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Battle of Sekigahara
Part of the Sengoku period

Edo-period screen depicting the battle
DateOctober 21, 1600
Location35°22′14″N 136°27′42″E / 35.3705°N 136.4616°E / 35.3705; 136.4616
Result

Eastern army victory

Territorial
changes
Tokugawa clan gains nominal control of all Japan
Belligerents
Western Army: Forces loyal to Ishida Mitsunari, many clans from Western Japan Eastern Army: Forces loyal to Tokugawa Ieyasu, clans of Eastern Japan
Commanders and leaders
Ishida Mitsunari Executed
Ukita Hideie
Ōtani Yoshitsugu 
Shima Sakon 
Chōsokabe Morichika
Gamō Yorisato 
Shimazu Yoshihiro
Shimazu Toyohisa 
Akashi Takenori
Konishi Yukinaga Executed
Toda Katsushige 
Ankokuji Ekei Executed
Mōri Hidemoto
Natsuka Masaie 
Hiratsuka Tamehiro 
Defected:
Kobayakawa Hideaki
Kikkawa Hiroie
Wakisaka Yasuharu
Kutsuki Mototsuna
Akaza Naoyasu
Ogawa Suketada
Tokugawa Ieyasu:Overall commander
Ii Naomasa: Supreme field commander[1]
Fukushima Masanori
Tōdō Takatora
Hosokawa Tadaoki
Ikeda Terumasa
Oda Urakusai
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
Kuroda Nagamasa
Takenaka Shigekado
Honda Tadakatsu
Furuta Shigekatsu
Katō Yoshiaki
Terazawa Hirotaka
Ikoma Kazumasa
Tsutsui Sadatsugu
Horio Tadauji
Kanamori Nagachika
Asano Yoshinaga
Yamauchi Katsutoyo
Kyōgoku Takatomo
Strength
120,000 initially,[2]
81,890 by the time of battle[3]
75,000 initially,[2]
88,888 by the time of battle[3]
Casualties and losses
8,000–32,000[4] killed
~23,000 defected
4,000–10,000[5] killed
Battle of Sekigahara is located in Gifu Prefecture
Battle of Sekigahara
Location within Gifu Prefecture
Battle of Sekigahara is located in Japan
Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara (Japan)

The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰い, Hepburn romanization: Sekigahara no Tatakai) was a historical battle in Japan which occurred on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month) in what is now Gifu Prefecture, Japan, at the end of the Sengoku period.

This battle was fought by the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu against a coalition of Ishida Mitsunari, several of which defected before or during the battle, leading to a Tokugawa victory. The Battle of Sekigahara was the largest battle of Japanese feudal history and is often regarded as the most important.

Mitsunari's defeat in the battle of Sekigahara is considered as the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate establishment, which ruled Japan for another two and a half centuries until 1868.[6]

Background

The final years of Toyotomi Hideyoshi reign were turbulent. His heir, Toyotomi Hideyori, was only 5 years old at the time of Hideyoshi's death, causing a power vacuum in Japan.[7][8]

Feuding factions

Katō Kiyomasa and other generals opposed Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu gathered both Kiyomasa and Masanori to his cause in a bid to challenge the opposition from Mitsunari, who claimed to fight for the cause of the Toyotomi clan.[9] At this moment, political tensions were high in the capital as rumors of assassination attempts towards Ieyasu floated, while a son of Maeda Toshiie, Toshinaga, was accused of being involved in the conspiracy and forced to submit to Ieyasu.[9] Uesugi Kagekatsu, one of Hideyoshi's regents, stood against Ieyasu by building up his army, which Ieyasu officially questioned and demanded answers about Kagekatsu's suspicious activity to Kyoto. Naoe Kanetsugu, responded with a mocking letter towards Ieyasu's own violations of Hideyoshi's orders.[10]

Mitsunari met with Ōtani Yoshitsugu, Mashita Nagamori and Ankokuji Ekei and conspired to raise anti-Tokugawa army. They then also appointed Mōri Terumoto to be the overall commander. They formed what came to be referred to as the Western Army. Mōri immediately marched and captured Osaka Castle, while the main army of Tokugawa were still on their way to suppress Kagekatsu.[11]

At first, Mitsunari wanted to use Gifu Castle, which at that time were commanded by grandson of Oda Nobunaga, Oda Hidenobu, and Ōgaki Castle as choke points to impede the Eastern army advances.[12] However, several developments of war forced him to abort the plan as:

As the Western Army failed to secure Gifu and Ōgaki castles as their strategic bases, and the Osaka castle being threatened, Mitsunari changed his plan and prepared his army for an open battle on the field of Sekigahara against the main body of Eastern Army led by Ieyasu.[12] As preparation for the inevitable conflict, Ieyasu had also bought massive amounts of Tanegashima (gun) matchlock .[21]

However, one day before the battle begin, in September 14, the Mōri clan of Western Army, through their vassal named Kikkawa Hiroie, colluding with the Eastern Army and promised the Mōri clan would change sides during battle, on the condition they would be pardoned after the war ended. The correspondencies between the Mōri clan with Eastern army involved Hiroie with Kuroda Yoshitaka and Kuroda Nagamasa as representatives of the Eastern Army.[22]

The battle

At dawn on October 21, 1600, the Tokugawa advance guard stumbled into Ishida's army. Neither side saw each other because of the dense fog caused by the earlier rain. Both sides panicked and withdrew, but each was now aware of their adversary's presence.[21] Mitsunari placed his position in defensive formation, while Ieyasu deployed his forces south of the Western Army position. Last-minute orders were issued and the battle began. Traditional opinion has stated the battle was started around 8:00 am.[23] However, recent Japanese historians research estimates that the battle was actually started at 10:00 am.[24][25][b]

The battle started when Ii Naomasa, who was heavily involved in the Battle of Gifu Castle before, immediately commanded his notable 3,600 crimson clad Ii no Akazoane (Ii's red devils) units to attack the center of the Western army.[27][28] Meanwhile, Watanabe Daimon explained that by many indications of the battle records, the assignment of Naomasa as Ichiban-yari or the first unit to charge the enemy when the battle started, the armies may have been already settled before the battle. Masanori has agreed with Naomasa's intention to lead the first attack, since Daimon argued that Naomasa was appointed by Ieyasu as the supreme field commander, who was responsible for all commands and strategies during the clash in Sekigahara.[c]

Naomasa charged onwards with 30 spearmen and clashed with the ranks of the Western army.[29] Meanwhile, Fukushima Masanori charging forth from his position, followed the track of Naomasa and immediately engaged with Hideie troops.[30]

At this point, the battle entered a deadlock. Ōta Gyūichi - who was present at the battle - wrote in his chronicle that "friends and foes are pushing each other" and "gunfire thunders while hails of arrows fly in the sky...".[31][32] According to the records from Spanish accounts, There are 19 cannons from the De Liefde [nl], a Dutch trading ship that English sailor William Adams came to Japan on, was used by Tokugawa's army at this battle as well.[33][34]

Western Army defectors

Sekigahara battle's painting on folding screen
Site of Matsudaira Tadayoshi and Ii Naomasa's Positions during the battle

During the battle of Sekigahara, there are several Western army who changes their sides. The most notable one was Kobayakawa Hideaki, one of the daimyō who had been courted by Tokugawa. There are two versions regarding the timeline of Hideaki's defection:

Regardless of what actually transpired, in the end Kobayakawa forces has overwhelmed Yoshitsugu's position.[23] At the same time, The troops of Yoshitsugu also engaged the troops of Tōdō Takatora and Oda Yūraku.[citation needed]

Another defectors who followed suit with Hideaki step was Western Army daimyos Wakisaka Yasuharu, Ogawa Suketada, Akaza Naoyasu and Kutsuki Mototsuna who also change their sides during the battle, turning the tide of battle. these four commanders were recorded to establish contact with Tōdō Takatora, one of Eastern Army main commander, and being promised with secret deal. Their contact with Takatora occurred several days before the battle.[37]

Another Turncoat who changed their allegiance from the Western Army came from the Mōri clan. Mōri Terumoto and his forces had remained entrenched at Osaka Castle rather than join the battle, and later after the battle was over, Terumoto, through his vassal, Kikkawa Hiroie, quietly surrender to Ieyasu.[38] Professor Yoshiji Yamasaki of Toho University has concluded. If such a neutrality-for-territorial-preservation agreement existed, then it badly backfired on Mōri, as domains which were possessed by the Mōri clan were instead reduced afterward, and some Mōri faction troops did indeed fight for the Alliance's side at Sekigahara rather than stay neutral. Although this was not widespread among the Mōri clan, as Mōri Hidemoto was still genuinely trying to aid the Western Army, his efforts were sabotaged by a Mōri clan vassal named Kikkawa Hiroie, who refused to cooperate and, stating he was still eating, stationed his troops in front of Hidemoto, obstructing Hidemoto troops advancing to help Mitsunari. Furthermore, Hiroie also obstructed another Western Army contingent led by Chōsokabe Morichika from marching and attacking the Tokugawa forces.[39]

Western Army collapsed

Map position of the opposing forces at Sekigahara from the "Japanese War History series" published by Army general staff in 1893. However it is deemed unreliable by Shiramine Jun.[d]

Watanabe Daimon stated that one of most notable cracks within the Western Army forces occurred from Ukita Hideie's front. On this field, forces of Hideie began to wane and steadily overcame by the forces of Fukushima Masanori due to their difference of qualities.[41] It was said that the reason of the difference between Ukita with Fukushima soldiers cohesion was due to the Ukita clan's riot before the war, which caused many senior samurai vassals of Ukita clan deserted their ranks and joined the Tokugawa faction.[42] This prompted Ukita Hideie to enter the Sekigahara battlefield with fresh recruits of freelance Rōnin mercenaries to fill the gap left within his army. This proved fatal for them in long duration battle where their less disciplined mercenaries must fight against the more disciplined and trained regular army of Fukushima clan, as the Ukita clan ranks now began to break their cohesion and finally collapsed under pressure despite their forces has outnumbered the forces of Fukushima Masanori themselves.[41]

Meanwhile, Ōtani Yoshitsugu's forces retreated as Yoshitsugu committed suicide,[43] leaving the Western Army's right flank wide open, which exploited by Masanori and Hideaki to roll the flank of Western Army. Mitsunari, who realized the situation was desperate, also commencing retreat to his troops.[23] Meanwhile, a surviving Western army commander, Shima Sakon now suddenly fought the troops of Kuroda Nagamasa, who had taken a detour on the north to flank the Mitsunari and Sakon positions.[44] In the end, Sakon was shot and fatally wounded by a round from an arquebus.[45]

Edo period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara – 160,000 men fought on 21 October 1600.

Shimazu Yoshihiro found his troops completely surrounded by the troops of Honda Tadakatsu and Masanori from the front, while Hideaki troops struck his rear.[46][47] The Shimazu clan only manage to get out of encirclement after huge casualties and only 200 soldiers under Yoshihiro left. However, the ordeal of Yoshihiro did not stop as Ii Naomasa chased him tenaciously. Only after Naomasa was incapacitated by gun shot from a rifleman did the chasers stop pursuing them.[48]

In the end, as the Western Army forces crumbled while no reinforcements came in, which further complicated by the massive amount of their army defections amid the clash, the battle was finally over.[23] Historian Andō Yūichirō estimated by all account, this battle in Sekigahara was only taking place just about 4 hours duration, contrary to the Edo period portrayal that the battle goes from 8 pm until noon.[25]

Late arrivals

The combined forces of Tokugawa Hidetada and Sakakibara Yasumasa, who brought huge as 38,000 soldiers of Eastern Army, has been bogged in the Siege of Ueda against Sanada Masayuki. [49]

Meanwhile, 15,000 soldiers of Western Army were being held up by 500 troops under Hosokawa Yūsai at Siege of Tanabe in Maizuru, Kyoto Prefecture.[50] Some of those 15,000 troops respected Hosokawa. Due to these incidents, large numbers of soldiers from both Eastern and Western Army did not participate in Sekigahara.[51]

Another Western Army continent which failed to reach the Sekigahara battlefield was a force led by Tachibana Muneshige, who had been stalled by Kyōgoku Takatsugu in the Siege of Ōtsu.[52] As result, Muneshige was forced to go into Osaka castle after he learned the main Western Army had been annihilated. However, as Mōri Terumoto decided to surrender to the Eastern Army, Muneshige took his army to return to his homeland in Kyushu.[53]

Aftermath

Regarding the Ogaki castle which still under siege of Mizuno Katsunari during the Sekigahara battle, the garrison commander Akizuki Tanenaga immediately surrendered and opened the castle for Katsunari as soon as the news about the victory of Eastern Army reached him.[54] In response, Katsunari immediately wrote a letter to Ii Naomasa to ask Ieyasu to give pardon for Tanenaga, which accepted by Ieyasu.[55]

Practically speaking, the immediate effect of the Eastern Army victory in Sekigahara was the shift of authority to manage and distribute entire domains or land properties in Japan from the Toyotomi clan to Tokugawa Ieyasu.[56] Ieyasu redistributed domains with worth of 6,8 millions koku,[57] accordingly for many of his allies who assisted him to won the battle.[58] the distribution were as following:[59]

Meanwhile, Kobayakawa Hideaki, who defected from Western Army side during the battle and contributed greatly to the victory, was given increase from his previous stipend into a domain which covered parts of Bizen Province and Mimasaka Province, with total fief revenue was worth of 520,000 koku.[63] However, it was noted by historians that Ieyasu only gave very small domain increases for his own prime generals, the Shitennō (Tokugawa clan), which consisted of Ii Naomasa, Honda Tadakatsu, and Sakakibara Yasumasa, in comparisons for the likes of other daimyo lords who just entered Tokugawa ranks during this battle.[64][60] Although it was argued that the relatively disproportionate rewards for them were due to their own decision to decline the offer for sharp increases for their domain rewards.[65][66][67]

Regarding the losers of war, There are about 87 daimyo lords who has their domains confiscated and their power stripped due to their support for Mitsunari during the war.[68] Meanwhile, the Chōsokabe clan, headed by Chōsokabe Morichika, was stripped of its title and domain of Tosa Province and given to Yamauchi Kazutoyo as recognition of Kazutoyo loyalty to the Tokugawa clan during the war.[69] Former Chōsokabe retainers resisted this forceful takeover by the Tokugawa clan and Yamauchi clan. In response, Ii Naomasa sent military reinforcements to assist Kazutoyo in suppressing rebellion of Chōsokabe clan vassals in Tosa.[70] Naomasa sent his vassal, Suzuki Hyōe, along with an army that carried by 8 ships to help Kazutoyo, who finally pacified the area in 5 weeks, after killing about 273 enemies.[71][72]

Later in September 17, Ieyasu dispatched his army to attack Sawayama Castle in Ōmi Province, the territory which controlled by the clan of Ishida Mitsunari. During this operation, Ieyasu entrusted Kobayakawa Hideaki's troops at the vanguard. Most of the castle's troops were at the Battle of Sekigahara, leaving the castle's garrison with only 2,800 men to defend. Despite the absence of the lord of the castle, the castle's soldiers fought well, but eventually some soldiers such as Moritmo Hasegawa betrayed the castle and opened the castle for the besieging army. most of Mitsunari relatives, including his father Masatsugu, Masazumi, and Kagetsuin (Mitsunari's wife), were killed in battle or committed suicide.[73][e]

Regarding the Shimazu clan, as Shimazu Yoshihiro was deemed guilty for his support for the Western Army, Ieyasu prepared a massive army to punish them with his son Hidetada as commander in chief, with the composition Eastern Army forces which active in the western provinces theater such as the armies of Katō Kiyomasa, Kuroda Yoshitaka, Nabeshima Naoshige and The Tachibana clan. However, the operation were aborted later after Shimazu Yoshihisa, the head of the clan, entered negotiation with Ieyasu. In the end, with the conclusion of the negotiations which undergoes until 1602, with the intercession from Kiyomasa, Yoshitada, and Tachibana Muneshige, the Shimazu clan were relieved from punishments, and even became the only Western Army clan which territories not deprived despite being the loser of war.[76]

In November 6, Ishida Mitsunari, Konishi Yukinaga and Ankokuji Ekei was captured and then executed.[77]

in 1603, Ieyasu officially appointed as shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei,[78][77][7] this battle was perceived as the beginning of stability in the country of Japan. In 1664, Hayashi Gahō, Tokugawa historian and rector of Yushima Seidō, has wrote his elegy:

Evil-doers and bandits were vanquished and the entire realm submitted to Lord Ieyasu, praising the establishment of peace and extolling his martial virtue. That this glorious era that he founded may continue for ten thousands upon ten thousands of generations, coeval with heaven and earth.[79]

In 1931, the location of Sekigahara battle now became Monuments of Japan. It marked the position of Ieyasu, Mitsunari, and Ōtani Yoshitsugu death location.[80]

Statistics & chronology

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Battle of Sekigahara monument.
Commanders of Eastern Army (Tokugawa Force)
Tokugawa Ieyasu (head of the alliance): 30,000 men
Maeda Toshinaga
Date Masamune
Katō Kiyomasa: 3,000 men
Fukushima Masanori: 6,000 men
Hosokawa Tadaoki: 5,000 men
Numata Jakō
Asano Yoshinaga: 6,510 men
Ikeda Terumasa: 4,560 men
Kuroda Nagamasa: 5,400 men
Katō Yoshiaki: 3,000 men
Komatsuhime
Tanaka Yoshimasa: 3,000 men
Tōdō Takatora: 2,490 men
Sanada Nobuyuki
Mogami Yoshiaki
Yamauchi Katsutoyo: 2,058 men
Hachisuka Iemasa
Honda Tadakatsu: 500 men
Terazawa Hirotaka: 2,400 men
Ikoma Kazumasa: 1,830 men
Ii Naomasa: 3,600 men
Matsudaira Tadayoshi: 3,000 men
Oda Nagamasu: 450 men
Tsutsui Sadatsugu: 2,850 men
Kanamori Nagachika: 1,140 men
Tomita Nobutaka: 1,300 men
Yuki no Kata
Okaji no Kata
Furuta Shigekatsu: 1,200 men
Wakebe Mitsuyoshi
Horio Tadauji
Nakamura Kazutada
Arima Toyouji: 900 men
Kyōgoku Takatomo: 3,000 men
Kuki Moritaka
Commanders of Western Army (Ishida Force)
Mōri Terumoto (official head of the alliance) (not present)
Ishida Mitsunari (de facto head of the alliance): 4,000 men
Niwa Nagashige
Uesugi Kagekatsu
Maeda Toshimasa (Brother of Maeda Toshinaga)
Ukita Hideie: 17,000 men
Shimazu Yoshihiro: 1,500 men
Kobayakawa Hideaki (defected): 15,600 men
Konishi Yukinaga: 4,000 men
Mashita Nagamori
Ogawa Suketada (defected): 2,100 men
Ōtani Yoshitsugu: 600 men
Ōtani Yoshikatsu: 3,500 men
Wakisaka Yasuharu (defected): 990 men
Ankokuji Ekei: 1,800 men
Satake Yoshinobu
Oda Hidenobu
Chōsokabe Morichika: 6,600 men
Kutsuki Mototsuna (defected): 600 men
Akaza Naoyasu (defected): 600 men
Kikkawa Hiroie (defected): 3,000 men
Natsuka Masaie: 1,500 men
Mōri Hidemoto: 15,000 men
Tachibana Ginchiyo
Toda Katsushige: 1,500 men
Sanada Masayuki
Sanada Yukimura: 40
Shima Sakon: 1,000 men
Gamo Yorisato: 1,000 men
Shimazu Toyohisa: 750 men
Kuki Yoshitaka
Vassals of the Toyotomi: 2,000 men

Below is the participants of the battle ○ = Main daimyōs who participated in the Battle of Sekigahara

● = Daimyōs who defected

Daimyō Kokudaka (ten thousands) Daimyō Kokudaka (ten thousands)
Western Army Mōri Terumoto 121.0 Eastern Army Tokugawa Ieyasu 256.0
Uesugi Kagekatsu 120.0 Maeda Toshinaga 84.0
Satake Yoshinobu 54.0 Date Masamune 58.0
Shimazu Yoshihiro 73.0 Katō Kiyomasa 20.0
Ukita Hideie 57.0 Fukushima Masanori 24.0
Ishida Mitsunari 19.4 Hosokawa Tadaoki 18.0
Konishi Yukinaga 20.0 Asano Yoshinaga 16.0
Mashita Nagamori 20.0 Ikeda Terumasa 15.0
Ogawa Suketada 7.0 Kuroda Nagamasa 18.0
Ōtani Yoshitsugu 5.0 Katō Yoshiaki 10.0
Wakisaka Yasuharu 3.0 Tanaka Yoshimasa ○ 10.0
Ankokuji Ekei 6.0 Tōdō Takatora 11.0
Kobayakawa Hideaki 37.0 Mogami Yoshiaki 24.0
Oda Hidenobu 13.5 Yamauchi Kazutoyo 6.0
Chōsokabe Morichika 22.0 Hachisuka Yoshishige 17.7
Kutsuki Mototsuna 2.0 Honda Tadakatsu (10.0)
Akaza Naoyasu 2.0 Terazawa Hirotaka 8.0
Kikkawa Hiroie (14.2) Ikoma Kazumasa 15.0
Natsuka Masaie 5.0 Ii Naomasa (12.0)
Mōri Hidemoto (20.0) Matsudaira Tadayoshi 13.0
Toda Katsushige 1.0 Tsutsui Sadatsugu 20.0
Sanada Masayuki 4.0 Kyōgoku Takatomo 10.0


Below is a chronology of the events leading up to the final battle of Sekigahara 1600:

Cultural depictions

The Battle of Sekigahara has many depiction in modern time, Ryōtarō Shiba worked historical novel titled Sekigahara in the 1960s. James Clavell's worked on his 1975 novel, Shōgun, as historical-fiction depiction of the battle.[81] Tokyo Broadcasting System aired a television miniseries about the subject in January 1981, also entitled Sekigahara [ja],

The 2000 video game Kessen is set during the conflict between the Tokugawa and Toyotomi clans, and features the Battle of Sekigahara.[82] video game Nioh also portray events related with the Sekigahara battle.[83]

Appendix

Footnotes

  1. ^ the memorandum about Sekigahara campaign has theorized that the castle was still not fallen at that moment. However, Yoshihiro saw the smoke soared high from the direction of Ōgaki castle and though the castle was already fallen, as Yoshihiro position at that moment were far from Ogaki castle after being beaten by Katsunari's forces before.[20]
  2. ^ Primary source material from a letter signed by Ishikawa Yasumichi and Motomasa Hikosaka to Matsudaira Ienori which informing the battle started at 10:00 am.[26]
  3. ^ If the theory was true, Professor Watanabe Daimon surmised that this means Ii Naomasa acted as both supreme commander and the Ichiban-Yari unit (vanguard unit which was expected to draw first blood in medieval Japanese warfare).[1]
  4. ^ professor Jun Shiramine argued this kind of map were relied solely on "Kuroda clan chronicles" record without considering other source materials.[40]
  5. ^ After the castle fell in 1601, Naomasa appointed to take control to Sawayama Castle,[57] However, as Naomasa has no intention to keep the castle, he immediately dismantle the structures of Sawayama Castle, while its materials were moved to renovate and expand Hikone Castle, the traditional castle belonged to the Ii clan.[74][75]

References

  1. ^ a b Watanabe Daimon (2023). "関ヶ原合戦で東軍を勝利に導いた井伊直政は、本当に抜け駆けをしたのか". yahoo.co.jp/expert/articles/ (in Japanese). 渡邊大門 無断転載を禁じます。 © LY Corporation. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  2. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 204.
  3. ^ a b Bryant 1995.
  4. ^ 『関原軍記大成』
  5. ^ 『関原合戦記』
  6. ^ "Battle of Sekigahara | Summary, Facts, & Outcome | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-06-22.
  7. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 205.
  8. ^ Bryant 1995, p. 8.
  9. ^ a b Bryant 1995, p. 10.
  10. ^ Bryant 1995, pp. 12, 89.
  11. ^ Bryant 1995, pp. 12, 90.
  12. ^ a b Tetsuo Owada (2013). 図解関ヶ原合戦までの90日: 勝敗はすでに決まっていた! [Illustrated 90 Days to the Battle of Sekigahara: The Victory or Defeat Has Already Been Determined!] (in Japanese). PHP研究所. p. 53. ISBN 4569815545. Retrieved 30 May 2024.
  13. ^ 尾西市史 通史編 · Volume 1 [Onishi City History Complete history · Volume 1] (in Japanese). 尾西市役所. 1998. p. 242. Retrieved 16 May 2024.
  14. ^ 参謀本部 (1911), "石川貞清三成ノ陣ニ赴ク", 日本戦史. 関原役 [Japanese military history], 元真社
  15. ^ Mitsutoshi Takayanagi (1964). 新訂寛政重修諸家譜 6 (in Japanese). Retrieved 16 May 2024.
  16. ^ Fujii Jizaemon (1979). 関ヶ原合戦史料集 [Sekigahara Team History Collection] (in Japanese). 藤井治左衛門. p. 421. Retrieved 23 May 2024.
  17. ^ Tadachika Kuwata (1977). 戦国時代の謎と怪異 (in Japanese). 日本文芸社. p. 191. Retrieved 23 May 2024.
  18. ^ Takashi Suzuki (2006). 大垣藩戶田家の見聞書 二百年間集積史料「御家耳袋」 (in Japanese). 愛文書林. p. 32. ISBN 4872940520. Retrieved 23 May 2024.
  19. ^ 岐阜県 (1965). 岐阜県史 Volume 6 (in Japanese). 巌南堂書店. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  20. ^ 大重平六覚書 [Memorandum of Ōshige Heiroku] (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  21. ^ a b c Davis 1999, p. 206.
  22. ^ Watanabe Daimon (2023). "関ヶ原合戦の前日、毛利輝元は本領安堵を条件として、徳川家康と和睦していた". yahoo.co.jp/expert/articles/ (in Japanese). 渡邊大門 無断転載を禁じます。 © LY Corporation. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  23. ^ a b c d Davis 1999, p. 207.
  24. ^ a b c yujirekishima (2023). "関ヶ原合戦と小早川秀秋…近年の研究動向を踏まえ、裏切りの真相にアプローチ!". Sengoku-his (in Japanese). sengoku-his.com. Retrieved 27 May 2024. referencing : Jun Shiramine, New Interpretation: The Truth of the Battle of Sekigahara: The Dramatized Battle of Tenka (Miyatai Publishing, 2014); Hiroyuki Shiba, "Tokugawa Ieyasu – From the lord of the border to the ruler of the nation" (Heibonsha, 2017) & "Illustrated Guide to Toyotomi Hideyoshi" edited by Hiroyuki Shiba (Ebisu Kosho Publishing, 2022)
  25. ^ a b Andō yūichirō (安藤優一郎) (2022). "だから織田と豊臣はあっさり潰れた…徳川家康が「戦国最後の天下人」になれた本当の理由" [The reason why Oda and Toyotomi were easily defeated... Tokugawa Ieyasu was the "last of the Sengoku period."]. President Online (in Japanese). PRESIDENT Inc. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 4 June 2024.
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Bibliography

Paul Davis references

Paul Davis used the following sources to compile the chapter "Sekigahara, 21 October 1600" in 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present "Sekigahara, 21 October 1600."