Tokugawa Ieyasu
徳川 家康
In office
March 24, 1603 – April 16, 1605
Preceded byAshikaga Yoshiaki
Succeeded byTokugawa Hidetada
Head of Matsudaira clan
In office
Preceded byMatsudaira Hirotada
Succeeded byTokugawa Hidetada
Head of Tokugawa clan
In office
Succeeded byTokugawa Hidetada
Chancellor (Daijō-daijin) of Japan
In office
May 2, 1616 – June 1, 1616
Personal details
Matsudaira Takechiyo
(松平 竹千代)

(1543-01-31)January 31, 1543
Okazaki Castle, Mikawa
(now Okazaki, Japan)
DiedJune 1, 1616(1616-06-01) (aged 73)
Sunpu, Tokugawa shogunate
(now Shizuoka, Japan)
Other names
  • Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu (松平 次郎三郎 元信)
  • Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu (松平 蔵人佐 元康)
  • Matsudaira Ieyasu (松平 家康)
Nickname"Tosho Dai-Gongen"
Military service
UnitTokugawa clan
CommandsEdo Castle
Battles/warsSiege of Terabe
Siege of Marune
Siege of Kaminogō
Battle of Batogahara
Tōtōmi Campaign
Battle of Anegawa
Battle of Mikatagahara
Battle of Nagashino
Suruga Campaign
Siege of Takatenjin
Battle of Tenmokuzan
Battle of Komaki and Nagakute
Siege of Odawara
Kunohe Rebellion
Sekigahara Campaign
Osaka Campaign
see below
Japanese name
Hiraganaとくがわ いえやす
Kyūjitai德川 家康
Shinjitai徳川 家康
The Tokugawa clan mon (Japanese emblem)

Tokugawa Ieyasu[a][b] (born Matsudaira Takechiyo;[c] January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled from 1603 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. He was one of the three "Great Unifiers" of Japan, along with his former lord Oda Nobunaga and fellow Oda subordinate Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The son of a minor daimyo, Ieyasu once lived as a hostage under daimyo Imagawa Yoshimoto on behalf of his father. He later succeeded as daimyo after his father's death, serving as ally, vassal and general of the Oda clan,[3] and building up his strength under Oda Nobunaga.[4]

After Oda Nobunaga's death, Ieyasu was briefly a rival of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, before declaring his allegiance to Toyotomi and fighting on his behalf. Under Toyotomi, Ieyasu was relocated to the Kanto plains in eastern Japan, away from the Toyotomi power base in Osaka. He built his castle in the fishing village of Edo (now Tokyo). He became the most powerful daimyo and the most senior officer under the Toyotomi regime. Ieyasu preserved his strength during Toyotomi's failed attempts to conquer Korea. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu seized power in 1600, after the Battle of Sekigahara.[3][page needed] He received appointment as shōgun in 1603, and voluntarily abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. He implemented a set of careful rules known as the bakuhan system, designed to keep the daimyo and samurai in check under the Tokugawa Shogunate.[3][4]


During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province (the eastern half of modern Aichi Prefecture). Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces. His territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west. Hirotada's main enemy was Oda Nobuhide, the father of Oda Nobunaga.[5]

Early life (1543–1556)

Okazaki Castle, the birthplace of Tokugawa Ieyasu

Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Originally named Matsudaira Takechiyo (松平 竹千代), he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada (松平 廣忠), the daimyo of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, and Odai no Kata (於大の方, Lady Odai), the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa (水野 忠政). His mother and father were step-siblings. They were 17 and 15 years old, respectively, when Takechiyo was born.[6]

In the year of Takechiyo's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan. This gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, and his heir, Mizuno Nobumoto, revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well. As a result, Hirotada divorced Odai-no-kata and sent her back to her family.[5] Hirotada later remarried to different wives, and Takechiyo eventually had 11 half-brothers and sisters.[6]

Hostage life

As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage.[5] Oda Nobuhide learned of this arrangement and had Takechiyo abducted.[7] Takechiyo was five years old at the time.[8] Nobuhide threatened to execute Takechiyo unless his father severed all ties with the Imagawa clan. However, Hirotada refused, stating that sacrificing his own son would show his seriousness in his pact with the Imagawa. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Takechiyo, but instead held him hostage for the next three years at the Honshōji Temple in Nagoya. It is said that Oda Nobunaga met Takechiyo at the temple, when Takechiyo was 6 years old, and Nobunaga was 14.

In 1549, when Takechiyo was 6,[8] his father Hirotada was murdered by his vassals, who had been bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan.

In 1551, an army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's illegitimate eldest son was living. Nobuhiro was trapped by the Imagawa clan but was saved through negotiation by Oda Nobunaga, Nobuhide's second son and heir. Sessai made an agreement with Nobunaga to take Takechiyo back to Imagawa, and he agreed. Takechiyo, now nine years old, was taken as a hostage to Sunpu. At Sunpu, he was treated fairly well as a potentially useful ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 14 years old.[8]

Service under Yoshimoto (1556–1560)

In 1556, Takechiyo officially came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu (松平 次郎三郎 元信). He was also briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, and receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi.[5]

One year later, at the age of 15 (according to East Asian age reckoning), he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshimoto, and changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu (松平 蔵人佐 元康). A year later, their son, Matsudaira Nobuyasu, was born. He was then allowed to return to Mikawa Province. There, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles.[9]

Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the siege of Terabe. The lord of Terabe, Suzuki Shigeteru (or Suzuki Shigetatsu [jp]), betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga. This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Motoyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Motoyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, he burned the main castle and withdrew. As anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army.[10]

He then succeeded in delivering supplies in the siege of Odaka a year later. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda clan which remained under Imagawan control. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, and when the garrisons of the other forts came to assist, Motoyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka.[11]

Death of Yoshimoto

Main articles: Siege of Marune and Battle of Okehazama

By 1559 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to Oda Nobunaga. In 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto leading a large army of 25,000 men, invaded Oda territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune. As a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in a surprise assault by Nobunaga.[7]: 37 

Early rise (1560–1570)

Ukiyo-e of Tokugawa Ieyasu

Alliance with Nobunaga

Main article: Siege of Kaminogo Castle

With Imagawa Yoshimoto dead, and the Imagawa clan in a state of confusion, Motoyasu used the opportunity to assert his independence and marched his men back into the abandoned Okazaki Castle and reclaimed his ancestral seat.[10] Motoyasu then decided to ally with Oda Nobunaga.[12] A secret deal was needed because Motoyasu's wife, Lady Tsukiyama, and infant son, Nobuyasu, were held hostage in Sunpu by Imagawa Ujizane, Yoshimoto's heir.[13]

In 1561, Motoyasu openly broke with the Imagawa and captured the fortress of Kaminogō. Kaminogō was held by Udono Nagamochi. Resorting to stealth, Motoyasu forces under Hattori Hanzō attacked under cover of darkness, setting fire to the castle, and capturing two of Udono's sons, whom he used as hostages to exchange for his wife and son.[11]: 216 

In 1563, Matsudaira Nobuyasu, the first son of Motoyasu, was married to Oda Nobunaga's daughter Tokuhime.

Unification of Mikawa

Main article: Mikawa province

In February 1563, Matsudaira Motoyasu changed his name to Matsudaira Ieyasu.[14][15] For the next few years Ieyasu was occupied with reforming the Matsudaira clan and pacifying Mikawa. He also strengthened his key vassals by awarding them land and castles. These vassals included Ōkubo Tadayo, Ishikawa Kazumasa, Kōriki Kiyonaga, Sakai Tadatsugu, Honda Shigetsugu, Amano Yasukage and Hattori Hanzō.

During this period, the Matsudaira clan also faced a threat from a different source. Mikawa was a major center for the Ikkō-ikki movement, where peasants banded together with militant monks under the Jōdo Shinshū sect, and rejected the traditional feudal social order. Ieyasu undertook several battles to suppress this movement in his territories, including the Battle of Azukizaka (1564).[11]: 216 

Battle of Batogahara

Main article: Battle of Azukizaka (1564)

An ukiyo-e print depicting the Battle of Batogahara. In his early days as daimyo of Mikawa, Ieyasu had difficult relations with the Jōdō Shinshū temples which escalated in 1563–1564.

On January 15, 1564, Ieyasu had decided to concentrate his forces to attack and eliminate the Ikkō-ikki from Mikawa. In the Ikkō-ikki ranks were some of Ieyasu's vassals, like Honda Masanobu and Natsume Yoshinobu, who had deserted him for the Ikkō-ikki rebellion out of religious sympathy. Ieyasu was fighting in the front line and was nearly killed when struck by several bullets which did not penetrate his armour.

Both sides were using the new gunpowder weapons which the Portuguese had introduced to Japan just 20 years earlier. At the end of battle, the Ikkō-ikki were defeated. By 1565, Ieyasu became master of all of Mikawa Province.

Tokugawa clan

Main article: Tokugawa clan

In 1567, Ieyasu started the family name "Tokugawa", finally changing his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu. As he was a member of the Matsudaira clan, he claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan. However, there is no proof that the Matsudaira clan were descendants of Emperor Seiwa.[16] Yet, his surname was changed with the permission of the Imperial Court, after writing a petition, and he was bestowed the courtesy title Mikawa-no-kami (Lord of Mikawa) and the court rank of Junior 5th Rank, Lower Grade (從五位下, ju go-i no ge). Though the Tokugawa could claim some modicum of freedom, they were very much subject to the requests of Oda Nobunaga. Ieyasu remained an ally of Nobunaga and his Mikawa soldiers were part of Nobunaga's army which captured Kyoto in 1568. At the same time, Ieyasu was eager to expand eastward to Tōtōmi Province. Ieyasu and Takeda Shingen, the head of the Takeda clan in Kai Province, made an alliance for the purpose of conquering all the Imagawa territory.[17]: 279 

Tōtōmi campaign

Main article: Siege of Kakegawa

In 1569, Ieyasu's troops penetrated into Tōtōmi Province. Meanwhile, Takeda Shingen's troops captured Suruga Province (including the Imagawa capital of Sunpu). Imagawa Ujizane fled to Kakegawa Castle, which led to Ieyasu laying siege to Kakegawa. Ieyasu then negotiated with Ujizane, promising that if Ujizane should surrender himself and the remainder of Tōtōmi, Ieyasu would assist Ujizane in regaining Suruga. Ujizane had nothing left to lose, and Ieyasu immediately ended his alliance with Takeda, instead making a new alliance with Takeda's enemy to the north, Uesugi Kenshin of the Uesugi clan. Through these political manipulations, Ieyasu gained the support of the samurai of Tōtōmi Province.[10]

In 1570, Ieyasu established Hamamatsu as the capital of his territory, placing his son Nobuyasu in charge of Okazaki.[18]

Ieyasu and Nobunaga (1570–1582)

Battle of Anegawa

Main article: Battle of Anegawa

In mid 1570, Azai Nagamasa, the brother-in-law of Oda Nobunaga, broke his alliance with the Oda clan during the siege of Kanegasaki. Soon Nobunaga was ready to punish Nagamasa for his treachery. Ieyasu led 5,000 of his men to support Nobunaga at the battle.[7]: 62  The Battle of Anegawa occurred near Lake Biwa in Ōmi Province. The allied forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated the combined forces of the Azai clan and Asakura clan, and saw Nobunaga's prodigious use of firearms. It is notable as the first battle that involved the alliance between Nobunaga and Ieyasu.

Conflict with Takeda and Suruga campaign

Main articles: Battle of Mikatagahara, Battle of Nagashino, and Battle of Tenmokuzan

In October 1571, Takeda Shingen broke the alliance with the Oda-Tokugawa forces and now allied with the Odawara Hōjō clan. He decided to make a drive for Kyoto at the urgings of the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiaki, starting with invading Tokugawa lands in Tōtōmi. Takeda Shingen's first objective in his campaign against Ieyasu was Nishikawa Castle, Yoshida Castle and Futamata Castle. In 1572, after besieging Futamata, Shingen would press on past Futamata towards the major Tokugawa home castle at Hamamatsu. Later, Ieyasu asked for help from Nobunaga, who sent him some 3,000 troops. Early in 1573 the two armies met at the Battle of Mikatagahara, north Hamamatsu. The considerably larger Takeda army, under the expert direction of Shingen, overwhelmed Ieyasu's troops and caused heavy casualties. Despite his initial reluctance, Ieyasu was convinced by his generals to retreat.[19][18] The battle was a major defeat, but in the interests of maintaining the appearance of dignified withdrawal, Ieyasu brazenly ordered the men at his castle to light torches, sound drums, and leave the gates open, to properly receive the returning warriors. To the surprise and relief of the Tokugawa army, this spectacle made the Takeda generals suspicious of being led into a trap, so they did not besiege the castle and instead made camp for the night.[19] This error would allow a band of Tokugawa soldiers to raid the camp in the ensuing hours, further upsetting the already disoriented Takeda army, and ultimately resulting in Shingen's decision to call off the offensive altogether. Takeda Shingen would not get another chance to advance on Hamamatsu, much less Kyoto, since he would perish shortly after the siege of Noda Castle later that same year.[12]: 153–156 

Shingen was succeeded by his less capable son Takeda Katsuyori. In 1574, Katsuyori took Takatenjin fortress. Then, in 1575, during Takeda Katsuyori's raid through Mikawa Province, he attacked Yoshida Castle and besieged Nagashino Castle. Ieyasu appealed to Nobunaga for help and Nobunaga came personally with 30,000 strong men. The Oda-Tokugawa forces of 38,000 won a great victory and successfully defended Nagashino Castle. Though the Takeda forces had been destroyed, Katsuyori survived the battle and retreated back to Kai Province.[20] For the next seven years, Ieyasu and Katsuyori fought a series of small battles, as the result of which Ieyasu's troops managed to wrest control of Suruga Province away from the Takeda clan.

In 1579, Lady Tsukiyama, Ieyasu's wife, and his heir Nobuyasu, were accused by Nobunaga of conspiring with Takeda Katsuyori to assassinate Nobunaga, whose daughter Tokuhime was married to Nobuyasu. For this reason, Ieyasu ordered his wife to be executed and forced his son to commit seppuku. Ieyasu then named his third son, Tokugawa Hidetada, as heir, since his second son had been adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who would later become an extremely powerful daimyo.[citation needed]

In 1580, Oda-Tokugawa forces launched the second siege of Takatenjin; the siege came only six years after Takeda Katsuyori had taken the fortress. This second siege lasted from 1580 until March 22, 1581, and ended with the deaths of 680 men in the Okabe Motonobu garrison and the fall of the fortress to the Oda-Tokugawa forces.

The end of the war with Takeda came in 1582 when a combined Oda-Tokugawa force attacked and conquered Kai Province. Takeda Katsuyori was defeated at the Battle of Tenmokuzan, and then committed seppuku.[11]: 231  In March, according to the Meishō genkō-roku record, after the destruction of the Takeda clan in the Tenmokuzan, Ieyasu organized a kishōmon(blood oath) with many samurai clans that formerly were vassals of the Takeda clan assigned under the command of Tokugawa clan retainers.[21] Ieyasu Tokugawa planned to subduct the largest portions of former Takeda samurai under Naomasa's command, having consulted and reached agreement with Sakai Tadatsugu, a senior Tokugawa clan vassal. However, Ieyasu's decision garnered protest from Sakakibara Yasumasa, who went so far as to threaten Naomasa. Tadatsugu immediately defended the decision of Ieyasu in response and warned Yasumasa that if he did any harm to Naomasa, Tadatsugu would personally slaughter the Sakakibara clan; thus, Yasumasa heeded Tadatsugu and did not protest further.[22] Then Tokugawa decided that he assigned:[23][24][25][26]

Death of Nobunaga

Main article: Honnō-ji Incident

In late June 1582, before the incident at Honnō-ji temple, Oda Nobunaga invited Ieyasu to tour the Kansai region in celebration of the demise of the Takeda clan. When he learned that Nobunaga had been killed at the Honnō-ji temple by Akechi Mitsuhide,

Tokugawa Ieyasu heard the news in Hirakata, Osaka, but at the time, he had only 34 companions with him. The Iga province track were also in danger of the Ochimusha-gari, or "Samurai hunters" gang[d] Ieyasu and his party, therefore, chose the shortest route back to the Mikawa Province by crossing the Iga Province, which was differed in many versions according to primary sources such as the records of Tokugawa Nikki or Mikawa Todai-Hon:

Kada pass, believed to be the road which taken by Ieyasu Tokugawa to return into Mikawa province.[32]

Regardless which theory is true, historians agreed that the track ended Kada(a mountain pass between Kameyama town and Iga), Tokugawa group suffered a last attack by the Ochimusha-gari outlaws at Kada pass where they reached the territory of Kōka ikki clans of Jizamurai who are friendly to the Tokugawa clan. The Koka ikki samurais assisted Ieyasu to eliminate the threats of Ochimusha-gari outlaws and escorting them until they reached Iga Province, where they further protected by other allied clans from Iga ikki which accompany the Ieyasu group until they safely reach Mikawa.[29] There are 34 Tokugawa retainers who accompany Ieyasu such as Sakai Tadatsugu, Ii Naomasa, and Honda Tadakatsu, Sakakibara Yasumasa and many others.[17]: 314–315 [28][33]

Portuguese missionary Luís Fróis has recorded in his work History of Japan, that during this journey, Tokugawa retainers such as Sakai Tadatsugu, Ii Naomasa and Honda Tadakatsu fought their way out against the raids and harassments of Ochimusha-gari outlaws during their march escorting Ieyasu, while sometimes also paying bribes of gold and silver to the Ochimusha-gari outlaws which they could bribe.[34] Matsudaira Ietada recorded in his journal, Ietada nikki (家忠日記), the escorts of Ieyasu during the journey in Iga consisted the escorts of Ieyasu has killed around 200 outlaws during their journey from Osaka.[35][36]

Tokugawa expansion (1582–1584)

Kai and Shinano campaign

In 1582, Tenshō-Jingo War broke out between the Tokugawa clan and Hōjō clan in a contest to gain control the area of Shinano Province, Ueno region, and Kai Province Kai Province (currently Gunma Prefecture), which has been vacant since the destruction of Takeda clan and the death of Oda Nobunaga. Ieyasu lead an army of 8,000 soldiers entering Kai, Shinano Province, and Ueno, to annex it. However, the Hōjō clan in the Kantō region also led an army of 55,000 men and crossed the Usui Pass to invade Shinano Province.[37] At first, Ieyasu split his forces by dispatching Tadatsugu and Ogasawara Nobumine with detachment to pacify Shinano Province, while Ieyasu took the main army to pacify Kai. However, Tadatsugu and Nobumine met with unexpected resistance from Suwa Yoritada, a former Takeda vassal who now allied with the Hōjō clan.[38] they were beaten by Moritada, forcing Tadatsugu to retreat and rejoin Ieyasu's main forces in Wakamiko. In the battle of Wakamiko, 8,000 Tokugawa soldiers fought against around 50,000 soldiers of Hojo soldiers led by Hōjō Ujinao.[39][40] In the middle of this conflict, Ieyasu manage to further recruit more samurais formerly served various Takeda generals such as Ichijō Nobutatsu, Yamagata Masakage, Masatsune Tsuchiya, and Hara Masatane through the assistance of Ii Naomasa as he correspondent around 41 letters.[41][42] In total, more than 800 vassals of Takeda clan from Kofu Province recruited by Ieyasu while they are still fought the Hōjō for 80 days.[43]

In the final phase of this war, during the battle of Kurokoma,[44] Tokugawa dispatched Mizuno Katsushige and Torii Mototada to lead 2,000 soldiers in raid operation, where they managed to repel the 10,000 Hōjō army detachment which led by Hōjō Ujinao.[45] Katsunari participated in this assault together with colleague Yasusada Miyake. Hōjō Ujikatsu saw this and went to Ujitada's rescue, but Katsunari and Miyake manage to repel Ujikatsu's reinforcements. despite some quarrel with Mototada as he viewed Katsunari being reckless and not following order, Katsunari were praised for his outstanding performance and received some rewards.[46] The Hōjō army also failed to launch attack to Tokugawa's rear army.[45] Due to the losses Ujinao suffered in this battle, which combined with the defection of Sanada Masayuki to the Tokugawa side has forced the Hōjō clan to negotiate truce with Ieyasu.[47] and The Hōjō clan then sent Hōjō Ujinobu as representative, while the Tokugawa sent Ii Naomasa as representative.[48][49]

In 1583, a war for rule over Japan was fought between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Shibata Katsuie. Ieyasu did not take a side in this conflict, building on his reputation for both caution and wisdom. Hideyoshi defeated Katsuie at the Battle of Shizugatake. With this victory, Hideyoshi became the single most powerful daimyo in Japan.[17]: 314 

Ieyasu and Hideyoshi (1584–1598)

Conflict with Hideyoshi

In 1584, Ieyasu decided to support Oda Nobukatsu, the eldest surviving son and heir of Oda Nobunaga, against Toyotomi Hideyoshi. This was a dangerous act and could have resulted in the annihilation of the Tokugawa clan, due to the fact that the Oda clan collapsed after Nobunaga's death.[citation needed]

Battle of Komaki and Nagakute

Main article: Battle of Komaki and Nagakute

Tokugawa troops took the traditional Oda stronghold of Owari. Hideyoshi responded by sending an army into Owari. The Komaki and Nagakute Campaign was the only time any of the great unifiers of Japan fought each other.

The Komaki and Nagakute Campaign proved indecisive and after months of fruitless marches and feints, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu settled the war through negotiations. First, Hideyoshi made peace with Oda Nobukatsu, and then he offered a truce to Ieyasu. The deal was made at the end of the year; as part of the terms Ieyasu's second son, Ogimaru (also known as Yuki Hideyasu) became an adopted son of Hideyoshi.[citation needed]

Ieyasu's aide, Ishikawa Kazumasa, chose to join the pre-eminent daimyo and so he moved to Osaka to be with Hideyoshi. However, few other Tokugawa retainers followed this example.[citation needed]

Alliance with Hideyoshi

Main articles: Siege of Odawara (1590) and Kunohe Rebellion

Toyotomi Hideyoshi was understandably distrustful of Ieyasu, and five years passed before they fought as allies. The Tokugawa did not participate in Hideyoshi's successful Invasion of Shikoku (1585) and the Kyūshū Campaign (1587).[citation needed]

In 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi attacked the last independent daimyo in Japan, Hōjō Ujimasa. The Hōjō clan ruled the eight provinces of the Kantō region in eastern Japan. Hideyoshi ordered them to submit to his authority and they refused. Ieyasu, though a friend and occasional ally of Ujimasa, joined his large force of 30,000 samurai with Hideyoshi's enormous army of some 160,000. The Odawara campaign was the first battle of Ieyasu and Hideyoshi as allies. They attacked several castles on the borders of the Hōjō clan with most of their army laying siege to the castle at Odawara. Hideyoshi's and Ieyasu's army captured Odawara Castle after six months (oddly for the time period, deaths on both sides were few). During this siege, Hideyoshi offered Ieyasu a radical deal: He offered Ieyasu the eight Kantō provinces which they were about to take from the Hōjō in return for the five provinces that Ieyasu currently controlled (including Ieyasu's home province of Mikawa). Ieyasu accepted this proposal. Bowing to the overwhelming power of the Toyotomi army, the Hōjō accepted defeat, their leaders committed suicide and Ieyasu marched in and took control of their provinces, ending the clan's reign of over 100 years.[citation needed]

The Sannohe faction of Nanbu clan led by Nanbu Nobunao organized a coalition of most of the factions of the Nanbu clan and pledged allegiance to Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the siege of Odawara. In return, he was recognized as chieftain of the Nanbu clan, and confirmed as daimyo of his existing holdings in the northern districts of Mutsu Province. However, Kunohe Masazane [jp] (1536–1591), lord of Kunohe Castle and leader of the Kunohe faction of Nanbu clan, felt that he had a stronger claim to the title of clan chieftain, and immediately rose in rebellion. In 1591, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu took the Kunohe Rebellion as a personal affront to Toyotomi authority and by mid-year organized a retaliatory army to retake northern Tōhoku and to restore the area to Nanbu Nobunao's control.

Rise to power (1591–1599)

Daimyo of Kantō region

Main articles: Kantō region and Edo Castle

In 1591, Ieyasu now gave up control of his five provinces (Mikawa, Tōtōmi, Suruga, Shinano, and Kai) and moved all his soldiers and vassals to his new eight provinces at the Kantō region. He himself occupied the castle town of Edo in Kantō. This was possibly the riskiest move Ieyasu ever made—to leave his home province and rely on the uncertain loyalty of the formerly Hōjō samurai in Kantō. In the end however, it worked out brilliantly for Ieyasu. He reformed the Kantō region, controlled and pacified the Hōjō samurai and improved the underlying economic infrastructure of the lands. Also, because Kantō was somewhat isolated from the rest of Japan, Ieyasu was able to ally with daimyos of north-east Japan such as Date Masamune, Mogami Yoshiaki, Satake Yoshishige and Nanbu Nobunao; he was also able to maintain a unique level of autonomy from Toyotomi Hideyoshi's rule. Within a few years, Ieyasu had become the second most powerful daimyo in Japan. There is a Japanese proverb which likely refers to this event: "Ieyasu won the Empire by retreating."[50]

Korean Campaign

Main article: Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

In 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded Korea as a prelude to his plan to attack China. The Tokugawa samurai never actually took part in this campaign.

In 1593, Toyotomi Hideyoshi fathered a son and heir, Toyotomi Hideyori. Later, though in early 1593, Ieyasu himself was summoned to Hideyoshi's court in Nagoya (in Kyūshū, different from the similarly spelled city in Owari Province) as a military advisor and given command of a body of troops meant as reserves for the Korean campaign. Ieyasu stayed in Nagoya off and on for the next five years.[17] Despite his frequent absences, Ieyasu's sons, loyal retainers and vassals were able to control and improve Edo and the other new Tokugawa lands. However, the cost of the Japanese invasions of Korea significantly weakened the Toyotomi clan's power in Japan.

Council of Five Elders

Main article: Council of Five Elders

In 1598, with Toyotomi Hideyoshi's health clearly failing, Hideyoshi called a meeting that would determine the Council of Five Elders, who would be responsible for ruling on behalf of his son after his death. The five that were chosen as tairō (regent) for Hideyori were Maeda Toshiie, Mōri Terumoto, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, and Ieyasu himself, who was the most powerful of the five. This change in the pre-Sekigahara power structure became pivotal as Ieyasu turned his attention towards Kansai; and at the same time, other ambitious (albeit ultimately unrealized) plans, such as the Tokugawa initiative establishing official relations with New Spain (modern-day Mexico), continued to unfold and advance.[51][52]

Death of Hideyoshi and Toshiie

Toyotomi Hideyoshi, after three more months of increasing sickness, died on September 18, 1598. He was nominally succeeded by his young son Hideyori but as he was just five years old, real power was in the hands of the regents.[citation needed] There are several incidents involved Ieyasu after the death of Hideyoshi:

Over years, Ieyasu made alliances with various daimyo, especially those who had no love for Hideyoshi. Later, the oldest and most respected of the regents, Maeda Toshiie, died after just one year in 1599.[citation needed]

Unification of Japan (1599–1603)

The kabuto (helmet) of Tokugawa Ieyasu

Conflict with Mitsunari

Main articles: Siege of Shiroishi, Siege of Hasedō, Battle of Gifu Castle, Siege of Fushimi, and Siege of Ueda

With the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1598 and Maeda Toshiie in 1599, Ieyasu led an army to Fushimi and took over Osaka Castle, the residence of Hideyori. This angered the three remaining regents and plans were made on all sides for war.[citation needed]

Opposition to Ieyasu centered around Ishida Mitsunari, one of Hideyoshi's Go-Bugyō, or top administrators of Hideyoshi's government and a powerful daimyo who was not one of the regents. Mitsunari plotted Ieyasu's death and news of this plot reached some of Ieyasu's generals. They attempted to kill Mitsunari but he fled and gained protection from none other than Ieyasu himself. It is not clear why Ieyasu protected a powerful enemy from his own men but Ieyasu was a master strategist and he may have concluded that he would be better off with Mitsunari leading the enemy army rather than one of the regents, who would have more legitimacy.[61]

Nearly all of Japan's daimyo and samurai now split into two factions—the Western Army (Mitsunari's group) and the Eastern Army (Ieyasu's group). Ieyasu supported the anti-Mitsunari group, and formed them as his potential allies. Ieyasu's allies were Katō Kiyomasa, Fukushima Masanori, Mogami Yoshiaki, Hachisuka Iemasa, the Kuroda clan, the Hosokawa clan and many daimyo from eastern Japan. Mitsunari allied himself with the three other regents: Ukita Hideie, Mōri Terumoto, and Uesugi Kagekatsu, as well as with Ōtani Yoshitsugu, Chosokabe clan, Shimazu clan and many daimyo from the western end of Honshū.[citation needed]

War became imminent when Uesugi Kagekatsu, one of Hideyoshi's appointed regents, defied Ieyasu by building up his military at Aizu. When Ieyasu officially condemned him and demanded that he come to Kyoto to explain himself, Kagekatsu's chief advisor, Naoe Kanetsugu, responded with a counter-condemnation that mocked Ieyasu's abuses and violations of Hideyoshi's rules, and Ieyasu was infuriated.

In July 1600, Ieyasu was back in Edo and his allies moved their armies to defeat the Uesugi clan, which they accused of planning to revolt against Toyotomi administration. On September 8, Ieyasu received information that Mitsunari had captured Fushimi castle and his allies had moved their army against Ieyasu. Ieyasu held a meeting with the Eastern Army daimyo, and they agreed to follow Ieyasu. Later on September 15, Mitsunari's Western army arrived at Ogaki Castle. On September 29, Ieyasu's Eastern Army took Gifu Castle. On October 7, Ieyasu and his allies marched along the Tōkaidō, while his son Hidetada went along through Nakasendō with 38,000 soldiers (a battle against Sanada Masayuki in Shinano Province delayed Hidetada's forces, and they did not arrive in time for the main Battle of Sekigahara). On October 20, Ieyasu's Eastern Army met Mitsunari's Western Army at Sekigahara, and on the following morning the battle began.

Battle of Sekigahara

Main article: Battle of Sekigahara

The Battle of Sekigahara was the biggest and one of the most important battles in Japanese feudal history. It began on October 21, 1600. Initially, the Eastern Army led by Tokugawa Ieyasu had 75,000 men, while the Western Army numbered 120,000 men under Ishida Mitsunari. Ieyasu had also snuck in a supply of arquebuses.

Knowing that the Tokugawa forces were heading towards Osaka, Mitsunari decided to abandon his positions and marched to Sekigahara. Even though the Western Army had tremendous tactical advantages, Ieyasu had already been in contact with many of the daimyo in the Western Army for months, promising them land and leniency after the battle should they switch sides, also having secretly communicated with Toyotomi Hideyoshi's nephew, Kobayakawa Hideaki. With a total of 170,000 soldiers facing each other, the Battle of Sekigahara ensued and ended with a complete Tokugawa victory.[62] Later, the Western bloc was crushed and over the next few days Ishida Mitsunari and many other western nobles were captured and killed. Tokugawa Ieyasu was now the de facto ruler of Japan.[citation needed]

Armor of Tokugawa Ieyasu at Kunōzan Tōshō-gū

Immediately after the victory at Sekigahara, Ieyasu redistributed land to the vassals who had served him. Ieyasu left some western daimyo unharmed, such as the Shimazu clan, but others were completely destroyed. Toyotomi Hideyori (the son of Hideyoshi) lost most of his territory which were under management of western daimyo, and he was degraded to an ordinary daimyo, not a ruler of Japan. In later years the vassals who had pledged allegiance to Ieyasu before Sekigahara became known as the fudai daimyō, while those who pledged allegiance to him after the battle (in other words, after his power was unquestioned) were known as tozama daimyō. Tozama daimyō were considered inferior to fudai daimyō.[citation needed]

Shōgun (1603–1605)

Main article: Tokugawa shogunate

An ukiyo-e by Yoshitoshi depicting the scene when Ieyasu had an audience with Emperor Go-Yōzei

On March 24, 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of shōgun from Emperor Go-Yōzei.[63] Ieyasu was 60 years old. He had outlasted all the other great men of his times: Oda Nobunaga, Takeda Shingen, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Uesugi Kenshin. As shōgun, he used his remaining years to create and solidify the Tokugawa shogunate, which ushered in the Edo period, and was the third shogunal government (after the Kamakura and the Ashikaga). He claimed descent from the Minamoto clan who had founded the Kamakura shogunate, by way of the Nitta clan. His descendants would marry into the Taira clan and the Fujiwara clan. The Tokugawa shogunate would rule Japan for the next 260 years.[3]

Following a well established Japanese pattern, Ieyasu abdicated his official position as shōgun in 1605. His successor was his son and heir, Tokugawa Hidetada. There may have been several factors that contributed to his decision, including his desires to avoid being tied up in ceremonial duties, to make it harder for his enemies to attack the real power center, and to secure a smoother succession of his son.[64] The abdication of Ieyasu had no effect on the practical extent of his powers or his rule; but Hidetada nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the shogunal bureaucracy.[citation needed]

Ōgosho (1605–1616)

Edo Castle from a 17th-century painting

Construction of Edo castle

Main article: Edo Castle

From 1605, Ieyasu, acting as the retired shōgun (大御所, ōgosho), remained the effective ruler of Japan until his death. Ieyasu retired to Sunpu Castle in Sunpu, but he also supervised the building of Edo Castle, a massive construction project which lasted for the rest of Ieyasu's life. The result was the largest castle in all of Japan, the costs for building the castle being borne by all the other daimyo, while Ieyasu reaped all the benefits. The central donjon, or tenshu, burned in the 1657 Meireki fire. Today, the Imperial Palace stands on the site of the castle.[65]

In 1611, Ieyasu, at the head of 50,000 men, visited Kyoto to witness the enthronement of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. In Kyoto, Ieyasu ordered the remodeling of the Imperial Court and buildings, and forced the remaining western daimyo to sign an oath of fealty to him.[citation needed]

In 1613, he composed the Kuge shohatto (公家諸法度), a document which put the court daimyo under strict supervision, leaving them as mere ceremonial figureheads.[66]

In 1615, Ieyasu prepared the Buke shohatto (武家諸法度), a document setting out the future of the Tokugawa regime.[67]

Relations with foreign powers

Main article: History of Roman Catholicism in Japan

William Adams before shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu
Letter from King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland to ogosho Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1613

As Ōgosho, Ieyasu also supervised diplomatic affairs with the Netherlands, Spain, and England. Ieyasu chose to distance Japan from European influence starting in 1609, although the shogunate did still grant preferential trading rights to the Dutch East India Company and permitted them to maintain a "factory" for trading purposes.[citation needed]

From 1605 until his death, Ieyasu frequently consulted English shipwright and pilot, William Adams.[68] Adams, a Protestant[69] fluent in Japanese, assisted the shogunate in negotiating trading relations, but was cited by members of the competing Jesuit and Spanish-sponsored mendicant orders as an obstacle to improved relations between Ieyasu and the Roman Catholic Church.[70][71][72]

Significant attempts to curtail the influence of Christian missionaries in Japan date to 1587 during the leadership of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. However, in 1614, Ieyasu was sufficiently concerned about Spanish territorial ambitions that he signed a Christian Expulsion Edict. The edict banned the practice of Christianity and led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries. Although some smaller Dutch trading operations remained in Nagasaki, this edict dramatically curtailed foreign trade and marked the end of open Christian witness in Japan until the 1870s.[73] The immediate cause of the prohibition was the Okamoto Daihachi incident, a case of fraud involving Ieyasu's Catholic vavasour, but the shogunate was also concerned about a possible invasion by the Iberian colonial powers, which had previously occurred in the New World and the Philippines.[citation needed]

Conflict with Hideyori

Replica of Great Buddha of Kyoto build by Hideyori

The last remaining threat to Ieyasu's rule was Toyotomi Hideyori, the son and rightful heir to Hideyoshi.[3] He was now a young daimyo living in Osaka Castle. Many samurai who opposed Ieyasu rallied around Hideyori, claiming that he was the rightful ruler of Japan. Ieyasu found fault with the opening ceremony of a temple (Great Buddha of Kyoto) built by Hideyori; it was as if he prayed for Ieyasu's death and the ruin of the Tokugawa clan. Ieyasu ordered Hideyori to leave Osaka Castle, but those in the castle refused and summoned samurai to gather within the castle. Then in 1614, Tokugawa besieged the Osaka Castle against Hideyori.

Siege of Osaka

Main article: Siege of Osaka

Main tower of Osaka Castle

The Tokugawa forces, with a huge army led by Ieyasu and shōgun Hidetada, laid siege to Osaka Castle in what is now known as "the Winter Siege of Osaka". Eventually, the Tokugawa were able to force negotiations and an armistice after directed cannon fire threatened Hideyori's mother, Yodo-dono. However, once the treaty was agreed, the Tokugawa filled the castle's outer moats with sand so his troops could walk across. Through this ploy, the Tokugawa gained a huge tract of land through negotiation and deception that they could not through siege and combat. Ieyasu returned to Sunpu Castle, but after Toyotomi Hideyori refused another order to leave Osaka, Ieyasu and his allied army of 155,000 soldiers attacked Osaka Castle again in "the Summer Siege of Osaka".

Finally, in late 1615, Osaka Castle fell and nearly all the defenders were killed, including Hideyori, his mother (Toyotomi Hideyoshi's widow, Yodo-dono), and his infant son. His wife, Senhime (a granddaughter of Ieyasu), pleaded to save Hideyori and Yodo-dono's lives. Ieyasu refused and either required them to commit ritual suicide, or killed both of them. Eventually, Senhime was sent back to the Tokugawa alive. With the Toyotomi line finally extinguished, no threats remained to the Tokugawa clan's domination of Japan.[citation needed]


The tomb of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Nikkō Tōshō-gū

In 1616, Tokugawa Ieyasu died at age 73.[8] The cause of death is thought to have been cancer or syphilis. The first Tokugawa shōgun was posthumously deified with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大權現), the "Great Gongen, Light of the East". (A Gongen is believed to be a buddha who has appeared on Earth in the shape of a kami to save sentient beings). In life, Ieyasu had expressed the wish to be deified after his death to protect his descendants from evil. His remains were buried at the Gongens' mausoleum at Kunōzan, Kunōzan Tōshō-gū (久能山東照宮). As a common view, many people believe that after the first anniversary of his death, his remains were reburied at Nikkō Shrine, Nikkō Tōshō-gū (日光東照宮), and his remains are still there. Neither shrine has offered to open the graves, so the location of Ieyasu's physical remains is still a mystery. The mausoleum's architectural style became known as gongen-zukuri, that is gongen-style.[74] He was first given the Buddhist name Tosho Dai-Gongen (東照大權現), then after his death it was changed to Hogo Onkokuin (法號安國院).[citation needed]

Ieyasu ruled directly as shōgun or indirectly as ōgosho (大御所) during the Keichō era (1596–1615).[citation needed]

Ieyasu's character

Handprint of Tokugawa Ieyasu at Kunōzan Tōshō-gū
Precepts on the secret of success in life drafted by Tokugawa Ieyasu from the collection of Nikkō Tōshō-gū

Historical evaluation of Ieyasu by Junji Mitsunari from history faculty of Kyushu University has comparation of Ieyasu's upbringing with another Sengoku era leader, Mōri Terumoto. Mitsunari viewed that Terumoto, who has been raised in comfort and stable domains of the Mōri clan, has contrasted with the hardships of Ieyasu during his childhood, who experienced the unstable region in Mikawa province, where he spend much his youth as hostage of other warlords, thus forming both leader's character into different styles. Mitsunari viewed that this contrast of leadership style has reflected in the Sekigahara battle, where the indecisiveness of Terumoto costed the Western army greatly during the crucial moment, while Ieyasu's bold decision and his willingness to take the risk gave him the edge during the war.[75]

Tokugawa Ieyasu had a number of qualities that enabled him to rise to power. He was both careful and bold—at the right times, and in the right places. Calculating and subtle, Ieyasu switched alliances when he thought he would benefit from the change. He allied with the Later Hōjō clan; then he joined Toyotomi Hideyoshi's army of conquest, which destroyed the Hōjō; and he himself took over their lands. In this he was like other daimyo of his time. This was an era of violence, sudden death, and betrayal. He was not well liked nor personally popular, but he was feared and respected for his leadership and cunning. For example, he wisely kept his soldiers out of Hideyoshi's campaign in Korea.[citation needed]

He was capable of great loyalty: once he allied with Oda Nobunaga, he never went against him, and both leaders profited from their long alliance. He was known for being loyal towards his personal friends and vassals, whom he rewarded. He was said to have a close friendship with his vassal Hattori Hanzō. However, he also remembered those who had wronged him in the past. It is said that Ieyasu executed a man who came into his power because he had insulted him when Ieyasu was young.[76]

Ieyasu protected many former Takeda retainers from the wrath of Oda Nobunaga, who was known to harbour a bitter grudge towards the Takeda. He managed successfully to transform many of the retainers of the Takeda, Hōjō, and Imagawa clans —all whom he had defeated himself or helped to defeat—into loyal vassals. At the same time, he was also ruthless when crossed. For example, he ordered the executions of his first wife and his eldest son—a son-in-law of Oda Nobunaga; Nobunaga was also an uncle of Hidetada's wife Oeyo.[77]

Ieyasu was cruel, relentless and merciless in the elimination of Toyotomi survivors after Osaka. For days, scores of men and women were hunted down and executed, including an eight-year-old son of Toyotomi Hideyori by a concubine, who was beheaded.[78]

Unlike Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he harbored no desires to conquer outside of Japan—he only wanted to bring order and an end to open warfare, and to rule Japan.[79]

Ieyasu's favorite pastime was falconry. He regarded it as excellent training for a warrior. "When you go into the country hawking, you learn to understand the military spirit and also the hard life of the lower classes. You exercise your muscles and train your limbs. You have any amount of walking and running and become quite indifferent to heat and cold, and so you are little likely to suffer from any illness.".[80] Ieyasu swam often; even late in his life he is reported to have swum in the moat of Edo Castle.[81]

Two of his famous quotes:

Life is like unto a long journey with a heavy burden. Let thy step be slow and steady, that thou stumble not. Persuade thyself that imperfection and inconvenience are the lot of natural mortals, and there will be no room for discontent, neither for despair. When ambitious desires arise in thy heart, recall the days of extremity thou hast passed through. Forbearance is the root of all quietness and assurance forever. Look upon the wrath of thy enemy. If thou only knowest what it is to conquer, and knowest not what it is to be defeated; woe unto thee, it will fare ill with thee. Find fault with thyself rather than with others.[82]

The strong manly ones in life are those who understand the meaning of the word patience. Patience means restraining one's inclinations. There are seven emotions: joy, anger, anxiety, adoration, grief, fear, and hate, and if a man does not give way to these he can be called patient. I am not as strong as I might be, but I have long known and practiced patience. And if my descendants wish to be as I am, they must study patience.[83][84]

It is said that he fought, as a warrior or a general, in 90 battles.[citation needed]

He was interested in various kenjutsu skills, was a patron of the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū school, and also had them as his personal sword instructors.[citation needed]


The familial temple of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Zōjō-ji, as depicted by Hiroshige in 1857

Tokugawa Ieyasu was known for his devotion to the Jōdo-shū school of Buddhism throughout his life, having been born into the Matsudaira clan which followed Jōdō Buddhism. Demonstrating his constant favor towards the sect, he moved his familial temple to the Zōjō-ji Temple in Edo and funded massive renovations to older Jōdo temples, including the head temple of Chion-in in Kyoto, while also financing the creation of several new temples. After confiding in the abbot of Zōjō-ji temple about wanting to become a deity to protect his country, he was given the advice to regularly recite the nembutsu for the purpose of being born into Amida Buddha's Pure Land of Sukhavati, where he would be able to easily attain Buddhahood and protect his descendants and the entire nation of Japan. Ieyasu readily accepted this advice, and constantly repeated the nembutsu until the day he died. Despite his personal devotion to Jōdo-shū, Ieyasu was not a strict sectarian, placing his secretary Denchōrō, a Rinzai Zen monk, in charge of all religious affairs in Japan, Buddhist and Shinto alike.[85][86]

Later in life he also took to scholarship and Confucianism, patronizing scholars like Hayashi Razan.[87][88]

While at first tolerant of Christianity,[89] his attitude changed after 1613 and the persecution of Christians sharply increased, with Ieyasu completely banning Catholicism in 1614.[90]


Parents and siblings


Status Image Name Posthumous Name Birth Death Parents
Father Matsudaira Hirotada Oseidokantokoji Matsudaira Kiyoyasu
Aoki family's daughter
Mother Odai no Kata October 13, 1602 Mizuno Tadamasa


Mother Side

Image Name Posthumous Name Birth Death Father Marriage Issue
Matsudaira Yasumoto of Sekiyado Domain Daiko-in-dono sugurudensoeidaikoji 1552 September 19, 1603 Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) Matsudaira Tadayoshi (1582–1624) of Ōgaki Domain
Matsudaira Masayoshi
Matsudaira Yasuhisa
Matsudaira Nobusuke (d.1655)
Dōsen-in married Okabe Nagamori (1568–1632) of Ōgaki Domain
Ryuko-in married Suganuma Sadayori (1576–1605) of Nagashima Domain
Matehime (1598–1638) married Fukushima Masayuki (1858–1602) later married Tsugaru Nobuhira of Hirosaki Domain
Tsubakihime married Tanaka Tadamasa (1585–1620) of Yanagawa Domain later married Matsudaira Narishige (1594–1633) of Tamba-Kameyama Domain
Shoshitsu’in married Osuga Tadamasa (1581–1607) of Yokosuka Domain later married Suganuma Sadayoshi (1587–1643) of Tamba-Kameyama Domain
Jomyo-in married Nakamura Kazutada (1590–1609) of Yonogo Domain later married Mōri Hidemoto of Chofu Domain
Matsudaira Yasutoshi 1552 April 2, 1586 Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) Daughter married Matsudaira Katsumasa
Hisamatsu Sadakatsu Sogen-in-dono denyonshinatsugishoukugaentodaikoji Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) Okudaira Tatsu, Okudaira Sadatomo (d.1585)’s daughter Matsudaira Sadayoshi (1585–1603)
Matsudaira Sadayuki (1587–1668) of Kuwana Domain
Matsudaira Sadatsuna (1592–1625) of Kuwana Domain
Matsudaira Sadazane (1597–1632)
Matsudaira Sadafusa (1604–1676) of Imabari Domain
Matsudaira Sadamasa (1610–1673) of Kariya Domain
Matsuohime married Hattori Masanari
Kumahime (1595–1632) married Yamauchi Tadayoshi (1592–1665) of Tosa Domain
Daughter married Nakagawa Hisanori (1594–1653) of Oka Domain
Kikuhime married Sakai Tadayuki (1599–1636) of Maebashi Domain
Shōjuin Married Abe Shigetsugu (1598–1651) of Iwatsuki Domain
Tamako married Ikeda Tsunemoto (1611–1671) of Yamasaki Domain
Take-hime Chogen-in 1553 July 28, 1618 Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) First: Matsudaira Tadamasa (1543–1577) of Sakurai-Matsudaira clan
Second: Matsudaira Tadayoshi (1559–1582) of Sakurai-Matsudaira clan
Third: Hoshina Masanao
By First: Matsudaira Iehiro (1577–1601) of Musashi-Matsuyama Domain
By Second: Matsudaira Nobuyoshi (1580–1620) of Sasayama Domain
Matsudaira Tadayori of Hamamatsu Domain
By Third: Hoshina Masasada of Iino Domain
Hojo Ujishige (1595–1658) of Kakegawa Domain
Seigen’in married Anbe Nobumori (1584–1674) of Okabe Domain
Yōhime (1591–1664) married Koide Yoshihide (1587–1666) of Izushi Domain
Eihime (1585–1635) married Kuroda Nagamasa of Fukuoka Domain
Kōun-in married Kato Akinari (1592–1661) of Aizu Domain
Matsuhime Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) Matsudaira Yasunaga (1562–1633) of Matsumoto Domain Matsudaira Nagakane (1580–1619)
Matsudaira Tadamitsu (1562–1633)
Matsudaira Yasunao (1617–1634) of Akashi Domain
Tenkeiin Hisamatsu Toshikatsu (1526–1587) Matsudaira Iekiyo of Yoshida Domain Matsudaira Tadakiyo (1585–1612) of Yoshida Domain

Wives and concubines

Status Image Name Posthumous Name Birth Death Parents Issue
First Wife Tsukiyama-dono Shoge-in September 19, 1579 Sekiguchi Chikanaga (1518–1562)
Ii Naohira's daughter
Matsudaira Nobuyasu
Second Wife Asahi no kata Nanmeiin 1543 February 18, 1590
Concubine Nishigori no Tsubone Rensho-in June 19, 1606 Udono Nagamochi (1513–1557) Tokuhime (Tokugawa) married Hojo Ujinao later to Ikeda Terumasa of Himeji Domain
Concubine Shimoyama-dono Moshin’in 1564 November 21, 1591 Akiyama Torayasu Takeda Nobuyoshi of Mito Domain
Concubine Kageyama-dono Youjuin 1580 October 13, 1653 Masaki Yoritada (1551–1622)
Hojo Ujitaka (d.1609)’s daughter
Tokugawa Yorinobu of Kishu Domain
Tokugawa Yorifusa of Mito Domain
Concubine Kotoku-no-Tsubone Chōshō-in 1548 January 10, 1620 Nagami Sadahide Yuki Hideyasu of Fukui Domain
Concubine Saigō-no-Tsubone 1552 July 1, 1589 Tozuka Tadaharu
Saigo Masakatsu's daughter
Concubine Otake no Kata Ryōun-in 1555 April 7, 1637 Ichikawa Masanaga Furi-hime (1580–1617) married Gamō Hideyuki of Aizu Domain later to Asano Nagaakira of Hiroshima Domain
Concubine Chaa-no-Tsubone Chokoin July 30, 1621 Matsudaira Tadateru of Takada Domain
Matsudaira Matsuchiyo of Fukaya Domain
Concubine Onatsu no Kata Seiun’in 1581 October 24, 1660 Hasegawa Fujinao
Concubine Okaji no Kata Eishō-in December 7, 1578 September 17, 1642 Ota Yasusuke (1531–1581) Ichihime (1607–1610)
Concubine Oume no Kata Renge-in 1586 October 8, 1647 Aoki Kazunori (d.1600)
Concubine Acha no Tsubone Unkoin March 16, 1555 February 16, 1637 Ida Naomasa
Concubine Omusu no Kata Shōei-in July 26, 1692 Mitsui Yoshimasa Stillborn (1592)
Concubine Okame no Kata Sōōin 1573 October 9, 1642 Shimizu Munekiyo Matsudaira Senchiyo (1595–1600)
Tokugawa Yoshinao of Owari Domain
Concubine Osen no Kata Taiei-in November 30, 1619 Miyazaki Yasukage
Concubine Oroku no Kata Yōgen'in 1597 May 4, 1625 Kuroda Naojin
Concubine Ohisa no Kata Fushōin March 24, 1617 Mamiya Yasutoshi (1518–1590) Matsuhime (1595–1598)
Concubine Tomiko Shinju-in August 7, 1628 Yamada clan
Concubine Omatsu no Kata Hōkōin
Concubine Sanjo Clan
Concubine Matsudaira Shigetoshi (1498–1589)


Image Name Posthumous Name Birth Death Mother Marriage Issue
Matsudaira Nobuyasu Toun-in-dono ryugenchokookyoshiseiroji-dono densanshutegensensudaikoji Tokuhime (1576–1607) married Ogasawara Hidemasa (1569–1615) of Matsumoto domain
Kamehime (1577–1626) married Honda Tadamasa of Himeji Domain
By Concubine: Banchiyo
Toku-hime Ryōshō-in Nishigori no Tsubone by First: Manshuin-dono (1593)
Manhime (d. 1602)
Senhime (b. 1596) married Kyokogu Takahiro (1599–1677) of Miyazu Domain
By Second: Ikeda Tadatsugu (1599–1615) of Okayama Domain
Ikeda Tadakatsu (1602–1632) of Okayama Domain
Ikeda Teruzumi (1604–1662) of Shikano Domain
Ikeda Masatsuna (1605–1631) Of Akō Domain
Furihime (1607–1659) married Date Tadamune of Sendai Domain
Ikeda Teruoki (1611–1647) Of Akō Domain
Yuki Hideyasu Jokoin-dono shingendoyounseidaikoji Kotoku-no-Tsubone Tsuruko, Edo Shigemichi's daughter
Tokugawa Hidetada May 2, 1579
Matsudaira Tadayoshi Shokoin-dono keneigenmodaikoji
Furi-hime Shōsei-in 1580 September 27, 1617 Otake no Kata First: Gamō Hideyuki of Aizu Domain
Second: Asano Nagaakira of Hiroshima Domain
By first: Gamō Tadasato (1602–1627) of Aizu Domain
Gamō Tadatomo (1604–1634) of Iyo-Matsuyama Domain
Yorihime (1602–1656) married Kato Tadahiro (1601–1653) of Dewa-Maruoka Domain
By Second: Asano Mitsuakira of Hiroshima Domain
Takeda Nobuyoshi Joken-in-dono eiyozenkyozugendaizenjomon Shimoyama-dono Tenshoin, Kinoshita Katsutoshi's daughter
Matsudaira Tadateru Shorin-in-dono shinyokisogesendaikoji
Matsudaira Matsuchiyo Eishoin-dono
Matsudaira Senchiyo Kogakuin-dono kesoiyodaidoji April 22, 1595 March 21, 1600 Okame no Kata
Matsuhime 1595 1598 Ohisa no Kata
Tokugawa Yoshinao By Concubines: Tokugawa Mitsutomo of Owari Domain
Kyōhime (1626–1674) married Hirohata Tadayuki (1624–1669)
Tokugawa Yorinobu Nanryuin-dono nihonzeneaiyotenkotakoji by Concubines: Tokugawa Mitsusada of Kishu Domain

Matsudaira Yorizumi (1641–1711) of Saijō Domain
Inabahime (1631–1709) married Ikeda Mitsunaka (1630–1693) of Tottori Domain
Matsuhime married Matsudaira Nobuhira (1636–1689) of Takatsukasa-Matsudaira Clan

Tokugawa Yorifusa
Ichi-hime Seiun’in January 28, 1607 March 7, 1610 Okaji no Kata

Speculated children

Image Name Pusthomous Name Birth Death Mother Marriage Issue
Suzuki Ichizo September 10, 1556 Daughter of Hatago of post station in Totoumi Province
Nagami Sadachika March 1, 1574 January 5, 1605 Kotoku-no-Tsubone Nagami clan's daughter Nagami Sadayasu
Matsudaira Minbu 1582 1616 Omatsu-no-Kata
Ogasawara Gonnojō 1589 May 7, 1615 Sanjo Clan Kondo Hidemochi (1547–1631) of Iinoya Domain's daughter Son
Daughter married Mamiya Nobukatsu
Daughter married Nakagawa Tadayuki
Ii Naotaka Kyūshō-in-dono Gōtokuten'eidaikoji
Doi Toshikatsu Hōchiin-dono denshuhoonyotaiokyogendaikoji Matsudaira Chikakiyo's daughter By concubines: Doi Toshitaka (1619–1685) of Koga Domain
Doi Katsumasa
Doi Toshinaga (1631–1696) of Nishio Domain
Doi Toshifusa (1631–1683) of Ōno Domain
Doi Toshinao (1637–1677) of Ōwa Domain
Katsuhime married Ikoma Takatoshi of Yashima Domain
Kazuhime married Hori Naotsugu (1614–1638) of Murakami Domain
Katsuhime married Matsudaira Yorishige of Takamatsu Domain
Inuhime married Inoue Yoshimasa
Kahime married Nasu Sukemitsu (1628–1687) of Karasuyama Domain
Goto Hiroyo Juny 24, 1606 March 14, 1680 Ohashi-no-Tsubone, Aoyama Masanaga's daughter
Tokugawa Iemitsu Lady Kasuga By concubines: Chiyohime (1637–1699) married Tokugawa Mitsutomo of Owari Domain
Tokugawa Ietsuna, 4th Shogun
Kamematsu (1643–1647)
Tokugawa Tsunashige of Kofu Domain
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 5th Shogun
Tsurumatsu (1647–1648)

Adopted children

Image Name Posthumous Name Birth Death Parents Marriage Issue
Komatsuhime Dairen-in 1573 Mar 27, 1620 Honda Tadakatsu
Ohisa no Kata
Sanada Nobuyuki of Matsushiro Domain Manhime (b. 1592) married Kōriki Tadafusa of Shimabara Domain
Kenju-in married Sakuma Katsumune
Sanada Nobumasa of Matsushiro Domain
Sanada Nobushige (1599–1648) of Hanishina Domain
Tokuhime Minetaka-in 1576 1607 Okazaki Nobuyasu
Ogasawara Hidemasa (1569–1615) Manhime (1592–1666) married Hachisuka Yoshishige of Tokushima Domain
Ogasawara Tadanaga (1595–1615)
Ogasawara Tadazane (1596–1667)
Hōju-in (1597–1649)
Ogasawara Tadatomo (1599–1663)
Matsudaira Shigenao (1601–1643)
Ogasawara Tadayoshi
Ogasawara Nagatoshi
Matsudaira Ieharu Torin’in dokaisosakudaizenzomon 1579 April 15, 1592 Okudaira Nobumasa of Kano Domain
Kanahime Shōjō-in 1582 Nov 3, 1656 Mizuno Tadashige (1541–1600)
Tsuzuki Yoshitoyo’s daughter
Katō Kiyomasa (1562–1611) of Kumamoto Domain
Renhime Chōju-in 1582 August 24, 1652 Matsudaira Yasunao (1569–1593) of Fukaya Domain
Honda Hirotaka’s daughter
Arima Toyouji (1569–1642) of Kurume Domain Arima Tadayori (1603–1655) of Kurume Domain
Arima Nobukata
Arima Yoritsugu (1611–1649)
Okudaira Tadamasa Oyamahoei Kokoku-in Yoshun’in-dono, Satomi Yoshiyori (1543–1587)’s daughter Okudaira Tadataka (1608–1632) of Kano Domain
Matsudaira Tadaaki Tenshoin shingangentetsudaikoji first: Oda Nobukane of Kaibara Domain's daughter
Second: Koide Yoshimasa (1565–1613) of Izushi Domain's daughter
From Concubines: Matsudaira Tadahiro (1631–1700) of Yamagata Domain
Matsudaira Kiyomichi (1634–1645) of Himejishinden Domain
Murihime married Nabeshima Tadanao (1613–1635) later married Nabeshima Naozumi of Hasunoike Domain
daughter married Okubo Tadamoto (1604–1670) of Karatsu Domain
daughter married Kyogoku Takatomo (1623–1674) of Mineyama Domain
daughter married Shijo Takasube (1611–1647)
daughter married Sakakibara Kiyoteru
daughter married Osawa Naochika (1624–1681)
Matehime Yojuin 1589 May 5, 1638 Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain First: Fukushima Masayuki (1858–1608)
Second: Tsugaru Nobuhira of Hirosaki Domain
By First: Daidōji Naohide II (1606–1636)
By Second: Tsugaru Nobufusa (1620–1662) of Kuroishi Domain
Ei-hime Dairyō-in 1585 March 1, 1635 Hoshina Masanao
Takehime (1553–1618; ieyasu's half-sister)
Kuroda Nagamasa of Fukuoka Domain Kuroda Tadayuki (1602–1654) of Fukuoka Domain
Tokuko married Sakakibara Tadatsugu (1605–1665) of Himeji Domain
Kuroda Nagaoki (1610–1665) of Akizuki Domain
Kuroda Takamasa (1612–1639) of Torenji Domain
Kameko married Ikeda Teruoki (1611–1647) of Ako Domain
Kumahime Kōshō-in 1595 April 12, 1632 Hisamatsu Sadakatsu of Kuwana Domain
Tatsu (Okudaira Sadatomo {d. 1585}’s daughter)
Yamauchi Tadayoshi (1592–1665) of Tosa Domain Yamauchi Tadatoyo of Tosa Domain
Yamauchi Tadanao of Tosa-Nakamura Domain
Kiyohime married Matsushita Nagatsuna (1610–1658) of Miharu Domain
Kunihime Eijuin 1595 April 10, 1649 Honda Tadamasa of Himeji Domain
Kumahime (1577–1626; Matsudaira Nobuyasu’s daughter)
First: Hori Tadatoshi (1596–1622) of Takada Domain
Second: Arima Naozumi of Nobeaka Domain
by Second: Arima Yasuzumi (1613–1692) of Nobeaka Domain
Arima Zumimasa
daughter married Honda Masakatsu (1614–1671) of Koriyama Domain
Daughter adopted by Honda Masakatsu
daughter married Akimoto Tomitomo (1610–1657) of Yamura Domain
Kamehime Enshō-in 1597 November 29, 1643 Honda Tadamasa of Himeji Domain
Kumahime (1577–1626; Matsudaira Nobuyasu’s daughter)
First: Ogawara Tadanaga (1595–1615)
Second: Ogasawara Tadazane of Kokura Domain
By First: Shigehime (d.1655) married Hachisuka Tadateru of Tokushima Domain
Ogasawara Nagatsugu (1615–1666) of Nakatsu Domain
By second: Ogasawara Nagayasu (1618–1667)
Ichimatsuhime (b. 1627) married Kuroda Mitsuyuki (1628–1707) of Fukuoka Domain
Ogasawara Naganobu (1631–1663)
Tomohime married Matsudaira Yorimoto (1629–1693) of Nukada Domain
Manhime Kyōdaiin 1592 February 7, 1666 Ogasawara Hidemasa (1569–1615) of Matsumoto Domain
Tokuhime (1576–1607; Matsudaira Nobuyasu’s daughter)
Hachisuka Yoshishige of Tokushima Domain Hachisuka Tadateru of Tokushima Domain
Mihohime (1603–1632) married Ikeda Tadakatsu (1602–1632) of Okayama Domain
Manhime (1614–1683) married Mizuno Narisada (1603–1650)
Tsubakihime Kyusho-in Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain First: Tanaka Tadamasa (1585–1620) of Yanagawa Domain
Second: Matsudaira Narishige (1594–1633) of Tamba-Kameyama Domain
Jomyo-in Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain First: Nakamura Kazutada (1590–1609) of Yonogo Domain
Second: Mōri Hidemoto of Chofu Domain
Hanahime Matsudaira Yasuchika (1521–1683), Ebara Masahide's daughter Ii Naokatsu of Annaka Domain
Masako married Matsudaira Tadayoshi of Oshi Domain
Kotoko’in married Date Hidemune of Uwajima Domain
Ryuko-in Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain Suganuma Sadayori (1576–1605) of Nagashima Domain
Kikuhime Kogen’in 1588 October 28, 1661 Abe Nagamori (1568–1632) of Ogaki Domain
Matsudaira Kiyomune (1538–1605) of Hachiman'yama Domain's daughter
Nabeshima Katsushige of Saga Domain Ichihime married Uesugi Sadakatsu (1604–1645) of Yonezawa Domain
Tsuruhime married Takeu Shigetoki (1608–1669)
Nabeshima Tadanao (1613–1635)
Nabeshima Naozumi of Hasunoike Domain
Hojoin married Isahaya Shigetoshi (1608–1652)

Nabeshima Naohiro (1618–1661) of Shiroishi-Nabeshima clan
daughter married Kakomi Tsunatoshi
Nabeshima Naotomo (1622–1709) of Kashima Domain
Priest Kyōkō
daughter married Nabeshima Naohiro
Kakomi Naonaga

Kanahime Shōjō-in 1582 November 3, 1656 Mizuno Tadashige Katō Kiyomasa of Kumamoto Domain Yasohime (1601–1666) married Tokugawa Yorinobu of Kishu Domain
Yōhime Teishō-in 1591 August 10, 1664 Hoshina Masanao
Takehime (1553–1618, Ieyasu's half-sister)
Koide Yoshihide (1587–1666) of Izushi Domain Taitō
Daughter Married Miura Katsushige (1605–1631) of Shimōsa-Miura Domain later Yamauchi Katsutada
Koide Yoshishige (1607–1674) of Izushi Domain
Hoshina Masahide (1611–1678)
Koide Hidemoto
Koide Hidenobu
Kogaku-in married Tachibana Tanenaga (1625–1711) of Miike Domain
Daughter Married Matsudaira Nobuyuki (1631–1686) of Koga Domain
Seigen'in Hoshina Masanao
Takehime (1553–1618, Ieyasu's half-sister)
Abe Nobumori (1584–1674) of Okabe Domain Abe Nobuyuki (1604–1683) of Okabe Domain
Shosen'in 1642 Makino Yasunari (1555–1610) of Ogo Domain Fukushima Masanori of Hiroshima Domain daughter married Minase Kanetoshi
daughter married Ono Inuoemon
Matsudaira Iekiyo of Yoshida Domain Asano Nagashige (1588–1632) of Kasama Domain Asano Naganao of Ako Domain
daughter married Asano Nagaharu (1614–1675) of Miyoshi Domain
daughter married Matsudaira Tadatake
Shoshitsu'in Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain First: Osuga Tadamasa (1581–1607) of Yokosuka Domain
Second: Suganuma Sadayoshi (1587–1643) of Tamba-Kameyama Domain
by First: Sakakibara (Osuga) Tadatsugu (1605–1665) of Himeji Domain
By Second: Suganuma Sadaakira (1625–1647) of Tamba-Kameyama Domain
daughter married Ogasawara Naganori (1624–1678) of Yoshida Domain
Dōsen-in Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552–1603) of Sekiyado Domain Okabe Nagamori (1568–1632) of Ōgaki Domain Okabe Nobukatsu (1597–1668) of Kishiwada Domain
Hisamatsu Sadakatsu of Kuwana Domain
Tatsu (Okudaira Sadatomo {d.1585}’s daughter)
Nakagawa Hisanori (1594–1653) of Oka Domain Nakagawa Hisakiyo (1615–1681) of Oka Domain
Komatsuhime Manhime married Koriki Tadafusa of Shimabara Domain
Masahime married Sakuma Katsumune (1589–1616)
Sanada Nobumasa (1597–1658) of Matsushiro Domain
Sanada Nobushige (1599–1648) of Hashina Domain


Popular culture

Ieyasu's life and accomplishments were used as a model for the Japanese statesman, Lord Yoshi Toranaga, portrayed in James Clavell's historical novel Shōgun. The 1980 television miniseries adaptation of the novel, starring Toshiro Mifune as the Shōgun, and the 2024 miniseries, starring Hiroyuki Sanada as the Shōgun, both used Ieyasu as a key reference.[92][93]

See also



  1. ^ 徳川 家康
  2. ^ Ieyasu's given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu,[1][2] according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. He was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大權現).
  3. ^ He later took other names, which include Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu, and finally, Tokugawa Ieyasu.
  4. ^ During the Sengoku period, particularly dangerous groups called "Ochimusha-gari" or "fallen warrior hunter" groups has emerged. These groups consisted of peasant or Rōnin Who dispossessed by war and now formed self-defense forces which operates outside the law, while in reality they often resorted to hunt and robbing defeated Samurais or soldiers during conflicts.[27][28][29] These outlaw groups were particularly rampant on the route which Ieyasu taken to return to Mikawa.[29]
  5. ^ Historians viewed this incident were not just simply personal problems between those seven generals against Mitsunari, as it was viewed as an extention of the political rivalries on greater scope between Tokugawa faction and anti-Tokugawa faction which led by Mitsunari. Since this incident, those military figures who had bad terms with Mitsunari would support Ieyasu later during the conflict of Sekigahara between Eastern army led by Tokugawa Ieyasu and Western army led by Ishida Mitsunari.[53][56] Muramatsu Shunkichi, writer of "The Surprising Colors and Desires of the Heroes of Japanese History and violent womens”, gave his assessment that the reason of Mitsunari failure in his war against Ieyasu was due to his unpopularity among the major political figures of that time.[57]


  1. ^ "Iyeyasu".
  2. ^ "Iyeyasu". Merriam-Webster.
  3. ^ a b c d e Perez, Louis G. (1998). The history of Japan. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-00793-4. OCLC 51689128.
  4. ^ a b "daimyo | Significance, History, & Facts | Britannica". Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d Turnbull, Stephen (2012). Tokugawa Ieyasu. Osprey Publishing. pp. 5–9. ISBN 9781849085748.
  6. ^ a b McLynn, Frank (November 10, 2009). Heroes & Villains: Inside the minds of the greatest warriors in history. Random House. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4090-7034-4.
  7. ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. London: Arms and Armour Press. p. 35. ISBN 0853688265.
  8. ^ a b c d Screech, Timon (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X, pp. 85, 234; n.b., Screech explains

    Minamoto-no-Ieyasu was born in Tenbun 11, on the 26th day of the 12th month (1542) and he died in Genna 2, on the 17th day of the 4th month (1616); and thus, his contemporaries would have said that he lived 75 years. In this period, children were considered one year old at birth and became two the following New Year's Day; and all people advanced a year that day, not on their actual birthday.

  9. ^ Bottomley, Ian (2005). Shogun: the life of Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu. Royal Armouries Museum. Leeds, U.K.: Royal Armouries. ISBN 0-948092-58-0. OCLC 63666433.
  10. ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (2012). Tokugawa Ieyasu. Osprey Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9781849085748.
  11. ^ a b c d Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 215. ISBN 1854095234.
  12. ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen R. (1977). The Samurai: A Military History. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. p. 144.
  13. ^ Bottomley, Ian (2005). Shogun : the life of Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu. Royal Armouries Museum. Leeds, U.K.: Royal Armouries. p. 12. ISBN 0-948092-58-0. OCLC 63666433.
  14. ^ Pitelka, Morgan (2015). Spectacular Accumulation: Material Culture, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and Samurai Sociability. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824851576.
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  18. ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. London: Arms and Armour Press. pp. 67–78. ISBN 0853688265.
  19. ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen (2000). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. pp. 222–223. ISBN 1854095234.
  20. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2012). Nagashino 1575: Slaughter at the barricades. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-78200-229-1.
  21. ^ 小宮山敏和「戦国大名家臣の徳川家臣化について 戦国大名武田家家臣を事例として」『論集きんせい』26号、2004年
  22. ^ 岡谷繁実 (1944). 名将言行録. 岩波文庫. Vol. 6巻. 岩波書店. pp. 200–91. ISBN 9784003317365.
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  28. ^ a b Kirino Sakuto (2001). 真説本能寺 (学研M文庫 R き 2-2) (in Japanese). 学研プラス. pp. 218–9. ISBN 4059010421. Retrieved May 9, 2024. Tadashi Ishikawa quote
  29. ^ a b c Akira Imatani (1993). 天皇と天下人. 新人物往来社. pp. 152–153, 157–158, 、167. ISBN 4404020732. Akira Imatani"Practice of attacking fallen warriors"; 2000; p.153 chapter 4
  30. ^ Yamada Yuji (2017). "7. Tokugawa Ieyasu's passing through Iga". THE NINJA BOOK: The New Mansenshukai. Translated by Atsuko Oda. Mie University Facultyof Humanities, Law and Economics. Retrieved May 10, 2024.
  31. ^ (みちものがたり)家康の「伊賀越え」(滋賀県、三重県)本当は「甲賀越え」だった?忍者の末裔が唱える新説 [(Michi-monogatari) Ieyasu's "Iga's crossing (Shiga Prefecture, Mie Prefecture) Was it really "Koka-goe"? A new theory advocated by a ninja descendant] (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2024.
  32. ^ a b c 藤田達生 (2005). "「神君伊賀越え」再考". 愛知県史研究. 9. 愛知県: 1–15.
  33. ^ Fumitaka Kawasaki (1985). 徳川家康・伊賀越えの危難 [Tokugawa Ieyasu and the danger of crossing Iga]. 鳥影社. ISBN 4795251126. Retrieved May 24, 2024.
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Further reading

Military offices Preceded bySengoku period Shōgun:Tokugawa Ieyasu 1603–1605 Succeeded byTokugawa Hidetada