% 7.3% 3.6% ~4% ~31.5% ~1% ~1% ~66.5%
Aichi Prefecture ~3% 16.7% 8.5% ~1% ~3% ~2% ~34.2% ~2% ~2% ~61.8%
Mie Prefecture ~3% 22.9% 4.2% ~1% ~2% ~2% ~35.1% ~1% ~1% ~62.9%
Shiga Prefecture 3% 26.7% 3.2% ~2% ~3% ~0 ~37.9% ~0 ~1% ~61.1%
Kyoto Prefecture ~3% 17.5% 3.4% ~2% ~3% ~3% ~31.9% ~2% ~2% ~66.1%
Osaka Prefecture 5.9% 15.6% ~3% 3% 5.2% ~1% ~33.7% ~1% ~1% ~64.3%
Hyōgo Prefecture 8.6% 12.2% 3.1% ~3% 3.1% ~3% ~33% ~2% ~2% ~63%
Nara Prefecture 4.2% 17.3% ~1% ~3% ~3% ~2% ~30.5% ~0 ~1% ~68.5%
Wakayama Prefecture 9.6% 13.5% ~3% ~1% 3.5% ~2% ~32.6% ~0 ~0 ~67.4%
Tottori Prefecture ~3% 10.4% 8.8% 4% ~2% ~3% ~31.2% ~3% ~1% ~64.8%
Shimane Prefecture ~4% 18.4% 6.5% ~2% ~1% ~3% ~30.9% ~2% ~1% ~66.1%
Okayama Prefecture 16.6% 5.1% 3% 5.9% ~3% 0 ~33.6% ~2% ~1% ~63.4%
Hiroshima Prefecture 4.4% 35.3% 3.6% ~2% 4.9% ~1% ~51.2% ~2% ~2% ~44.8%
Yamaguchi Prefecture ~3% 21.9% 3.8% ~2% 3.8% ~1% ~35.5% ~1% ~1% ~62.5%
Tokushima Prefecture 19.8% 6.7% ~0 ~1% 3% ~1% ~31.5% ~1% ~1% ~66.5%
Kagawa Prefecture 14% 18% ~1% ~2% ~3% ~1% ~39% ~0 ~1% ~60%
Ehime Prefecture 9.3% 6.7% 5.3% ~2% ~3% ~1% ~27.3% ~1% ~2% ~69.7%
Kōchi Prefecture 6.3% 6.3% ~0 ~1% ~3% ~1% ~17.6% 5.5% ~0 ~76.9%
Fukuoka Prefecture ~2% 24.1% 3.3% 3% 3.3% ~2% ~37.7% ~1% ~2% ~59.3%
Saga Prefecture ~4% 21.9% 6.1% ~3% ~2% ~3% ~40% ~0 ~0 ~60%
Nagasaki Prefecture 4.9% 19.5% 3.6% 5.1% ~3% ~3% ~39.1% ~2% 5.1% ~53.8%
Kumamoto Prefecture ~2% 28.4% ~3% ~2% ~2% ~1% ~38.4% ~0 ~1% ~61.6%
Ōita Prefecture ~3% 20.7% 4.7% ~3% ~3% ~1% ~35.4% ~2% ~1% ~61.6%
Miyazaki Prefecture ~3% 18.2% ~3% ~3% ~3% 3.3% ~33.5% 3.8% ~1% ~61.7%
Kagoshima Prefecture ~2% 29.8% ~1% ~2% ~3% 6% ~43.8% ~3% ~0 ~53.2%
Okinawa Prefecture ~0 ~0 ~0 ~0 3.6% ~0 ~3,6% ~0 ~3 ~93.4%
Japan 4% 12.9% 4.1% ~3% 3% ~2.5% ~29.5% ~1% ~2% ~67.5%

See also


  1. ^ According to the Dentsu survey of 2006: 1% Protestants, 0.8% members of the Catholic Church and 0.5% members of the Eastern Orthodox Church.[84]
  1. ^ Both mean the "way of the divine" or "of the gods". Other names are:[13]
    • Kannagara-no-michi, "way of the divine transmitted from time immemorial";
    • Kodo, the "ancient way";
    • Daido, the "great way";
    • Teido, the "imperial way".
  2. ^ During the history of China, at the time of the spread of Buddhism to that country c. 1st century CE, the name Shendao identified what is currently known as "Shenism", the Chinese indigenous religion, distinguishing it from the new Buddhist religion. (Brian Bocking. A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Routledge, 2005. ASIN: B00ID5TQZY p. 129)


  1. ^ Japan - Country. CIA, Government of the United States.
  2. ^ a b "Population Estimates Monthly Report - December 1, 2020 (Final estimates)".
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook:[1]
    • Shinto: 70.5%
    • Buddhism: 67.2%
    • Christianity: 1.5%
    • Other: 5.9%

    Percentages calculated using the official total population figure of 126,088,000 as of the end of 2020.[2]

  4. ^ "Japan - The World Factbook".
  5. ^ 宗教年鑑 令和3年版 [Religious Yearbook 2021] (PDF) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs, Government of Japan. 2021.
  6. ^ Population figures from the Agency for Cultural Affairs Religious Yearbook 2021, as of the end of 2020, are as follows:[5]
    • Shinto: 87,924,087
    • Buddhism: 83,971,139
    • Christianity: 1,915,294
    • Other: 7,335,572

    Percentages calculated using the official total population figure of 126,088,000 as of the end of 2020.[2]

  7. ^ Reischauer, Edwin O.; Jansen, Marius B. (1988). The Japanese today: change and continuity (2nd ed.). Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-674-47184-9.
  8. ^ Kisala, Robert. 2006. Japanese Religions. Pp. 3-13 in Nanzan Guide to Japanese Religions, ed. Paul L. Swanson and Clark Chilson. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  9. ^ a b Engler, Price. 2005. p. 95
  10. ^ a b Williams, 2004. pp. 4-5
  11. ^ Kawano, Satsuki. 2005. Ritual Practice in Modern Japan: Ordering Place, People, and Action. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  12. ^ LeFebvre, J. (2015). "Christian wedding ceremonies: 'Nonreligiousness' in contemporary Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 42(2), 185-203
  13. ^ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxiv
  14. ^ Williams, 2004. p. 4
  15. ^ Williams, George (2004). Shinto. Religions of the World. Philadelphia: Infobase Publishing (published 2009). p. 6. ISBN 9781438106465. Retrieved 12 May 2019. Shinto is an action-centered religion (one based on actions) and not a confessional religion (one that requires a set of beliefs or a profession of faith).
  16. ^ John Nelson. A Year in the Life of a Shinto Shrine. 1996. pp. 7–8
  17. ^ a b c d Richard Pilgrim, Robert Ellwood (1985). Japanese Religion (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-13-509282-8.
  18. ^ a b c Breen, Teeuwen. 2010. p. 1
  19. ^ a b Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxi
  20. ^ a b Sokyo, Ono (1962). Shinto: The Kami Way (1st ed.). Rutland, VT: Charles E Tuttle Co. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8048-1960-2. OCLC 40672426.
  21. ^ a b Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxii
  22. ^ a b c d e f Bestor, Yamagata. 2011. p. 65
  23. ^ a b Earhart, 2013. pp. 286-287
  24. ^ Bestor, Yamagata. 2011. pp. 64-65.
  25. ^ Earhart, 2013. pp. 289-290
  26. ^ a b Earhart, 2013. p. 290
  27. ^ Shimazono, Susumu (2004). From Salvation to Spirituality: Popular Religious Movements in Modern Japan. Pacific Press.
  28. ^ a b c d Brown, 1993. p. 455
  29. ^ a b c Brown, 1993. p. 456
  30. ^ a b Brown, 1993. p. 454
  31. ^ Brown, 1993. p. 453
  32. ^ Kasahara, Kazuo; McCarthy, Paul, eds. (2007). A History of Japanese religion (6. print ed.). Tokyo: Kosei. ISBN 978-4-333-01917-5.
  33. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs (2019). 宗教年鑑 令和元年版 [Religious Yearbook 2019] (PDF) (in Japanese). p. 35.
  34. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs (2002). 宗教年鑑 平成13年版 [Religious Yearbook 2001] (PDF) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. p. 31. ISBN 978-432406748-2.
  35. ^ 宗教年鑑 令和元年版 [Religious Yearbook 2019] (PDF) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs, Government of Japan. 2019. p. 35.
  36. ^ US State Department 2022 Religious Freedom Report
  37. ^ a b c Higashibaba, 2002. p. 1
  38. ^ Higashibaba, 2002. p. 5
  39. ^ a b c d e Higashibaba, 2002. p. 12
  40. ^ LeFebvre, 2021.
  41. ^ LeFebvre, 2021. "The Oppressor's Dilemma: How Japanese State Policy toward Religion Paved the Way for Christian Weddings"
  42. ^ Religion in Japan by prefecture. 1996 statistics.
  43. ^ W. Robinson, David (2012). International Handbook of Protestant Education. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 521. ISBN 9789400723870. A 2006 Gallup survey, however, is the largest to date and puts the number at 6%, which is much higher than its previous surveys. It notes a major increase among Japanese youth professing Christ.
  44. ^ "After fatalism, Japan opens to faith". mercatornet. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022. The 2006 Gallup poll, however, disclosed that an astounding 12 per cent of Japanese who claim a religion are now Christian, making six per cent of the entire nation Christian.
  45. ^ R. McDermott, Gerald (2014). Handbook of Religion: A Christian Engagement with Traditions, Teachings, and Practices. Baker Academic. ISBN 9781441246004.
  46. ^ LeFebvre, J. (2015). "Christian wedding ceremonies: 'Nonreligiousness' in contemporary Japan." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 42(2), 185–203.
  47. ^ Heide Fehrenbach, Uta G. Poiger (2000). Transactions, transgressions, transformations: American culture in Western Europe and Japan. Berghahn Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-57181-108-0.
  48. ^ Kimura, Junko; Belk, Russell (September 2005). "Christmas in Japan: Globalization Versus Localization". Consumption Markets & Culture. 8 (3): 325–338. doi:10.1080/10253860500160361. S2CID 144740841.
  49. ^ "A Little Faith: Christianity and the Japanese". Your Doorway to Japan. 22 November 2019. Christian culture in general has a positive image.
  50. ^ Emile A. Nakhleh, Keiko Sakurai and Michael Penn; "Islam in Japan: A Cause for Concern?", Asia Policy 5, January 2008
  51. ^ Yasunori Kawakami, "Local Mosques and the Lives of Muslims in Japan", Japan Focus, May 2007
  52. ^ 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1990) [1875]. The Secret of Divine Civilization. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-87743-008-7.
  53. ^ Alexander, Agnes Baldwin (1977). Sims, Barbara (ed.). History of the Baháʼí Faith in Japan 1914-1938. Osaka, Japan: Japan Baháʼí Publishing Trust. pp. 12–4, 21.
  54. ^ "QuickLists: Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
  55. ^ Golub, Jennifer (August 1992). "Japanese Attitudes Toward Jews" (PDF). Pacific Rim Institute of the American Jewish Committee.
  56. ^ "Jan Zwartendijk. - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum".
  57. ^ "Jewish Community of Japan". Archived from the original on 2006-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  58. ^ "Jewish Community of Kansai".
  59. ^ "Chabad Japan". Chabad Jewish Center of Japan.
  60. ^ "Japan Gets First-Ever Chief Rabbi". September 17, 2015.
  61. ^ "Japan, Religion And Social Profile | National Profiles | International Data | TheARDA". Retrieved 2023-06-04.
  62. ^ 2009 Jain Diaspora Conference. Los Angeles, USA: JAINA: Federation of Jain Associations in North America. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  63. ^ Kim Ha-tai (April 1961), "The Transmission of Neo-Confucianism to Japan by Kang Hang, a Prisoner of War", Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (37): 83–103
  64. ^ a b c Craig 1998, p. 552.
  65. ^ Craig 1998, p. 553.
  66. ^ a b LeFebvre, J. (2015). Christian wedding ceremonies: “Nonreligiousness” in contemporary Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 42(2), 185-203.
  67. ^ LeFebvre, J. (2021) "The Oppressor's Dilemma: How Japanese State Policy toward Religion Paved the Way for Christian Weddings"
  68. ^ a b c Hardacre, Helen (1989). Shintō and the State, 1868-1988. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0691020525.
  69. ^ a b Hardacre, Helen (1989). Shintō and the State, 1868-1988. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0691020525.
  70. ^ Hardacre, Helen (1989). Shintō and the State, 1868-1988. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0691020525.
  71. ^ Hardacre, Helen (1989). Shintō and the State, 1868-1988. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0691020525.
  72. ^ Schoenberger, Karl (1988-06-02). "Japan Widow Loses Religious Rights Case". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  73. ^ Haberman, Clyde. "Tokyo Journal; Shinto Is Thrust Back Onto the Nationalist Stage". Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  74. ^ Freedom House website, retrieved 2023-08-08
  75. ^ Shichihei, Yamamoto (1992). The spirit of Japanese capitalism and selected essays. Lanham: Madison Books. ISBN 9780819182944.
  76. ^ Furuya, Yasuo (1997). A history of Japanese theology. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-0802841087.
  77. ^ a b Gulic, Sidney L. (1997). Evolution of the Japanese, Social and Psychic. BiblioBazaar. p. 198. ISBN 9781426474316.
  78. ^ Hays, Jeffrey (July 2012). "Religion in Japan and the Irreligious Japanese". Facts and Details. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  79. ^ Nakamura, Hajime (1992). A comparative history of ideas (1st Indian ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 519. ISBN 9788120810044.
  80. ^ Thelle, Notto R. (1987). Buddhism and Christianity in Japan: from conflict to dialogue, 1854-1899. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824810061.
  81. ^ Robertson, J.M. (2010). A Short History of Freethought Ancient and Modern. Vol. 2. Forgotten Books. p. 425. ISBN 978-1440055249.
  82. ^ a b Ives, Christopher (2009). Imperial-Way Zen: Ichikawa Hakugen's critique and lingering questions for Buddhist ethics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824833312.
  83. ^ Iwai, Noriko (11 October 2017). Measuring religion in Japan: ISM, NHK and JGSS (PDF) (Report). JGSS Research Center.
  84. ^ a b Dentsu Communication Institute, Japan Research Center: Sixty Countries' Values Databook (世界60カ国価値観データブック).
  85. ^ a b "2008 NHK survey of religion in Japan — 宗教的なもの にひかれる日本人〜ISSP国際比較調査(宗教)から〜" (PDF). NHK Culture Research Institute.
  86. ^ Mariko Kato (February 24, 2009). "Christianity's long history in the margins". The Japan Times. The Christian community itself counts only those who have been baptized and are currently regular churchgoers — some 1 million people, or less than 1 percent of the population, according to Nobuhisa Yamakita, moderator of the United Church of Christ in Japan
  87. ^ "Christians use English to reach Japanese youth". Mission Network News. 3 September 2007. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. The population of Japan is less than one-percent Christian
  88. ^ Heide Fehrenbach, Uta G. Poiger (2000). Transactions, transgressions, transformations: American culture in Western Europe and Japan. Berghahn Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-57181-108-0. ... followers of the Christian faith constitute only about a half percent of the Japanese population
  89. ^ 1984 NHK survey of religion in Japan. Results recorded in: Bestor, Yamagata, 2011, p. 66
  90. ^ a b Religion in Japan by prefecture, 1996. English language bar table.


Further reading

  • Barbara R. Ambros. Women in Japanese religions. NY: New York University Press, 2015.
  • Roy C. Amore et al. World religions: Eastern traditions, 5th edn. NY: Oxford University Press, 2019.
  • Roger J. Davies. Japanese culture: the religious and philosophical foundations. Tokyo: Tuttle, 2016.
  • Ugo Dessì. Japanese religions and globalization. Abingdon: Routledge, 2013.
  • Lucia Dolce, ed. Japanese religions. 4 vols. London: SAGE, 2012.
  • Robert S. Ellwood & Richard B. Pilgrim. Japanese religion: a cultural perspective. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016.
  • Joshua Frydman. The Japanese myths: a guide to gods, heroes and spirits. London: Thames & Hudson, 2022.
  • James W. Heisig et al., eds. Japanese philosophy: a sourcebook. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2011.
  • Joseph Kitagawa. On understanding Japanese religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
  • Takashi Miura. Agents of world renewal: the rise of yonaoshi gods in Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2019.
  • Mark Mullins. Yasukuni fundamentalism: Japanese religions and the politics of restoration. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2022.
  • Hirochika Nakamaki. Japanese religions at home and abroad: Anthropological perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor & Francis, 2012.
  • Ronan Alves Pereira & Hideaki Matsuoka, eds. Japanese religions in and beyond the Japanese diaspora. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, 2007.
  • Inken Prohl & John K. Nelson, eds. Handbook of contemporary Japanese religions. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Rein Raud. Asian worldviews: religions, philosophies, political theories. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2021.
  • Ian Reader, Esben Andreasen, & Finn Stefánsson. Japanese religions: past and present. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1993.
  • Wendy Smith et al., eds. Globalizing Asian religions: management and marketing. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019.
  • Paul L. Swanson & Clark Chilson, eds. Nanzan guide to Japanese religions. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006.
  • Michiko Yusa. Japanese religions. London: Routledge, 2002.